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Sökning: lärosäte:mah institution:("faculty of health and society")

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  • Abdulcadir, Jasmine, et al. (författare)
  • Seven Things to Know about Female Genital Surgeries in Africa
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Hastings Center report. - Wiley. - 1552-146X. ; 42:6, s. 19-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Starting in the early 1980s, media coverage of customary African genital surgeries for females has been problematic and overly reliant on sources from within a global activist and advocacy movement opposed to the practice, variously described as female genital mutilation, female genital cutting, or female circumcision. Here, we use the more neutral expression female genital surgery. In their passion to end the practice, anti-mutilation advocacy organizations often make claims about female genital surgeries in Africa that are inaccurate or overgeneralized or that don't apply to most cases. The aim of this article—which we offer as a public policy advisory statement from a group of concerned research scholars, physicians, and policy experts—is not to take a collective stance on the practice of genital surgeries for either females or males. Our main aim is to express our concern about the media coverage of female genital surgeries in Africa, to call for greater accuracy in cultural representations of little-known others, and to strive for evenhandedness and high standards of reason and evidence in any future public policy debates. In effect, the statement is an invitation to actually have that debate, with all sides of the story fairly represented.
  • Abendstein, Helmut, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of Life and Head and Neck Cancer: A 5 Year Prospective Study.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Laryngoscope. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1531-4995. ; 115:12, s. 2183-2192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in head and neck cancer patients from diagnosis to 5 years after start of treatment. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, descriptive study METHODS: three hundred fifty-seven patients from Norway and Sweden filled in HRQL questionnaires, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and the EORTC QLQ-H and N35, six times during the first year and then after 5 years. At 5 years, 167 (87%) of the 192 living patients filled in questionnaires. RESULTS: Group data: clinical significant improvements in HRQL were not found between 1 and 5 years. Problems with teeth, opening of the mouth, dryness in the mouth, and sticky saliva were persistent or worsening. Similar findings were found regardless of sex, age, stage, or site when clinical significant changes are considered. Patients who died between 1 and 5 years reported reduced HRQL on 15 of 28 scales at 1 year compared with the survivors. Individual data: 40% of patients reported improved global HRQL from diagnosis to 5 years after start of treatment. In addition, 11% had "top scores" at both assessment points. The pattern in global HRQL scores also applies for most of the other function and symptom scales. CONCLUSION: After the first year after treatment, recovery of the persisting side effects of treatment cannot be expected for the group as a whole. Patients must be prepared for this. Some individual patients experience improvement in global HRQL. HRQL assessments in daily clinical practice can identify patients who are in need of additional support and symptom relief.
  • Abma, Tineke, et al. (författare)
  • Social impact of participatory health research : collaborative none- linear processes of knowledge mobilization
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Educational Action Research. - Routledge. - 1747-5074. ; 25:4, s. 489-505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Social impact, defined as an effect on society, culture, quality of life, community services, or public policy beyond academia, is widely considered as a relevant requirement for scientific research, especially in the field of health care. Traditionally, in health research, the process of knowledge transfer is rather linear and one-sided and has not recognized and integrated the expertise of practitioners and those who use services. This can lead to discrimination or disqualification of knowledge and epistemic injustice. Epidemic injustice is a situation wherein certain kinds of knowers and knowledge are not taken seriously into account to define a situation. The purpose of our article is to explore how health researchers can achieve social impact for a wide audience, involving them in a non-linear process of joint learning on urgent problems recognized by the various stakeholders in public health. In participatory health research impact is not preordained by one group of stakeholders, but the result of a process of reflection and dialog with multiple stakeholders on what counts as valuable outcomes. This knowledge mobilization and winding pathway embarked upon during such research have the potential for impact along the way as opposed to the expectation that impact will occur merely at the end of a research project. We will discuss and illustrate the merits of taking a negotiated, discursive and flexible pathway in the area of community-based health promotion.
  • Abrahamsson, TR, et al. (författare)
  • Probiotic lactobacilli in breast milk and infant stool in relation to oral intake during the first year of life
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. - 1536-4801. ; 49:3, s. 349-354
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: This is to identify factors affecting the prevalence of Lactobacillus reuteri in maternal faeces and breast milk and infant faeces after oral supplementation with L reuteri and to assess the influence on microbial ecology, particularly Clostridium difficile and Bifidobacterium colonization.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this double-blind trial, 232 mothers with a family history of atopic disease were randomized to a daily intake of either L reuteri American-type culture collection (ATCC) 55730 (1 x 10 colony-forming units [CFU]) or placebo for the last 4 weeks of pregnancy. Their babies then continued with the same study product daily from birth until 12 months of age. Bacterial counts and prevalence were assessed in maternal breast milk and faeces and infant faeces, using conventional cultivation methods.RESULTS: The prevalence of L reuteri was higher during the first year of life in the stool samples from infants in the active as compared with the placebo-treated group. The highest prevalence was recorded at 5 to 6 days of age (82% in the treated vs 20% in the placebo group, P < 0.001). Lactobacillus reuteri was isolated from 12% and 2%, respectively, in the colostrum samples (P < 0.05). Breast-feeding seemed to reduce faecal L reuteri counts, although antibiotics did not influence the levels of L reuteri. The administration of L reuteri did not affect bifidobacteria or C difficile colonization.CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus reuteri may be detected in breast milk after oral supplementation to the mother and in almost all infants after oral supplementation during the first year of life, as well as occasionally in many untreated infants.
  • Ackermann, Yvonne, et al. (författare)
  • Design of a bioelectrocatalytic electrode interface for oxygen reduction in biofuel cells based on a specifically adapted Os-complex containing redox polymer with entrapped Trametes hirsuta laccase
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Electrochemistry Communications. - Elsevier B.V.. - 1388-2481. ; 12:5, s. 640-643
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The design of the coordination shell of an Os-complex and its integration within an electrodeposition polymer enables fast electron transfer between an electrode and a polymer entrapped high-potential laccase from the basidiomycete Trametes hirsuta. The redox potential of the Os3+/2+-centre tethered to the polymer backbone (+720 mV vs. NHE) is perfectly matching the potential of the enzyme (+780 mV vs. NHE at pH 6.5). The laccase and the Os-complex modified anodic electrodeposition polymer were simultaneously precipitated on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode by means of a pH-shift to 2.5. The modified electrode was investigated with respect to biocatalytic oxygen reduction to water. The proposed modified electrode has potential applications as biofuel cell cathode.
  • Adamson, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Johann Herder, Early Ninetenth-Century Counter-Enlightenment, and the Common Roots of Multiculturalism and Right-Wing Populism
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Telos. - Telos Press Publishing. ; 2014:169, s. 28-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In The Democratic Contradictions of Multiculturalism, Jens-Martin Eriksen and Frederik Stjernfelt elaborate on the concept of “culturalism.” In Telos 163 (Summer 2013), Eriksen continues to analyze its intricacies under the heading “Culturalism: When the Culture becomes Political Ideology.”2 Horizontal class divisions are out, vertical cultural barriers are in. Seemingly, culture has squeezed out all other concepts. The present essay shall broaden this discussion by asking the question: What is the relation between the Counter-Enlightenment of the early nineteenth century and today's culturalism?
  • Afonso, Damien, et al. (författare)
  • Multivalent mesoporous silica nanoparticles photodelivering nitric oxide with carbon dots as fluorescent reporters
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nanoscale. - Royal Society of Chemistry. - 2040-3372. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amino-terminated mesoporous silica nanoparticles embedding carbon dots (MSCD) formed by calcination were functionalized with a nitric oxide (NO) photodonor (1) to give a robust MSCD-1 conjugate. The intense fluorescence of MSCDs was strongly quenched in MSCD-1 by effective energy transfer. Visible light excitation of MSCD-1 liberates NO, suppresses the energy transfer mechanism and leads to concomitant fluorescence restoration of the MSCD scaffold, which acts as an optical reporter for the released NO. The MSCD-1 hybrid is also able to encapsulate the highly hydrophobic photosensitizer temoporfin, preserving the fluorescence reporting function.
  • Afzelius, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Children of parents with serious mental illness : the perspective of social workers
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Practice : social work in action. - Taylor & Francis. - 0950-3153.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study is to describe the experiences of children’s social workers in Sweden who work with families in which a parent suffers from serious mental illness, and how a child in such a family receives support. Data were collected through individual interviews and focus groups discussions with 13 professionals in 2 minor municipalities in southern Sweden. Interviewees stated that parental serious mental illness was not a main focus for children’s social workers. When parental serious mental illness became a barrier to caring for their children, the children’s social workers sought to collaborate with psychiatric services, but in many cases it did not turn out well. Providing support to the parent was one way of aiding the family, although at the price of setting the child’s perspective aside. Being faced with responsibility for the parent and the child left children’s social workers feeling they were the last outpost for the families. Children’s social workers require greater knowledge of how to handle parental serious mental illness, and more interagency collaboration with psychiatric services is needed to adequately support children of parents with a serious mental illness. Keywords: children of parents with serious mental illness; parental serious mental illness; children’s social workers; psychiatric services
  • Afzelius, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Families living with parental mental illness and their experiences of family interventions
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. - Wiley. - 1365-2850. ; 25:2, s. 69-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Although research has shown that evidence-based family interventions in research settings improve the communication and understanding of parental mental illness, there is a lack of knowledge about interventions in an everyday clinical context. Aim: This study explores how families with parental mental illness experience family interventions in a natural clinical context in psychiatric services. Method: Five families with children aged 10–12 were recruited from psychiatric services in southern Sweden and interviewed in a manner inspired by naturalistic inquiry and content analysis. Both family and individual interviews were performed. Results: In striving to lead an ordinary life while coping with the parental mental illness, these families sought the support of the psychiatric services, especially in order to inform their children about the mental illness. Despite different family interventions, the family members felt supported and reported that the number of conflicts in the family had decreased. The parents were appreciative of help with child-rearing questions, and the children experienced a calmer family atmosphere. However, the partner of the person with mental illness experienced being left without support. Implications for practice: Our study shows that psychiatric services, and especially mental health nurses, are in a position to more regularly offer family interventions in supporting the children and the healthy partners.
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