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Sökning: lärosäte:mah institution:("faculty of health and society")

  • Resultat 1-10 av 2293
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  • Abdulcadir, Jasmine, et al. (författare)
  • Seven Things to Know about Female Genital Surgeries in Africa
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Hastings Center report. - Wiley. - 1552-146X. ; 42:6, s. 19-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Starting in the early 1980s, media coverage of customary African genital surgeries for females has been problematic and overly reliant on sources from within a global activist and advocacy movement opposed to the practice, variously described as female genital mutilation, female genital cutting, or female circumcision. Here, we use the more neutral expression female genital surgery. In their passion to end the practice, anti-mutilation advocacy organizations often make claims about female genital surgeries in Africa that are inaccurate or overgeneralized or that don't apply to most cases. The aim of this article—which we offer as a public policy advisory statement from a group of concerned research scholars, physicians, and policy experts—is not to take a collective stance on the practice of genital surgeries for either females or males. Our main aim is to express our concern about the media coverage of female genital surgeries in Africa, to call for greater accuracy in cultural representations of little-known others, and to strive for evenhandedness and high standards of reason and evidence in any future public policy debates. In effect, the statement is an invitation to actually have that debate, with all sides of the story fairly represented.
  • Abendstein, Helmut, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of Life and Head and Neck Cancer: A 5 Year Prospective Study.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Laryngoscope. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1531-4995. ; 115:12, s. 2183-2192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in head and neck cancer patients from diagnosis to 5 years after start of treatment. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, descriptive study METHODS: three hundred fifty-seven patients from Norway and Sweden filled in HRQL questionnaires, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and the EORTC QLQ-H and N35, six times during the first year and then after 5 years. At 5 years, 167 (87%) of the 192 living patients filled in questionnaires. RESULTS: Group data: clinical significant improvements in HRQL were not found between 1 and 5 years. Problems with teeth, opening of the mouth, dryness in the mouth, and sticky saliva were persistent or worsening. Similar findings were found regardless of sex, age, stage, or site when clinical significant changes are considered. Patients who died between 1 and 5 years reported reduced HRQL on 15 of 28 scales at 1 year compared with the survivors. Individual data: 40% of patients reported improved global HRQL from diagnosis to 5 years after start of treatment. In addition, 11% had "top scores" at both assessment points. The pattern in global HRQL scores also applies for most of the other function and symptom scales. CONCLUSION: After the first year after treatment, recovery of the persisting side effects of treatment cannot be expected for the group as a whole. Patients must be prepared for this. Some individual patients experience improvement in global HRQL. HRQL assessments in daily clinical practice can identify patients who are in need of additional support and symptom relief.
  • Abma, Tineke, et al. (författare)
  • Social impact of participatory health research : collaborative none- linear processes of knowledge mobilization
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Educational Action Research. - Routledge. - 1747-5074. ; 25:4, s. 489-505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Social impact, defined as an effect on society, culture, quality of life, community services, or public policy beyond academia, is widely considered as a relevant requirement for scientific research, especially in the field of health care. Traditionally, in health research, the process of knowledge transfer is rather linear and one-sided and has not recognized and integrated the expertise of practitioners and those who use services. This can lead to discrimination or disqualification of knowledge and epistemic injustice. Epidemic injustice is a situation wherein certain kinds of knowers and knowledge are not taken seriously into account to define a situation. The purpose of our article is to explore how health researchers can achieve social impact for a wide audience, involving them in a non-linear process of joint learning on urgent problems recognized by the various stakeholders in public health. In participatory health research impact is not preordained by one group of stakeholders, but the result of a process of reflection and dialog with multiple stakeholders on what counts as valuable outcomes. This knowledge mobilization and winding pathway embarked upon during such research have the potential for impact along the way as opposed to the expectation that impact will occur merely at the end of a research project. We will discuss and illustrate the merits of taking a negotiated, discursive and flexible pathway in the area of community-based health promotion.
  • Abrahamsson, TR, et al. (författare)
  • Probiotic lactobacilli in breast milk and infant stool in relation to oral intake during the first year of life
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. - 1536-4801. ; 49:3, s. 349-354
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: This is to identify factors affecting the prevalence of Lactobacillus reuteri in maternal faeces and breast milk and infant faeces after oral supplementation with L reuteri and to assess the influence on microbial ecology, particularly Clostridium difficile and Bifidobacterium colonization.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this double-blind trial, 232 mothers with a family history of atopic disease were randomized to a daily intake of either L reuteri American-type culture collection (ATCC) 55730 (1 x 10 colony-forming units [CFU]) or placebo for the last 4 weeks of pregnancy. Their babies then continued with the same study product daily from birth until 12 months of age. Bacterial counts and prevalence were assessed in maternal breast milk and faeces and infant faeces, using conventional cultivation methods.RESULTS: The prevalence of L reuteri was higher during the first year of life in the stool samples from infants in the active as compared with the placebo-treated group. The highest prevalence was recorded at 5 to 6 days of age (82% in the treated vs 20% in the placebo group, P < 0.001). Lactobacillus reuteri was isolated from 12% and 2%, respectively, in the colostrum samples (P < 0.05). Breast-feeding seemed to reduce faecal L reuteri counts, although antibiotics did not influence the levels of L reuteri. The administration of L reuteri did not affect bifidobacteria or C difficile colonization.CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus reuteri may be detected in breast milk after oral supplementation to the mother and in almost all infants after oral supplementation during the first year of life, as well as occasionally in many untreated infants.
  • Ackermann, Yvonne, et al. (författare)
  • Design of a bioelectrocatalytic electrode interface for oxygen reduction in biofuel cells based on a specifically adapted Os-complex containing redox polymer with entrapped Trametes hirsuta laccase
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Electrochemistry Communications. - Elsevier B.V.. - 1388-2481. ; 12:5, s. 640-643
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The design of the coordination shell of an Os-complex and its integration within an electrodeposition polymer enables fast electron transfer between an electrode and a polymer entrapped high-potential laccase from the basidiomycete Trametes hirsuta. The redox potential of the Os3+/2+-centre tethered to the polymer backbone (+720 mV vs. NHE) is perfectly matching the potential of the enzyme (+780 mV vs. NHE at pH 6.5). The laccase and the Os-complex modified anodic electrodeposition polymer were simultaneously precipitated on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode by means of a pH-shift to 2.5. The modified electrode was investigated with respect to biocatalytic oxygen reduction to water. The proposed modified electrode has potential applications as biofuel cell cathode.
  • Adamson, Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Johann Herder, Early Ninetenth-Century Counter-Enlightenment, and the Common Roots of Multiculturalism and Right-Wing Populism
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Telos. - Telos Press Publishing. ; 2014:169, s. 28-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In The Democratic Contradictions of Multiculturalism, Jens-Martin Eriksen and Frederik Stjernfelt elaborate on the concept of “culturalism.” In Telos 163 (Summer 2013), Eriksen continues to analyze its intricacies under the heading “Culturalism: When the Culture becomes Political Ideology.”2 Horizontal class divisions are out, vertical cultural barriers are in. Seemingly, culture has squeezed out all other concepts. The present essay shall broaden this discussion by asking the question: What is the relation between the Counter-Enlightenment of the early nineteenth century and today's culturalism?
  • Afzelius, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Children of parents with serious mental illness : the perspective of social workers
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Practice : social work in action. - Taylor & Francis. - 0950-3153.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study is to describe the experiences of children’s social workers in Sweden who work with families in which a parent suffers from serious mental illness, and how a child in such a family receives support. Data were collected through individual interviews and focus groups discussions with 13 professionals in 2 minor municipalities in southern Sweden. Interviewees stated that parental serious mental illness was not a main focus for children’s social workers. When parental serious mental illness became a barrier to caring for their children, the children’s social workers sought to collaborate with psychiatric services, but in many cases it did not turn out well. Providing support to the parent was one way of aiding the family, although at the price of setting the child’s perspective aside. Being faced with responsibility for the parent and the child left children’s social workers feeling they were the last outpost for the families. Children’s social workers require greater knowledge of how to handle parental serious mental illness, and more interagency collaboration with psychiatric services is needed to adequately support children of parents with a serious mental illness. Keywords: children of parents with serious mental illness; parental serious mental illness; children’s social workers; psychiatric services
  • Afzelius, Maria (författare)
  • Families with parental mental illness : supporting children in psychiatric and social services
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Children living with a parent with a mental illness can face difficulties. Parental mental illness may influence the parents’ ability to cope with family life, where the parents’ awareness of their illness plays an important role. Family interventions provided by psychiatric and children’s social care services can be a way to support these children, making them feel less burdened, and improving the relationships within the family. The aim of this thesis was to illuminate how children in families with a parent with a mental illness are supported in psychiatric and social services, especially by means of family interventions, and how families experience the support. Study I explored how professionals in adult psychiatric outpatient services deal with children and families when a parent has a mental illness. The findings showed that professionals balanced between establishing, and maintaining, a relationship with the patient and fulfilling the legal obligations towards the patient’s children. Asking the patient about their children could be experienced as intrusive, and involving the patient’s family in the treatment could be seen as a dilemma, in relation to the patient. Efforts were made to enhance the family perspective, and when the patient’s family and children joined the treatment this required flexibility from the professional. Study II examined how professionals in children’s social care services experience working with children and families when a parent has a mental illness. The social workers’ objective was to identify the needs of the children. No specific attention was paid to families with parental mental illness; they were supported in the same way as other families. When the parental mental illness became difficult to handle both for the parent and the social worker, the latter had to set the child’s needs aside in order to support the parent. Interagency collaboration seemed like a successful way to support these families, but difficult to achieve. Study III investigated if patients in psychiatric services that are also parents of underage children, are provided with child-focused interventions or involved in interagency collaboration between psychiatric and social services and child and adolescent psychiatry. The findings showed that only 12.9% of the patients registered as parents in Psykiatri Skåne had registered children under the age of 18 years. One fourth of these patients had been provided with child-focused interventions in psychiatric service, and 13% of them were involved in interagency collaboration. If a patient received child-focused interventions from the psychiatric services, the likelihood of being involved in interagency collaboration was five times greater as compared to patients receiving no child-focused intervention. Study IV explored how parents and their underage children who were supported with family interventions experienced these interventions. The results showed that parents experiencing mental illness were eager to find support in explaining to and talking with their children about their mental illness, although the support from the psychiatric service varied. Both children and other family members appreciated being invited to family interventions. After such an intervention, they experienced the atmosphere in the family as less strained and found it easier to communicate with each other about difficulties. Unfortunately, the participating partners felt that they were left without support specifically targeted at them. The thesis showed that there is a gap between how professionals deal with questions concerning these families and their support, and the parents’ and the families’ needs to receive support in handling the parental mental illness in the family. The psychiatric and social services need to expand their approach and work with the whole family, in order to meet the needs of the child and other family members involved.
  • Afzelius, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • How Adult Psychiatry Professional's View Children
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Austin Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science. - Austin Publishing. - 2381-9006. ; 2:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Abstract Background: Children of parents with a mental illness need support from adult psychiatric services. Efforts have been made to enhance the knowledge of practitioners in this field so that they may work in a more family- oriented manner and to include children in the therapeutic services they provide. Aim: This study investigates how adult psychiatry services works with families and children when a parent has a mental illness. Method: Twenty-four Swedish professional care providers were interviewed individually or in focus groups. Data was analyzed using an inductive content method. Results: Although the professionals knew that their patients had minor children, they still prioritized the individual relationship they had with the parent. Few efforts were made to include both children and families in the treatment offered, and when this happened it was done at the professional’s own discretion. Conclusion: Despite the mandatory Swedish obligation to pay attention to a patient’s children, our study showed that professionals tend to fall short in this regard. Adult psychiatry services needs to strengthen family -oriented work in order to provide support to such children. Keywords: Minor children; Parents with mental illness; Adult psychiatric services; Family therapy
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