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1.
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2.
  • Deutschmann, Mats (författare)
  • Apologising in British English
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Avhandlingenatt undersöker funktionen av ursäkten som talakt samt sociala skillnader i dess användande i talad Brittisk engelska inspelad under tidigt 1990-tal. Materialet består av hundratals konversationer från formella och informella sammanhang och sammanlagt ingår över 1700 talare i den undersökta korpusen. Avhandlingen kan påvisa att artighetsyttringar såsom ursäkten är viktiga verktyg för att kontrollera och manipulera omgivningen och att det framförallt är medelklassen och andra grupper i maktposition som brukar artighetsformler till detta syfte.
3.
  • Alkvist, Lars-Erik (författare)
  • Max Weber och kroppens sociologi
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Popular Abstract in Swedish Kroppen som socialt fenomen har inte varite ett dcentralt tema inom sociologin. Detta försöker Lars-Erik Alkvist komma till rätta med, på grundval av en omläsning av Max Webers sociologi utifrån temat kroppens sociologi. Författaren menar att det hos Weber finns en dold med dock närvarande förståelse av kroppens sociala sammanhang. Men Webers förståelse av kroppen sitter fast i ett dualistiskt och naturalistiskt tänkande. Kroppen betraktas som ett objekt som kontrolleras och formas av medvetandet och de strukturella sammanhangen.
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5.
  • Elsrud, Torun (författare)
  • Taking Time and Making Journeys: Narratives on Self and the Other among Backpackers
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Popular Abstract in Swedish Att packa ryggsäcken och resa till tropikerna, till vad man ofta kallar ‘tredje världen’ för en längre tids vistelse anses ofta vara av avsevärd betydelse för en individs identitet och framtida liv. För många resenärer upplevs resan som ett sätt att ta kontroll över den egna tiden och rörelsen, en kontroll som betraktas som en bristvara i de miljöer resenärerna kommer från. Resan kan på så sätt ses som en reaktion mot ett samhälle där människor upplever en brist på kontroll över den egna identiteten, en brist på att vara sedd och uppskattad för den man är. Genom att ta kontroll över tiden och rummet manifesterar individen således en identitetsberättelse i vilken förmedlas ett budskap om individuell styrka och självkontroll. I synnerhet äventyrliga resor fungerar som tecken på en statusfylld och stark identitet och kan, tror flera resenärer, fungera som en identitetsmarkör långt efter att resan är avslutad. Dock fungerar inte äventyrsberättelsen lika väl för alla. I den här avhandlingen diskuteras också äventyrliga kvinnors balansakt mellan kulturella förväntningar på hur en kvinna bör och kan uppträda och på hur en riktig äventyrare ska agera. Avhandlingen beskriver hur kvinnliga resenärer hittar olika strategier för att förhålla sig till dessa motstridiga förväntningar. Medan några strategier tycks vidmakthålla beskrivningar av kvinnor som mindre modiga och rörliga än män får andra strategier en motsatt innebörd. Dessa utmanar det manliga äventyrsidealet och ger uttryck för en kvinnlig frigörelse från stereotypa förväntningar och beskrivningar. Resans olika aktiviteter är inte bara av stor betydelse för hur enskilda resenärer skapar sina egna identiteter och livsberättelser. Resans moment utgör också fundament för skapandet och upprätthållandet av en kollektiv ‘västerländsk’ identitet. Avhandlingen diskuterar hur den här typen av resande – liksom andra former av turism – innehåller flera primitivistiska drag. Dessa kommer till uttryck genom starka sympatier för men också fördomar mot de människor som lever i många av de länder resenärerna besöker. Idealisering och förlöjligande av människor som lever fattigare, annorlunda och mer ‘naturnära’ är två sidor av samma primitivismmynt som kommer till uttryck i såväl intervjuer som i resejournalistik. Dessa människor ställs i skarp kontrast till resenärens ‘västvärld’ som konstrueras som oäkta men dock framåt, progressiv och utvecklad. Givet den ekonomiska globala obalans som råder, där vissa grupper/nationer med ekonomins och teknologins hjälp kontrollerar både luftrummet och innehållet i många av de medier som profiterar på turism, så bidrar detta konstruerande av den ‘andra’ i ’tredje världen’ till en fortsatt skev maktfördelning. Således kan man se den här typen av resande, liksom andra turismformer som vitala delar i ett upprätthållande av en global maktstruktur och i en pågående konstruktion av ‘väst’ som den globala skapelsens krona. Avhandlingen bygger på ett kvalitativt, etnografiskt präglat arbetssätt, bestående av fältarbete, intervjuer med långtidsresenärer och analys av sådana medier som vänder sig till turistande nordvästeuropéer.
6.
  • Azarian, Reza, 1960- (författare)
  • The general sociology of Harrison White
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this thesis the main features of Harrison C. White’s general sociology are studied. Since the 1960s White has played a crucial role in the development of the social network approach. He is well known for both the fecundity of the analytical tools he has developed over the years and for the original contributions he has made to several sub­fields of the discipline. White has also developed an unconventional and highly individual approach to social reality that, as the end-result of a sustained synthesizing effort, has grown out of a long and persistent endeavor. Yet, more than a decade after its publication, this general theoretical approach still remains largely unexplored.The main argument of this study is that White’s approach represents one of the mast persistent, elaborated and systematic efforts to enrich the analytical rigorous of the social network approach by adding the substantive theoretical insights that have been elaborated mainly within the symbolic interactionist perspective and the tradition of phenomenological sociology. In this study, first the premises of White’s approach are examined. It is demonstrated how White uses social networks as an analytical tool in order to obtain causal explanations of social phenomena. It is also shown how White re- conceptualizes the notions of social relationship and embeddedness. Furthermore, it is also discussed how White, on the basis of these conceptual innovations, develops a novel image of modern social contexts. This study proceeds by presenting the set of new basic concepts that are derived from this image, seeking to locate these concepts within the larger and more familiar context of theoretical sociology.It is also demonstrated in this study that White’s particular image of modern social contexts leads him to pose new questions and to develop new modes of analysis toanswer them. White’s view of modem societies radically alters the very nature and state of the question of social order as well as the premises of its answer. As White dismisses the conventional formulations of the problem of social order, he considers the issue to be a question of identifying the small enclaves of regularity within the social landscape that is dynamic, indeterminate and shifting. In more concrete terms, it becomes a question of identifying the limited, local and stable patterns or configurations of relationships that prove sustainable and thus observable, despite all the dynamics of embeddedness and connectivity.Finally, the basic theoretical features of White’s model of production markets are presented and discussed. Production markets is a topic to which White has devoted a great deal of interest. Ever since the mid-1970s he has produced a long series of work with the ambition of developing a sociological account of these markets. This account represents the most extensive application of White’s general sociology, where he fleshes out his abstract ideas and arguments and where one finds a concrete case of his account of the emergence of social structures and local orders out of network ties and flows.The main conclusion of this study is that, despite all its shortcomings, the general sociological perspective that White has developed is an important contribution. It provides sociology with a new foundation and shows the direction towards which the discipline should be moving.
7.
  • Boström, Magnus (författare)
  • Miljörörelsens mångfald
  • 2001
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In the thesis, the conditions, possibilities, and limitations for Swedish environmental organisations to influence other actors — state agencies, political organisations, enterprises and the Swedish public — are analysed. The focus is on their practice in the nineties, implying a context in which different actors, to a greater extent, have accepted the significance of environmental issues, demand knowledge of and solutions to environmental problems, and with new conflicts continously arising. Against this background, four main interrelated themes are developed. Firstly, focus is set on the diversity and internal relations of the movement itself. Heterogeneity, variation and internal relations are analysed through the use of concepts such as social movement, collective identity, and niche. The diversity of the movement is regarded as a source of strength even though it also produces limitations. Secondly, how environmental organisations act politically and in what political scenes they appear, are analysed through the use of concepts such as political opportunity structure, subpolitics, lifepolitics, risk definition struggle, and intermediary link. The use of combined strategies, as well as the relation between diversity and political action, are highlighted. Thirdly, the cognitive practice of environmental organisations is analysed. This entails analysing how they try to persuade other actors with the help of frames. The extensive use of frame bridgings as well as tendencies towards the use of more cooperative strategies — captured by the concept ecological modernization — provide opportunities but also imply threats against autonomy and critical distance. However, the study shows that the organisations have the capacity to preserve their cognitive autonomy. Fourthly, the importance of organisation for cognitive practice, autonomy, and resource mobilization is stressed, and variations in form are analysed. Certain organisational tendencies such as growth, routinization, and professionalization are highlighted. The study is based on intensive comparative case studies of five Swedish environmental organisations: Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, World Wide Fund for Nature, Friends of the Earth, Greenpeace and the Natural Step. Different kinds of data are used: interviews with keypersons in the organisations, analyses of different kinds of documents produced by the organisations, and different kinds of secondary litterature.
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8.
  • Danielsson, Erna, 1954- (författare)
  • Är delaktighet möjlig i en byråkrati? en fallstudie inom Försvarsmakten av det arbete som föregick försvarsbeslut -96
  • 2002
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is about the conflict between participation and bureaucracy. This conflict is illustrated by a case study within the Swedish Armed Forces under the activity that preceded the 1996 Resolution on Defence. More closely it focuses on the decision-making process that led to the Swedish Armed Forces report that were handed over to the Government in March 1996. In this decision-making process the Supreme Commander tried different ways to create participation among all the high- ranking officers, from local up to Headquarters level, to make them participate in the process.The thesis answers the question if it is possible to create participation in a bureau­cratic organisation such as the Swedish Armed Forces, and the conclusion that I draw is that participation is hard to establish. First there is a conflict within the bureaucratic form itself, since a bureaucracy implies a diversification of assignments and responsibilities in different functions and at different levels in a hierarchy. Every level has its own task to fulfil and this states how reality is to be understood. In the Swedish Armed Forces the bureaucratic structure is reinforced by the fact that the officer is promoted to a higher rank after his or her military training. Both the bureaucratic structure and the military training will lead to a differentiation between individuals, and they will be placed in different skills and status levels within the organisation. Besides this, individuals will gather information mostly from their own level, which will further fortify the difference between the levels. Furthermore there are also individual factors connected to the bureaucratic structure that have shown to complicate participation. For example individuals choose not to participate since they experience that they lack necessary competens for the task, that they do not have time, that they have not been consulted or that they consider the task to be solved at a higher level.So even if the military decision-making model encourages and advocates partici­pation, there is a big difficulty to break the bureaucratic design. Leaders often show inability to go from a bureaucratic leadership style to a democratic one. At the same time the subordinate support their leaders when they act as a traditional leader.
9.
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10.
  • Eriksson, Maria, 1969- (författare)
  • I skuggan av Pappa familjerätten och hanteringen av fäders våld
  • 2003
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aims of this thesis are to shed light on the handling of fathers’ violence in the context of separation and divorce in Sweden today; and to analytically and empirically relate age, gender and kinship to each other. The aims are fulfilled by three interlinked studies of what constructions and the constructing of age, gender and kinship mean for the handling of fathers’ violence against mothers/co-parents and children: in social policy; by separated mothers; and finally by family law secretaries. Each study builds upon a separate set of qualitative material: public documents from three policy areas; thematically structured interviews with abused, separated mothers and family law secretaries. The empirical results make visible some unintended consequences of current attempts in Sweden to create gender equality, shared parenting, a “new father” and to promote children’s interests. Study one demonstrates that when the politics and policy regarding parenthood, separation and divorce are taken as the point of departure, the contemporary age-, gender-, and kinship-order stands out as patriarchal: as marked by father-power based upon ties of blood to not yet adult children. Furthermore, violent fathers neither exist as a concept nor as a policy problem. The interviewed mothers narrate how they have tried to deal with the co-parent’s/ex-partners’ behaviour as violence but have encountered hindrances; the interviewed family law secretaries’ handling fathers’ violence stands out as more of a non-handling, especially in the case of violence against children. When the everyday constructions and constructing of age, gender and kinship discussed in study two and three are taken together, the contours of the patriarchal order seen through the lens of policy are also made visible: fathers’ space for action is vast; children’ and mothers’ more limited. The analysis shows how political and professional handling of fathers’ violence through a non-handling is made possible by well-established notions of heterosexual relationships, fatherhood, motherhood, age- and kinship-relations, as well as family law secretary-professionalism. However, the two studies based upon interviews demonstrate not just how the everyday constructions and constructing mentioned above can be used to reproduce father-power, but also how this power can be challenged.
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