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  • Eliassi, Barzoo, 1978- (författare)
  • A stranger in my homeland The politics of belonging among young people with Kurdish backgrounds in Sweden
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation examines how young people with Kurdish backgrounds form their identity in Sweden with regards to processes of inclusion and exclusion. It also sheds light on the ways these young people deal with ethnic discrimination and racism. Further, the study outlines the importance of these social processes for the discipline of social work and the ways social workers can work with disadvantaged and marginalized groups and endorse their struggle for social justice and full equal citizenship beyond racist and discriminatory practices. The empirical analysis is built on interviews with 28 young men and women with Kurdish backgrounds in Sweden. Postcolonial theory, belonging and identity formation constitute the central conceptual framework of this study.The young people referred to different sites in which they experienced ethnic discrimination and stigmatization. These experiences involved the labor market, mass media, housing segregation, legal system and school system. The interviewees also referred to the roles of ‘ordinary’ Swedes in obstructing their participation in the Swedish society through exclusionary discourses relating to Swedish identity. The interviewees’ life situation in Sweden, sense of ethnic discrimination as well as disputes over identity making with other young people with Middle-Eastern background are among the most important reasons for fostering strong Kurdish nationalist sentiments, issues that are related to the ways they can exercise their citizenship rights in Sweden and how they deal with exclusionary practices in their everyday life. The study shows that the interviewees respond to and resist ethnic discrimination in a variety of ways including interpersonal debates and discussions, changing their names to Swedish names, strengthening differences between the self and the other, violence, silence and deliberately ignoring racism. They also challenged and spoke out against the gendered racism that they were subjected to in their daily lives due to the paternalist discourse of ”honor-killing”.The research participants had been denied an equal place within the boundary of Swedishness partly due to a racist postcolonial discourse that valued whiteness highly. Paradoxically, some interviewees reproduced the same discourse through choosing to use it against black people, Africans, newly-arrived Kurdish immigrants (”imports”), ”Gypsies” and Islam in order to claim a modern Kurdish identity as near to whiteness as possible. This indicates the multiple dimensions of racism. Those who are subjected to racism and ethnic discrimination can be discriminatory and reproduce the racist discourse. Despite unequal power relations, both dominant and minoritized subjects are all marked by the postcolonial condition in structuring subjectivities, belonging and identification.
  • Bergman Blix, Stina, 1971- (författare)
  • Rehearsing Emotions The Process of Creating a Role for the Stage
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis takes as its starting point the dramaturgical metaphor of the world as a stage, which is used in sociological role theories. These theories often presume what stage acting is about in order to use it as a simile for every day acting. My intention is to investigate how stage actors actually work with their roles, in particular how they work with emotions, and how it affects their private emotions.The thesis draws on participant observation and interviews with actors during the rehearsal phase of two productions at a large theatre in Sweden. The results show that the inhabiting of a role for the stage is more difficult and painstaking than has been assumed in role theories so far. Shame and insecurity are common, particularly in the start up phase of the rehearsals. Interestingly, these emotions do not disappear with growing experience, but instead become recognized and accepted as part of the work process.The primary focus is the interplay between the actors' experience and expression of emotions, often described in terms of surface and deep acting, concepts which are elaborated and put into a process perspective. Analysis of the rehearsal process revealed that actors gradually decouple the privately derived emotional experiences that they use to find their way into their characters from the emotions that they express on the stage. Thus private experiences are converted to professional emotional experiences and expressions, triggered by situational cues. When the experience has been expressed the physical manifestation can be repeated with a weaker base in a simultaneous experience, since the body remembers the expression. It is important though, that the emotional expression is not completely decoupled from a concomitant experience; then the expression looses its vitality. The ability to professionalize emotions makes the transitions in and out of emotions less strenuous but can infiltrate and cause problems in the actors' intimate relations.
  • Bergman, Jonny (författare)
  • Seeking empowerment asylum-seeking refugees from Afghanistan in Sweden
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this study is to contribute to the understanding of how asylum-seeking refugees manage their lives in the situation they are in, a situation in which they are dependent and have to wait for decisions on whether or not they will get to stay in the country in which they have made their application for asylum.  The elaboration upon these questions and the purpose of the study is approached through a field study of asylum-seeking refugees from Afghanistan in Sweden. The thesis presents a background of international migration, refugee migration, refugee migration from Afghanistan and the reception of asylum seekers and refugees in the EU and Sweden, which tells us both that asylum seekers and refugees are not welcome in the countries of the ‘North’, where policies of containment and repatriation are the most common features of treating the refugee ‘problem’ and that the long period of waiting and uncertainty creates a situation of passivity and ill-health among the asylum seekers. Employing grounded theory methodology in different forms based in data from fieldwork, including participant observations and informal conversations, the study applies a constructionist grounded theory approach in the analyses of the situation and the management thereof. Steered by this constructionist grounded theory approach, strengthened by a situational analysis, the thesis presents a situational frame pointing to the situation for the asylum-seeking refugees as temporal and dependent on Swedish national discourse, racism and paternalism. With this background and frame and generated by data from the field study, the thesis goes on to present the situation as disempowering. The disempowering processes are illustrated through looking at dependence and inhospitality, and are characterised by the asylum-seeking refugees’ oscillation between feelings of hope and despair. It becomes, however, also evident that the asylum-seeking refugees take action and that they are supported by latent empowering processes. The actions taken are categorised as actions of empowering in opposition to the processes presented as disempowering. The actions of empowering are connected to keeping oneself occupied, searching for and maintaining social contacts and in the asylum-seeking refugees’ representations of themselves. From the presentation of the situation as disempowering and the actions taken by the asylum-seeking refugees in response to this situation as actions of empowering, a process characterised as seeking empowerment is presented. In this process empowerment is discussed as the establishment of power to resist. During the discussion of the concept of seeking empowerment it is shown how the asylum-seeking refugees in this study, through their actions of empowering, try to resist the disempowering situation. By seeking to establish power to resist, they are seeking empowerment.
  • Blomberg, Helena (författare)
  • Mobbning, intriger, offerskap att tala om sig själv som mobbad i arbetslivet
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is a study of bullying narratives, mainly co-produced in a process of ongoing interaction. The focus is on how narrators rhetorically organize their storytelling and identity work by using discursive resources. The empirical material consists of 12 interviews with, and 12 written stories by people who have been exposed to workplace bullying plus information from three websites about bullying, and previous research. The overarching aim of the study is to identify how a bullying discourse is produced, reproduced, challenged and negotiated in bullied persons’ narratives. Specific aims are to determine how bullying is portrayed publicly, how narrators with experience of being bullied build their stories, how the narratives stand in relation to victimization, what makes it possible to talk about vulnerability and what are its limits, and finally to develop a narrative approach.Theoretically and methodologically, the study has its basis in narrative analysis, discursive psychology, conversation analysis, and metaphor analysis. The study shows how the narrators categorize themselves as active, competent, and consensus seeking. They resist being victimized, but by their use of the interpretative repertoire and a standard story of bullying, they nevertheless become indirectly victimized. What’s at stake, in the narratives, is the question of guilt, which they rhetorically evade by the use of different metaphors. These metaphors depict bullying as a mystery, a lifelong source of suffering, a transformation, a learning experience, a battle, a contagious virus, and a trap. The narrators are constrained by the narrative conditions, the interpretative repertoire, standard story, and narrative form and content – a story of good and evil when creating their own story. The narrative conditions at the same time set the limit for expressing oneself in the identity work. This also means we are part of the production and reproduction of the bullying discourse when I, as a researcher, and the narrators use the repertoire and the standard story in mutual understanding.
  • Wickford, Jenny (författare)
  • Physiotherapists in Afghanistan. Exploring, encouraging and experiencing professional development in the Afghan development context
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: The aim of the thesis is to analyze the matter of supporting professional development of physiotherapists in Afghanistan, and the issues involved in expatriate physiotherapists working with professional development cross-culturally and in development contexts. The thesis is based on two field studies, aspects of which are reported on in four papers. The first field study aimed at analyzing and describing the physiotherapy component of a disability programme. The aim of the second field study was to explore the process of a development project, in order to gain understanding of how such work can be done in a better way. Participant observation was used for the data production of both studies. The adult learning theories of transformative learning and situated learning were used as a theoretical framework in the thesis. Paper I describes the situation, needs and challenges for developing physiotherapy in Afghanistan. The therapists worked in isolation with little opportunity for further education or professional development. Their approach was mainly medical, where the work was dictated by the patients’ expectations and doctors’ recommendations. They used primarily passive methods of treatment, and their work was affected by cultural, religious and situational factors and they demonstrated a basic capacity of clinical reasoning. Paper II explores factors that impacted learning and professional development of the Afghan physiotherapists in the development project. Examples of these factors were: a pattern approach to treatment, linear thinking, and socially oriented decision-making that affected how new things learned were put into practice; concrete representations and an instrumental view of knowledge characterized learning approaches; language barriers, different interpretations of meaning and cultural codes challenged communication; and a prescriptive, encouraging approach of the expatriate physiotherapy development worker affected teaching and learning. Paper III explores professional ethics for Afghan physiotherapists and identifies two ethical tensions for the professional practice of Afghan physiotherapists: between individualistic and communitarian ethical perspectives, and between normative ethics and local morals. Paper IV is a critical reflection over the expatriate development worker’s development process through, and impact on, the development project. The perspective of the development worker is transformed from an idealistic helper to an enterprising learner as a consequence of active participation in and a self-critical reflection of the process. Conclusion: Working with and researching professional development cross-culturally and in development contexts is complex and requires consideration of many different factors. Cultural competency is essential, where to understand others one needs to first understand oneself, and oneself in relation to others. This requires support when in the field. Physiotherapy theory and practice must be adapted to the local context. Actions taken towards promoting learning and professional development must be firmly rooted in the Afghan context, and investigated, planned and implemented together with Afghan physiotherapists. The professional development of Afghan supervisors and teachers should be a priority. To encourage reflection of both Afghan and expatriate physiotherapists a communicative learning approach could be taken, where ethical challenges and disorienting dilemmas can form the basis of a reflective discourse and lead to increased understanding.
  • Eriksson, Helena (författare)
  • Befolkning, samhälle och förändring: Dynamik i Halmstad under fyra decennier
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Popular Abstract in Swedish Förändringar i samhället diskuteras ofta på en aggregerad nivå där det argumenteras för att samhället förändras från ett modernt industrisamhälle till ett postindustriellt samhälle. Genom att studera samhället på en lokal nivå är det möjligt att studera komplexitet och variationer av de aggregerade teorierna kring samhällsförändring, det vill säga studera förändring i ett kontext av tid och plats. Utgångspunkten i denna studie är att analysera förändring i ett lokalsamhälle. Studien är en fallstudie av Halmstad, en kommun på Sveriges västkust, mellan åren 1968 och 2006. Det empiriska materialet består av analyser av demografisk statistik och arbetsmarknadsstatistik där offentlig statistik har används. Dessutom har analyser av officiella och historiska dokument samt intervjuer med personer aktiva i Halmstad gjorts. Tre tidsperioder identifieras i analysen, vilka karaktäriseras av olika mönster i befolkningen. Perioderna karaktäriseras även av förändringar på arbetsmarknaden och i befolkningens sysselsättning. Dessa förändringar analyseras genom samspelet mellan aktörer i lokalsamhället och aktörer och influenser som kommer utifrån. Genom analyser av reflexivitet visas hur förändring och stabilitet influeras av samspelet mellan det nya och det existerande, eller innovation och tradition.
  • Isaksson, Anna (författare)
  • Att utmana förändringens gränser En studie om förändringsarbete, partnerskap och kön med Equal-programmet som exempel
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I den här avhandlingen är det övergripande syftet att analysera föreställningar om förändring med utgångspunkt i texter som tagits fram inom ramen för tre utvecklingspartnerskap som finansierades av den Europeiska socialfondens Equal-program 2001-2007. Utvecklingspartnerskapen, som bestod av flera samverkansparter från privat och offentlig sektor, syftade till att utveckla nya metoder och idéer för att motverka diskriminering och all slags ojämlikhet i arbetslivet. Avhandlingen utgår från frågeställningarna: Hur beskrivs de problem som utvecklingspartnerskapen avsåg att motverka? Vad framstår som viktigt att förändra för att diskrimineringen i arbetslivet ska minska? På vilka sätt antas förändringar, som anses leda till minskad diskriminering och ökad jämställdhet och mångfald i arbetslivet, vara möjliga? Vilka motiv framträder bakom visionerna om att skapa ett arbetsliv utan diskriminering? Hur konstrueras kön och andra sociala kategorier och hur inverkar dessa konstruktioner på de föreställningar om förändring som framträder? Med hjälp av teorier om hur samhällets styrformer förändrats ”från government till governance” och teorier om hur kön görs åskådliggörs vad det är för idéer, perspektiv och intressen som karakteriserar förståelsen av förändringar i arbetslivet i de rapporter, filmer, utbildningar och metodböcker med mera som studerats. Utifrån den institutionella etnografin och begrepp som sociala relationer och styrningsrelationer analyseras vidare varför vissa perspektiv och idéer framträder och konsekvenserna av dem. Avhandlingens analys pekar på hur den konsensusbaserade organiseringsformen partnerskap och den politik och de principer som reflekteras i Equal-programmet tillsammans med föreställningar om tillväxt, ledarskap och kön skapar gränser i föreställningarna om förändring. Gränser som i vissa avseenden innebär att samhällets relationer av makt och ojämlikhet – istället för att utmanas – reproduceras. Utifrån studiens resultat poängteras vikten av att ständigt ta utgångspunkt i att identifiera och utmana gränserna för hur det går att tala om förändring eftersom dominerande föreställningar om förändring kan vara ett uttryck för samhällets styrningsrelationer.
  • Lundqvist, Catarina, 1977- (författare)
  • Möjligheternas horisont Etnicitet, utbildning och arbete i ungas berättelser om karriärer
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Den här avhandlingen handlar om hur unga med utländsk bakgrund berättar om sina liv och om hur de föreställer sig sina karriärval avseende utbildning och arbete. Syftet med avhandlingen är att analysera hur möjlighetshorisonter i relation till karriärskapet – de processer som genererar olika typer av karriärval – framträder i individuella berättelser. Studiens empiriska material grundar sig på fältarbete i en gymnasieskola under ett års tid. I fokus står två klasser med elever som studerats genom deltagande observationer och intervjuer.Studien belyser hur familjens sociala position och föräldrarnas karriärer är en viktig hållpunkt mot vilken ungdomarna bedömer sina egna framtidsmöjligheter. Studien pekar på hur en av både social klass och etnicitet, strukturerad individualisering påverkar ungas karriärval och färgar deras möjlighetshorisonter. Dessutom belyser studien hur karriärval måste förstås i relation till en möjlighetshorisont som har både en temporal och en rumslig dimension. Ungdomarnas möjlighetshorisonter fördunklas dock av en uppfattad etnisk diskriminering på arbetsmarknaden men även av de etniska kategoriseringarnas påverkan på karriärskapet i skolan. När ungdomarna i narrativ mening positionerar sig i (föräldrarnas) hemlandssammanhang vidgas handlingsutrymmet i symbolisk men även i praktisk mening. Genom att ta hänsyn till en translokal position kan vi förstå hur positioneringar i skilda rumsliga sammanhang hänger samman med skiftningar i den möjlighetshorisont som karriärval relateras mot.
  • Andersson, Malinda, 1980- (författare)
  • Blodets och rötternas logik Internationell adoption i välfärdens diskursiva praktik
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this thesis, transnational adoption is used as an illustrative example to address the tension between caring and differentiating aspects of the discursive practice of Swedish welfare. Drawing mainly upon postcolonial conceptualizations of nation and family, the discursive constitution of transnational adoption, transnational adoptees, and transnational adoptive families as objects of knowledge is explored. The analysis focuses on how national and familial belonging and difference are constructed. The empirical material consists of political reports, research reports, social work handbooks and educational material, published between 1997 and 2008. As the relationship between discourse and knowledge is of particular interest, Michel Foucault’s archeology is used as a methodological perspective. While the knowledge produced on transnational adoption could be read as well-intended concern, it may at the same time be read as a process where normalization and racialization come into effect, and where a particular image of Sweden is constructed. I suggest a reading that can be summarized in terms of the logic of blood and roots. Transnational adoptees are racialized through essentialist notions of national, cultural and ethnic belonging. They are ascribed a split identity, and are advised to cultivate their belonging to their birth families and birth places. Transnational adoptees of color are ascribed a difference in relation to their adoptive families as well as the Swedish national family, both imagined as white. Within the adoptive family, the assumed lack of family resemblances is portrayed as a continuous source of problems. These problems are naturalized by the way this knowledge on transnational adoption is institutionalized. Seeking psychological counseling is constructed as a responsible parental act. In the discursive practice of Swedish welfare, the national inclusion of the adoptive family is conditioned by a differentiating logic.
  • Bergström Casinowsky, Gunilla, 1965- (författare)
  • Tjänsteresor i människors vardag - om rörlighet, närvaro och frånvaro
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Title: Business travel in everyday life: Mobility, presence and absence. Written in Swedish and English. 248 pages. Author: Gunilla Bergström Casinowsky Doctoral Dissertation at the Department of Sociology, University of Gothenburg, Box 720, SE 40530 Göteborg, Sweden ISBN: 978-91-975405-8-2 ISSN: 1650-4313 Göteborg 2010 In this thesis, current debates on mobile lifestyles and the work-life interface are woven together and studied from the perspective of frequent business travellers. The overreaching aim is to investigate the significance of travel at work in people’s everyday lives. More specifically, the main objective is to shed some light upon emotional and practical consequences of travel-related absence from home for friendship and family relations. The thesis consists of four papers based on two different empirical studies: one qualitative study comprised by two sets of observations and 15 interviews, and one quantitative study based on survey data. The analysis of the qualitative data resulted in two papers written in Swedish (papers I and II). The results from the quantitative study are presented in two papers written in English (papers III and IV). Paper I is an exploratory study with the purpose of discovering focal dimensions of the work-life interface from a business traveller’s perspective. The second paper further explores gendered experiences of overnight work travel revealed in the first paper. Whereas the women’s experiences are characterized by feelings of loneliness, guilt and a sense of vulnerability, the men’s experiences are less negative and they also call attention to some positive sides of being cut off from everyday life at home. The gendered experiences have practical implications for how the respondents organize their mobile life. In prioritizing being at home, the female strategy aims at reducing the amount of nights away and, consequently, leads to comparatively many hours on the road. In contrast, the male strategy is more focused on minimizing the hours on the road with the purpose of actively “being there” for the family while at home and taking advantage of the “free” time while away. Questions about implications of overnight work travel in terms of the traveller’s ability to keep in touch with locally based as well as long-distance friends, and the opportunities that the travel might offer as a source of geographically extended social networks, are elaborated through analysis of the survey data (paper III). The benefits of mobility in terms of extended social networks represent the main social consequences of work travel as established in the analyses. Staying away from home due to work travel is also seen as potentially facilitating the coordination with friends living elsewhere. Some downsides are reported as well. The most frequent travellers feel negatively affected by mobility, reporting problems hampering coordination with friends close to home. Following up one thread noticed in the qualitative study, one issue explored by the quantitative data is the significance of work-related travel for the gendered division of domestic responsibility (paper IV). The results reveal a clear pattern in two key respects. When the work traveller is a woman, the allocation of home-based responsibility seems to remain unaffected. By contrast, the effect of the business trips when the travellers are men is a reduction in their relative share of responsibility for the home and the family.
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