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1.
  • Dahlkild-Öhman, Gunilla, 1945- (författare)
  • Att börja tala med barn om pappas våld mot mamma Radikalt lärande i arbetet med vårdnad, boende och umgänge
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis explores the scope for children’s voices offered to children in court mandated investigations regarding custody, residence or contact. The focus is on children who have been exposed to their father’s violence against their mother The aim is to study how the legislators’ intentions concerning children’s participation in this area are implemented in work groups. The assumption is that implementation can be seen as collective learning. Implementation may in this case challenge established relations of power like age and gender orders. Professional discourses on violence have to shift from gender neutral to gendered discourses and discourses on children have to include a participation discourse. Learning which includes a shift in discourses and challenges established power relations is defined as radical learning.The approach is social constructionist and draws on group interviews with social workers specialized in family law.The thesis analyses which discourses of violence and of children are accessible and used at group level. This can be seen as a discursive opportunity structure. The discourses in question are: gender violence, child protection, treatment and family law discourses as well as care and participation discourses. The conclusion is that all these discourses are accessible to the professionals and the effects of the different discourses are discussed regarding the possibilities for creating a safe situation for mother and child during the investigation.The thesis furthermore analyses the organisation of the work groups. These characteristics can be seen as an organisational opportunity structure. The analysis shows different patterns in the groups when it comes to structure and stage of learning process. One group seems to be at the stage where the members are prepared to start talking to the child about the father’s violence.The final chapter presents a discussion of radical learning and the possibilities for radical social change when established power relations are challenged.
2.
  • Mjöberg, Jessica, 1977- (författare)
  • Innerlighetens tid En sociologisk undersökning av intimitet och senmodernitet
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Due to a recent increase in usage of the concept of intimacy within social scientific research, the overarching aim of this work is to investigate its meaning and significance in contemporary social life. The first part of the thesis reviews research on intimacy. Intimacy is perceived as being vaguely defined as a concept, leading to insufficient discussions concerning the significance of intimacy both as a social concept and as a social phenomenon in contemporary western society. In order to become more clearly defined as a social concept to use in future research, intimacy needs to be investigated as a social phenomenon. The second part explores and analyses intimacy as a social phenomenon by way of three partly phenomenological and partly theoretical analyses: the phenomenology of intimacy, the arithmetic of intimacy and the dark sides of intimacy. The three analyses result in a definition of intimacy understood as a kind of sociality, or mode of social being, characterized by an oceanic experience, mutual and complete directedness between the ones being in relation, an experience of mental as well as physical closeness, and an experience of time as “durée”. The third part discusses the proposed definition of intimacy as sociality in relation to contemporary social theory. In relation to an understanding of contemporary western society as late modern or radicalized modern, intimacy as sociality is discussed as a radicalization of a rational sociality, characteristic for modern society. The discussion takes the form of a dialectic critique of modern dualistic theories, proposing a triadic (dialectic) alternative for understanding basic forms of sociality and social relations. The vague notion of intimacy as a concept suited to characterize social life in contemporary western society is supported by this proposition.
3.
  • Polanska Vergara, Dominika, 1980- (författare)
  • The emergence of enclaves of wealth and poverty A sociological study of residential differentiation in post-communist Poland
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Since the fall of communism, some crucial political, economic and social changes have been taking place in the former communist societies. The objective of the thesis is to examine the processes of residential differentiation taking place in the urban landscape of the Polish city of Gdańsk after the introduction of the capitalist system. The focus is on different forms of residential differentiation and the social, economic and historical factors behind these forms. The empirical material that forms the basis of the thesis consists of interviews, newspaper articles, a questionnaire, official (national and local) reports and documents.Study I examines the way in which different social, economic, historical and physical conditions coincide in the formation of space and the processes of decline in the period of transformation in Poland. The focus lies on a specific residential area in the center of Gdańsk and the lack of improvements in this particular area, which would stop its successive decline.Study II explains the emergence of gated communities in the post-communist urban context and discusses the reasons for their increasing numbers and popularity. The main argument is that the popularity of gated communities is tightly intertwined with the communist past, emerging in reaction to the housing conditions that prevailed under communism.Study III investigates how social class markers are constructed in the discourse on gated communities in post-socialist Poland. The “new” capitalistic system, with its inherent social divisions, is described in the discourse as creating demands for “new” forms of housing, where gates function as separators, protectors and class identifiers.Study IV concentrates on the support for the formation of gated communities in the legal and regulatory framework in Poland since 1989. The paper asserts that the outcome of liberal politics and legal regulation in the country is the neglect of spatial planning and imprecise urban policies.
4.
  • Svanevie, Kajsa, 1976- (författare)
  • Evidensbaserat socialt arbete Från idé till praktik
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • As an innovation Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) is designed as a tool for clinical problem solving. According to its theory of use EBP will bring a difference for policy makers, for professionals, for researchers and for service users. One question to be asked is whether EBP actually leads to the radical social change it is designed to accomplish. The aim of the study is to describe and analyse the outcome of the effort to establish EBP, with a focus on the case of social work in Sweden. The research questions are: What is EBP? Why are efforts made to establish EBP? What is the outcome of the EBP project? How can the outcome of the EBP project be explained?The case study was conducted on a critical realistic meta-theoretical ground with a focus on explanation of social change with an explicit actor-structure perspective. Methodologically, a narrative synthesis of studies was made. As a complement primary data were collected to fill empirical gaps. The state of things was described before and after the EBP-initiatives. Several helping theories – Kuhn’s theory of paradigm, program theory, neo-institutional theory and theory of diffusion – were used to analyse the empirically mapped outcome of the EBP project.The results show that the import of the original model of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) to social work is a part of a wider social movement in the helping and educational professions. The new model has influenced social work as a discipline, as a field of practice and as a field of policy. There are examples of full-scale implementations of EBP, although EBP has not reached a general status as daily practice. Some obstacles remain.The gradual adaption of EBP corresponds to criteria hold by Kuhn for a paradigm shift. Acceptance of the model has contributed to change the structure and function of social systems. At an organizational level, this change means on-going institutionalization. The innovation is influencing the way institutional actors conduct their work. Although the structural conditions have been optimal, the EBP-model has been debated with heat. The EBP-debate and policy-driven infrastructural efforts have brought a more in-depth examination of the model. So-called coercive, normative, and regulative isomorphisms were used to change organizations. The degree of institutionalization depended on the individuals and the organizations willingness and preparedness to change, to understand, and to put the model into practice. When actors used a less strict version of the original EBP model, the pace of cultural and institutional change slowed down.
5.
  • Hilding, Lars-Olof, 1963- (författare)
  • "Är det så här vi är". Om utbildning som normalitet och om produktionen av studenter
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Avhandlingen, baserad på intervjuer med 58 studenter vid tre olika program vid Högskolan i Halmstad, behandlar de skäl olika studentgrupper beskriver för att börja studera, deras upplevelser av mötet med högskolemiljön, och vilken betydelse de en lokal högskola kan ha. Trots olika åtgärder var den sociala snedrekryteringen till högre utbildning i stort sett oförändrad mellan 1960 och 1990. Under 1990-talet skedde en utjämning, men 1999 kom fortfarande bara 24% av studenterna vid svenska universitet från arbetarklasshem, trots att de utgjorde 35% av hela befolkningen. Studenter med högutbildade föräldrar uppger att de egentligen inte träffar ett aktivt val att börja högre studier, det uppfattas snarare som en naturlig del av vuxenblivandet. Barn från hem utan utbildningstraditioner ger en annan beskrivning. De beskriver valet att utbilda sig som ett val bland flera andra, och att de fått stöd från föräldrarna oavsett vad de valt. För barn till lågutbildade var det ofta fråga om en särskild händelse som gjorde att utbildning blev ett aktuellt alternativ. I studien har det varit möjligt att jämföra hur både klassresenärer och arvtagare beskriver mötet med och vistelsen på högskolan. Båda grupperna beskriver hur de upplever miljön som förvirrande och otrygg. Arvtagarna utvecklar emellertid strategier för att hantera situationen, eftersom den är svårare att ifrågasätta för dessa - utbildningen är ju en naturlig del av vuxenblivandet. Klassresenärerna är däremot mer benägna att ifrågasätta studierna. Klassresenärerna beskriver hur de upplever att de förändras ifråga om språk och förhållningssätt under studierna, männen i mer positiva ordalag, kvinnor med en viss tvehågsenhet.
6.
  • Almquist, Ylva, 1983- (författare)
  • A class of origin The school class as a social context and health disparities in a life-course perspective
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the present thesis is to examine various aspects of the school-class structure and their links to health in a life-course perspective. The empirical studies are based on two longitudinal data materials of cohorts born in the 1950s, followed up until middle age.In the first study, the overall status distribution in the school class was shown to be associated with both minor psychiatric disorder in childhood and self-rated health in adulthood. Thus, ill-health was more common among individuals who attended school classes less equal in terms of status.The second study demonstrated that it was more common among those who had fewer mutual friendships in the school class to report poorer health as adults. Socioeconomic career emerged as the primary explanation for men while, for women, these findings were largely unaccounted for by any of the included child and adult circumstances.Findings from the third study suggested the child’s status position in the school class, i.e. peer status, to be related to a wide range of health outcomes in adulthood. In particular, lower peer status was linked to an excess risk of mental and behavioural disorders, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Childhood social class did not confound these associations to any large extent.The fourth study examined two types of social isolation in the school class: marginalisation (low peer status) and friendlessness. Hospitalisation due to any disease was more common among marginalised children compared to among non-isolates, whereas no corresponding association was found for the friendless. For both types of isolates, the number of hospitalisations was greater than among non-isolated individuals. Of the studied childhood factors, scholastic ability emerged as an important mechanism.In sum, this thesis points to the relevance of the school class for health development across the life course and to the complexity of pathways through which influences of the school class may operate.
7.
  • Andersson, Catrine, 1982- (författare)
  • Hundra år av tvåsamhet Äktenskapet i svenska statliga utredningar 1909-2009
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the thesis is to study the concept of marriage and discursive constructions linked to marriage in Swedish policy documents, SOU, 1909-2009. Focusing on marriage as a formal institution, and on form, rather than content – marriage is considered one of several ways of regulating intimate relationships, and the analysis is thus centred on the intimate and erotic aspects of marriage as an institution. Using queer and sociological theories on late modern intimacy, state regulation and concepts of norms, theoretical tools which make possible exploring historical discursive shifts of heteronormativity and coupledom are developed. Policy documents (SOU) are analysed using discourse analysis inspired by archaeology and history of concepts. In three chapters, each covering a part of the period 1909-2009, the discursive landscape of state intervention in marital and other coupled relations is traced. Three themes emerge in this analysis. Firstly, a discursive movement can be seen, from marriage, as a morally superior form of relation, to family, as one of several more or less encouraged forms of relations. Secondly, in using the theoretical framework of heteronormativity, it is suggested that heteronormativity is reshaped in paradoxical ways. The seemingly non-heteronormative, gender neutral marriage law introduced in 2009 was built discursively on a concept of love used from the 1980s in these materials for motivating extended civil rights for homosexuals. It was, however, a logic of love based on difference and essentialised homosexual identity. A non-heteronormative law was thus introduced on a heteronormative discursive basis, enforcing extended norms of coupledom in the process. Thirdly, the question of what discursive role marriage plays in relation to society is explored. By enforcing differentiation between sexual and non-sexual, reproductive and non-reproductive, coupled and non-coupled relationships, social order is maintained. For one hundred years, despite major changes, coupledom is constant.
8.
  • Andersson, Lina, 1981- (författare)
  • Mått på brott Självdeklaration som metod att mäta brottslighet
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Measuring crime is one of criminology’s most central tasks. Self-report studies constitute one means of doing so. By asking people, primarily youths, about their experience of involvement in criminal acts, self-report studies are intended to provide knowledge on the extent and structure of crime and on crime trends over time, while also providing opportunities to study the causes of crime. The dissertation’s objective is to examine the use of self-reported crime as a research method. It problematises the use of self-report studies as an instrument for measuring both the extent and structure of youth crime, and also trends in youth crime over time. Problematising the method in this way both illustrates the significance of methodology and measurement instruments for the production/construction of criminological data and makes possible a more nuanced and aware approach to the use of such data.The dissertation comprises a discussion of the basic assumptions of the self-report method viewed from the perspective of theory of science, a review of Swedish self-report studies and a detailed study of the Swedish School Survey on Crime, Sweden’s nationally representative self-report study of youth in year nine (aged 15).The dissertation’s most important conclusions are that researchers, when designing a self-report study, should consider both how crime is viewed and what the study is intended to examine. It is also important, when using self-report data, to consider what the data represent. This is of significance in relation to both how questions might best be formulated and to what extent the mechanisms that affect the results will involve problems for the quality of the measures obtained.
9.
  • Bergh, Daniel, 1974- (författare)
  • Social Relations and Health How do the associations vary across contexts and subgroups of individuals?
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objectives: The aim of this thesis is to study the association between social relations and health in different social spheres, and to examine possible interaction effects.Material and Methods: In Paper I, the link between measures of the psychosocial neighbourhood environment, the psychosocial working environment, and psychosomatic health is analyzed by using a subset of data from the survey Life and Health 2000.In Paper II, the association between adolescent social relationships in school and psychosomatic health was analyzed by using the survey Young in Värmland.In Paper III, the association between parental monitoring, peer activity frequency, and adolescent alcohol use was studied by using Young in Värmland as the data source.In Paper IV, the links between adolescent perceptions of the psychosocial school climate, activities with parents, and psychosomatic health, were analysed by using Young in Värmland as the data source.Results: The results from Paper I indicate that social relations in the neighbourhood environment, as well as the working environment, are independently related to psychosomatic health. The independent contributions imply that efforts to improve health can be successfully directed to the psychosocial neighbourhood environment, as well as to the psychosocial working environment.The results from Paper II show that the social relations adolescents have in school may differ between subgroups of adolescents. The health effects of teacher contacts were stronger for the theoretically oriented students compared to the non-theoretically oriented students, suggesting that adolescents should be considered a heterogeneous group rather than a homogeneous one with respect to their social relations in school. Efforts to improve equity in health should consider these differences in order to be successful.In Paper III the results imply that even though both parents and the peer group are important in order to understand the alcohol use patterns of adolescents, the importance of parents should not be underestimated. Parental monitoring had a protective effect on adolescent alcohol use, regardless of the frequency of peer activities.In Paper IV, both the psychosocial school climate, and the frequency of activities with parents were related to psychosomatic health. The positive health effects of the psychosocial school climate were, furthermore, reinforced as a function of the frequency of activities with parents. This suggests that efforts to improve health should be directed to the school environment as well as to the family environment in order to be successful.Conclusions: The importance and meaning of social relations differ between different social arenas as well as between sub-groups of individuals.
10.
  • Bredvold, Randi, 1957- (författare)
  • Entreprenørers fortellinger en identitetsstudie i det opplevelsesbaserte reiselivet
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This is a narrative study in which five entrepreneurs in the experience-based tourist industry have told their life-stories in connection with their establishing and running their own enterprises.   Over the last decades the number of adventure-based companies has markedly increased in tourist industry, but the knowledge gained through the research on the persons who establish these companies is scant.  Through focusing on the constructions of  identity of the entrepreneurs, this study gives nuanced pictures of the chain of events that had lead an individual to establish one`s own company.  In addition, these pictures offer deeper understanding of how these individuals perceive themselves as the founder and manager of an experience-based company.Over the last decades research in entrepreneurship has criticized the imbalanced focus on the entrepreneurs' personal characteristics and it's use as an explanation of their entrepreneurial activities. In the same critical vein I question whether motivational studies are able to explain why certain individuals choose to establish their own business. Indeed, these five stories show that an entrepreneur is not something one is but something one becomes.Although the concept of an experiential economy appeared at the end of the 1990s, the production of experiences has a long tradition in the tourist industry. Norwegian tourism has faced an uphill struggle for several decades, which worries both the authorities and the industry itself.  In recent decades the focus has been directed more and more on the dimension of experience. One hopes that the creation of new and attractive adventures will help to reverse the negative trend in the industry.  Effecting this reversal places a heavy responsibility on the entrepreneurs since they are to be the driving force in this process. Tourist adventures have been one of several core themes within the field of research in tourism for decades, but this focus has mainly been on the perspective of the consumer. In contrast, this study concentrates on the producers, a group about whom we know much less.The five entrepreneurs who tell their story in this study give detailed descriptions of their life until the establishment of their businesses, and we see that each of them describes a number of causal chains that are interwoven and together create a meaningful picture of their choice. Through focusing on their reflexive identity-constructions and viewing these in light of the concrete situations they were in, before they established their enterprises, we gain a deeper understanding of this choice.Through the process of categorizing these reflexive identity-constructions, three  distinct ontological positions emerge, that is, different ways in understanding reality. The study shows that there is a connection between these ontological positions and the ways that the entrepreneurs run their businesses, as well as their understanding of how they create and produce adventures for their guests.
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