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Sökning: marie väfors fritz

  • Resultat 1-10 av 27
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1.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Psychopathy and violence in juvenile delinquents : What are the associated factors?
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 31:3, s. 272-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the present study was a) to examine the discriminative power of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD), aggressive traits, impulsiveness, antisocial attitudes and alcohol-related problems between subgroups of Russian juvenile delinquents (n = 175) with low versus high levels of violent behavior; and b) to compare the predictive value of these variables in two subgroups defined by higher versus lower levels of psychopathic traits. Results demonstrated that the APSD score, traits of physical aggression and alcohol-related problems were able to discriminate between groups with various levels of violence. Furthermore, the level of violence was the only variant factor when comparing levels of psychopathy. Finally, different sets of predictors emerged for the group with higher versus lower psychopathy scores. The results are discussed in relation to specific features of psychopathy and environmental factors in general and the use of alcohol in particular.
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2.
  • Brottslighet och utsatthet i Malmö
  • 2019. - 1
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Malmö and its inhabitants are living in a historical era and in a changing environment – in a city that has grown with 43 percent since 1990. Crime, Victimization and Vulnerability in Malmö presents a selection of current research, and the impact that crime, victimization and vulnerability have had on Malmö since the early 2000s.Crime, Victimization and Vulnerability in Malmö addresses topics such as gun and explo-sive violence, arson, offender characteristics, hate crime and victimological aspects. The book also discusses the link between crime and substance abuse, presents a crime victim study of EU citizens, and invites readers to listen in on a conversation between a criminolo-gist and an active-duty police officer. Finally, a psychiatrist reflects on how society’s inte-raction with people with antisocial problems has changed over time.The book has a clear link to Malmö, but can be used to understand crime, victimization and vulnerability in other places. Readers are encouraged to reflect critically on crime, victimization and vulnerability, and on how these are portrayed both in the media and in the book itself. The hope is that this book will contribute to the discussion on Malmö’s crime, victimization and vulnerability and that it will inspire thoughts, questions and curiosity about criminology as a subject.
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3.
  • Khoshnood, Ardavan, et al. (författare)
  • Gärningsmannen, brottet och offret
  • 2019. - 1
  • Ingår i: Brottslighet och utsatthet i Malmö. - : Studentlitteratur. - 9789144126272 ; , s. 51-66
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In addition to Malmö having the most reported crimes in relation to its population, it is also one of the cities in the country with the highest percentage of gun-related violence. Our earlier studies show that people who commit serious crimes such as homicide or attempted homicide in Malmö are primarily single, have no psychiatric diagnosis and mainly use knives or other sharp weapons to commit their crimes, although guns do cause more fatalities. The victims are usually somewhat older than the offenders and there is often a relationship between them. In fatal knife attacks, the leading cause of death among victims is loss of blood. For victims who are attacked by guns, head injuries are the main cause of death.
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4.
  • Khoshnood, Ardavan, et al. (författare)
  • Nineteen Victims of Homicide and Attempted Homicide in Sweden - Their Injuries, Cause of Death, and Offender Relationship
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0195-7910 .- 1533-404X. ; 38:3, s. 241-248
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Victims of homicide and attempted homicide are not uncommon in Sweden. We therefore aimed to study these victims to understand their injuries, their cause of death, and their relationship to the offender. All cases during five years in a district court in Sweden, where an offender had been convicted for homicide or attempted homicide, were identified and the court documents reviewed. Nineteen victims were identified; 14 males and five females, with an average age of 39.1 years. Although knife/sharp weapon was the most common weapon used, the use of firearm caused more deaths. Our study shows higher rates of firearm use than many other countries. The most common anatomical site to be injured by knife/sharp weapon and firearm was the thorax followed by the head. The most common cause of death was hypovolemia, followed by intracranial injuries. The high rate of firearm use shows that firearms are common modus operandi in Sweden often causing lethal injuries, if the offender intends to kill the victim. Our results support other studies showing that it is foremost injuries to the vessels, intracranial injuries, and injuries to intrathoracic organs, which causes a victim's death when assaulted with knife/sharp weapon or firearm.
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5.
  • KHOSHNOOD, ARDAVAN, et al. (författare)
  • Offender Characteristics : A Study of 23 Violent Offenders in Sweden
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Deviant Behavior. - : Routledge. - 1521-0456 .- 0163-9625. ; 38:2, s. 141-153
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Twenty-three offenders convicted of homicide or attempted murder/manslaughter, and their respective crimes, were examined to identify any common characteristics. Court documents were assessed, and the most prominent information of the offenders was that they were often single, most of them had no psychiatric diagnoses, the most frequent modus operandi was a knife or sharp weapon (although firearms resulted in more homicides), and the most common homicide typology was domestic disputes, and disputes between friends or acquaintances. Based on a cluster analysis, two profiles emerged: one with so-called traditional criminals and another profile over-represented with offenders who commit domestic crimes.
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6.
  • Khoshnood, Ardavan, et al. (författare)
  • The Offender, the Crime and the Victim.
  • 2019. - 1
  • Ingår i: Crime, Victimization and Vulnerability in Malmö. - : Studentlitteratur. - 9789144133041 ; , s. 53-69
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In addition to Malmö having the most reported crimes in relation to its population, it is also one of the cities in the country with the highest percentage of gun-related violence. Our earlier studies show that people who commit serious crimes such as homicide or attempted homicide in Malmö are primarily single, have no psychiatric diagnosis and mainly use knives or other sharp weapons to commit their crimes, although guns do cause more fatalities. The victims are usually somewhat older than the offenders and there is often a relationship between them. In fatal knife attacks, the leading cause of death among victims is loss of blood. For victims who are attacked by guns, head injuries are the main cause of death.
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7.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Antisocial process screening device : Validation on a Russian sample of juvenile delinquents with the emphasis on the role of personality and parental rearing
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527 .- 1873-6386. ; 31:5, s. 438-446
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objectives of the present study were 1) to validate the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in a sample of Russian juvenile delinquents; 2) to examine subgroups of delinquents with higher versus lower levels of childhood problem behaviors with respect to the APSD subscales, personality traits, and parental rearing; and 3) to attempt to replicate the previous finding that the APSD subscale measuring callous/unemotional traits can differentiate subgroups of delinquents with different precursors for problem behaviors (predominantly biological versus predominantly social). A group of 250 Russian juvenile inmates (mean age = 16.4) was examined by means of the APSD completed by the staff at the correctional institution. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing their current and childhood behavior problems, personality traits and experienced parental rearing practices. A factor structure of the APSD was obtained that is similar, albeit not identical, to that from the original studies by Frick and colleagues [Frick, P.J., O'Brien, B.S., Wootton, J.M., McBurnett, K., (1994). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 700–707]; [Frick, P.J., Barry, C.T., Bodin, S.D., (1999). Applying the concept of psychopathy to children: Implications for the Assessment of antisocial youth. In Gacono, C.B. (Ed), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioners guide. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum]; [Frick, P.J., Lilienfeld, S.O., Ellis, M., Loney, B., Silverthorn, P., (1999). The association between anxiety and psychopathy dimensions in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 383–392]; callous unemotional traits in the present sample were expressed in manipulative behavior. Results further disclosed higher levels of antisocial and aggressive activities, higher levels of personality attributes such as narcissism and novelty seeking, as well as lower cooperativeness, and negatively perceived parental rearing in a subgroup with higher (versus lower) number of childhood symptoms of conduct disorder and oppositional disorder. The juvenile delinquents with higher levels as compared to lower levels of callous unemotional traits also perceived their parents as using more negative rearing strategies. The findings are discussed in terms of interactional processes between personality of the juvenile delinquents and parental rearing in the development of antisocial behavior.
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8.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of Life - Towards an understanding of individuals with psychopathic tendencies
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Personality and Mental Health. - 1932-8621. ; 3:3, s. 183-192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objectives are to explore: (1) the association between psychopathy and self-rated quality of life; and (2) the possible role of childhood hyperactivity on the relationships between Psychopathy Checklist (PCL) scores and self-rated domains of Quality of Life (QoL). Male subjects with a history of criminality at age 11-14 years (n = 108) and matched controls (n = 59) from a Swedish longitudinal project were studied. Self-rated QoL domains of psychological health, family relationships and work satisfaction were dichotomized and used as dependent variables in calculations of odds ratios (ORs) with dichotomized PCL scores as the independent variable, as assessed at age 38-41. The results showed that for each of the three QoL domains, the proportion of individuals that reported dissatisfaction was significantly higher in both criminals and controls characterized by psychopathic tendencies (PT) compared with the groups with no psychopathic tendencies. Furthermore, the results revealed higher strata-specific risk of dissatisfaction among the PT individuals for two of the domains: psychological health (OR = 6.58) and work satisfaction (OR = 7.98). Childhood hyperactivity individuals were overrepresented in the PT group. However, hyperactivity did not confound the association between PCL and QoL. The results are discussed in the light of possible treatment implications.
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9.
  • Freidenfelt Liljeberg, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • Poor school bonding and delinquency over time : Bidirectional effects and sex differences
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Adolescence. - : Elsevier. - 0140-1971 .- 1095-9254. ; 34:1, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association between poor school bonding and delinquency has only been partly addressed in earlier research. Using a longitudinal design, the objective of our study was to investigate possible bidirectional effects and sex differences between adolescents’ experienced school bonding and self-rated delinquency over time. A total of 788 adolescents (353 boys and 435 girls) were investigated by questionnaire at age 14 and 16. Poor school attachment and commitment as well as poor teacher attachment were found to be stronger determinants of delinquency for males than for females. Delinquency predicted poor school commitment for both boys and girls, and poor school attachment for girls, thus indicating bidirectional effects over time and sex differences in some of the bidirectional effects. The study concludes that the delinquency propensity of adolescent boys may be affected by all school bonding dimensions, whereas for girls it is their relationship with their teachers that is of significance.
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10.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Self-Reported Mental Health and Risky Lifestyle in Swedish Youth
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Book of Abstracts. - : European Society of Criminology. ; , s. 465-465
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Self-reported mental health and risky lifestyle in Swedish youth Marie Väfors Fritz (Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Sweden), Anna-Karin Ivert (Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Sweden) Mental ill-health has become increasingly common among youth in Sweden. Mental ill-health and criminality are substantial public health problems in terms of human suffering as well as direct and indirect societal costs. A particularly vulnerable group to experience mental health problems and subsequent consequences are immigrants and immigrants’ children. Identification difficulties, social constrains and psychosomatic symptoms are some of the arduousness experienced by immigrants and reflect the hurdles of acculturation. Another vulnerable group in terms of specific mental health symptoms constitutes half of the population, females. More females than ever seek help and treatment for depression, alcohol abuse and suicidal attempts and recommendations are to develop a knowledge base and lead local discussions to stop this down spiral trend. Hence, the purpose of the present study is to investigate mental health and lifestyles among 15-16 year olds living in Malmo, Sweden. The first aim is to explore how these youths report their mental health according to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Secondly, the relationship between reported mental health and problematic lifestyle (such as drinking, smoking, and delinquency) will be explored. Lastly, possible differences in mental health and lifestyles across sex and ethnicity will be investigated. Results indicate differences in self-reported mental health across sex and ethnic groups.
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