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Sökning: marie väfors fritz

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1.
  • Fritz, Marie Vafors, et al. (författare)
  • Stressors, Anxiety and Adjustment among International and North American Students
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Intercultural Relations. - 0147-1767. ; 32:3, s. 244-259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The acculturation process generally contributes greatly to stress and anxiety levels among international students. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to see whether international students experience more anxiety, irritability, and stress from being apart from family and friends, pressure from school, difficulties with language, work and finances than students with permanent US residency, and (2) to investigate the same stressors in groups within the international student population. Surveys were distributed to 246 students aged 17–51 at an ethnically diverse community college in Southern California, US. Analysis of variance was conducted to investigate group differences between students: permanent US residents vs. international students, and, permanent US residents vs. European and Asian students, respectively. No significant differences were found between international students and students with permanent US residency. However, when the international student population was sub-grouped by above cultural regions a different pattern emerged. Difficulties of not being able to work and of socially related problems were perceived as more severe for the European and the Asian groups, while finance problems were hard for all three groups. The variable of language difficulties was harder for Asian students, while that of stress of being apart from family was harder for students from Europe. Findings are not only congruent with prior research results on international students but also demonstrate that international students with culturally diverse needs should not be considered as one homogenous group. It is suggested that educational systems need to properly adapt in order to accommodate international students’ unique cultural needs.
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2.
  • Fritz, MV, et al. (författare)
  • Antisocial process screening device : Validation on a Russian sample of juvenile delinquents with the emphasis on the role of personality and parental rearing
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527. ; 31:5, s. 438-446
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objectives of the present study were 1) to validate the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in a sample of Russian juvenile delinquents; 2) to examine subgroups of delinquents with higher versus lower levels of childhood problem behaviors with respect to the APSD subscales, personality traits, and parental rearing; and 3) to attempt to replicate the previous finding that the APSD subscale measuring callous/unemotional traits can differentiate subgroups of delinquents with different precursors for problem behaviors (predominantly biological versus predominantly social). A group of 250 Russian juvenile inmates (mean age = 16.4) was examined by means of the APSD completed by the staff at the correctional institution. The inmates completed several self-reports assessing their current and childhood behavior problems, personality traits and experienced parental rearing practices. A factor structure of the APSD was obtained that is similar, albeit not identical, to that from the original studies by Frick and colleagues [Frick, P.J., O'Brien, B.S., Wootton, J.M., McBurnett, K., (1994). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 700–707]; [Frick, P.J., Barry, C.T., Bodin, S.D., (1999). Applying the concept of psychopathy to children: Implications for the Assessment of antisocial youth. In Gacono, C.B. (Ed), The clinical and forensic assessment of psychopathy: A practitioners guide. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum]; [Frick, P.J., Lilienfeld, S.O., Ellis, M., Loney, B., Silverthorn, P., (1999). The association between anxiety and psychopathy dimensions in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 383–392]; callous unemotional traits in the present sample were expressed in manipulative behavior. Results further disclosed higher levels of antisocial and aggressive activities, higher levels of personality attributes such as narcissism and novelty seeking, as well as lower cooperativeness, and negatively perceived parental rearing in a subgroup with higher (versus lower) number of childhood symptoms of conduct disorder and oppositional disorder. The juvenile delinquents with higher levels as compared to lower levels of callous unemotional traits also perceived their parents as using more negative rearing strategies. The findings are discussed in terms of interactional processes between personality of the juvenile delinquents and parental rearing in the development of antisocial behavior.
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3.
  • Fritz, MV, et al. (författare)
  • Psychopathy and violence in juvenile delinquents : What are the associated factors?
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527. ; 31:3, s. 272-279
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of the present study was a) to examine the discriminative power of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD), aggressive traits, impulsiveness, antisocial attitudes and alcohol-related problems between subgroups of Russian juvenile delinquents (n = 175) with low versus high levels of violent behavior; and b) to compare the predictive value of these variables in two subgroups defined by higher versus lower levels of psychopathic traits. Results demonstrated that the APSD score, traits of physical aggression and alcohol-related problems were able to discriminate between groups with various levels of violence. Furthermore, the level of violence was the only variant factor when comparing levels of psychopathy. Finally, different sets of predictors emerged for the group with higher versus lower psychopathy scores. The results are discussed in relation to specific features of psychopathy and environmental factors in general and the use of alcohol in particular.
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4.
  • Fritz, MV, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of Life - Towards an understanding of individuals with psychopathic tendencies
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Personality and Mental Health. - 1932-8621. ; 3:3, s. 183-192
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objectives are to explore: (1) the association between psychopathy and self-rated quality of life; and (2) the possible role of childhood hyperactivity on the relationships between Psychopathy Checklist (PCL) scores and self-rated domains of Quality of Life (QoL). Male subjects with a history of criminality at age 11-14 years (n = 108) and matched controls (n = 59) from a Swedish longitudinal project were studied. Self-rated QoL domains of psychological health, family relationships and work satisfaction were dichotomized and used as dependent variables in calculations of odds ratios (ORs) with dichotomized PCL scores as the independent variable, as assessed at age 38-41. The results showed that for each of the three QoL domains, the proportion of individuals that reported dissatisfaction was significantly higher in both criminals and controls characterized by psychopathic tendencies (PT) compared with the groups with no psychopathic tendencies. Furthermore, the results revealed higher strata-specific risk of dissatisfaction among the PT individuals for two of the domains: psychological health (OR = 6.58) and work satisfaction (OR = 7.98). Childhood hyperactivity individuals were overrepresented in the PT group. However, hyperactivity did not confound the association between PCL and QoL. The results are discussed in the light of possible treatment implications.
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5.
  • Liljeberg, JF, et al. (författare)
  • Poor school bonding and delinquency over time : Bidirectional effects and sex differences
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Adolescence. - 0140-1971. ; 34:1, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association between <img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/prevterm.gif" />poor school bonding and delinquency<img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/nextterm.gif" /> has only been partly addressed in earlier research. Using a longitudinal design, the objective of our study was to investigate possible bidirectional effects and sex differences between adolescents’ experienced <img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/prevterm.gif" />school bonding<img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/nextterm.gif" /> and self-rated <img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/prevterm.gif" />delinquency over time.<img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/nextterm.gif" /> A total of 788 adolescents (353 boys and 435 girls) were investigated by questionnaire at age 14 and 16. <img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/prevterm.gif" />Poor school<img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/nextterm.gif" /> attachment and commitment as well as <img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/prevterm.gif" />poor<img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/nextterm.gif" /> teacher attachment were found to be stronger determinants of <img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/prevterm.gif" />delinquency<img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/nextterm.gif" /> for males than for females. <img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/prevterm.gif" />Delinquency<img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/nextterm.gif" /> predicted <img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/prevterm.gif" />poor school<img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/nextterm.gif" /> commitment for both boys and girls, and <img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/prevterm.gif" />poor school<img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/nextterm.gif" /> attachment for girls, thus indicating bidirectional effects <img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/prevterm.gif" />over time<img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/nextterm.gif" /> and sex differences in some of the bidirectional effects. The study concludes that the <img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/prevterm.gif" />delinquency<img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/nextterm.gif" /> propensity of adolescent boys may be affected by all <img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/prevterm.gif" />school bonding<img src="http://www.sciencedirect.com/scidirimg/sci_dir/nextterm.gif" /> dimensions, whereas for girls it is their relationship with their teachers that is of significance.
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6.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Self-Reported Mental Health and Risky Lifestyle in Swedish Youth
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Book of Abstracts. - European Society of Criminology.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Self-reported mental health and risky lifestyle in Swedish youth Marie Väfors Fritz (Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Sweden), Anna-Karin Ivert (Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Sweden) Mental ill-health has become increasingly common among youth in Sweden. Mental ill-health and criminality are substantial public health problems in terms of human suffering as well as direct and indirect societal costs. A particularly vulnerable group to experience mental health problems and subsequent consequences are immigrants and immigrants’ children. Identification difficulties, social constrains and psychosomatic symptoms are some of the arduousness experienced by immigrants and reflect the hurdles of acculturation. Another vulnerable group in terms of specific mental health symptoms constitutes half of the population, females. More females than ever seek help and treatment for depression, alcohol abuse and suicidal attempts and recommendations are to develop a knowledge base and lead local discussions to stop this down spiral trend. Hence, the purpose of the present study is to investigate mental health and lifestyles among 15-16 year olds living in Malmo, Sweden. The first aim is to explore how these youths report their mental health according to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Secondly, the relationship between reported mental health and problematic lifestyle (such as drinking, smoking, and delinquency) will be explored. Lastly, possible differences in mental health and lifestyles across sex and ethnicity will be investigated. Results indicate differences in self-reported mental health across sex and ethnic groups.
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7.
  • Väfors Fritz, Marie, 1974- (författare)
  • Psychosocial adjustment problems : Individual and acculturation differences
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis addresses individual and environmental risk factors in the development of adjustment problems and antisocial behaviour. Namely, temperament and character, anxiety, psychopathic-like traits, antisocial attitudes, alcohol use, and parental rearing strategies are explored as risk factors for behaviour problems in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. When interpreting results of specific studies, an ecological framework is applied to take into account socio-cultural and acculturation circumstances.In Studies I and II, the subjects under investigation are incarcerated Russian detainees aged 14-19 years (n=250). The main purpose of Study I was to investigate the validity of the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in a sample of Russian juvenile delinquents. Study II examined the relationship between psychopathy and violent behaviour. An association between psychopathy and quality of life is explored in Study III, using a sample of Swedish early criminals and controls aged 38-41 years (n=199). In Study IV, international and national college students aged 17-51 years (n=246), are studied regarding perceived adjustment stressors and acculturational differences.The results suggested good validity of the APSD in the Russian male detainees. Additionally, the results support a dimensional aspect of the psychopathy construct as measured by the PCL and APSD, and suggest that individual and environmental antecedents of psychopathy may differ between the distinct psychopathy factors. The more violent group showed higher levels of psychopathic traits and physical aggression, had more alcohol related problems, and perceived antisocial behavior as more ‘normative’. Moreover, impulsiveness, anger, verbal aggression and antisocial attitudes discriminated between the psychopathic and non-psychopathic subgroups. The results further indicated that self reported quality of life was poorer among individuals with psychopathic-like traits. Finally, grouping the detainees, criminals and controls, as well as the students according to their unique needs seemed to be beneficial, not only regarding psychopathic-like traits, violent behaviour and antisocial attitudes, but also in the context of acculturation and adjustment processes.
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8.
  • Khoshnood, Ardavan, et al. (författare)
  • Nineteen Victims of Homicide and Attempted Homicide in Sweden—Their Injuries, Cause of Death, and Offender Relationship
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology. - 0195-7910. ; 38:3, s. 241-248
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT: Victims of homicide and attempted homicide are not uncommon in Sweden. We therefore aimed to study these victims to understand their injuries, their cause of death, and their relationship to the offender. All cases during five years in a district court in Sweden, where an offender had been convicted for homicide or attempted homicide, were identified and the court documents reviewed. Nineteen victims were identified; 14 males and five females, with an average age of 39.1 years. Although knife/sharp weapon was the most common weapon used, the use of firearm caused more deaths. Our study shows higher rates of firearm use than many other countries. The most common anatomical site to be injured by knife/sharp weapon and firearm was the thorax followed by the head. The most common cause of death was hypovolemia, followed by intracranial injuries. The high rate of firearm use shows that firearms are common modus operandi in Sweden often causing lethal injuries, if the offender intends to kill the victim. Our results support other studies showing that it is foremost injuries to the vessels, intracranial injuries, and injuries to intrathoracic organs, which causes a victimʼs death when assaulted with knife/sharp weapon or firearm.
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9.
  • Khoshnood, Ardavab, et al. (författare)
  • Offender Characteristics : : A Study of 23 Violent Offenders in Sweden
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Deviant Behavior. - Routledge. - 1521-0456. ; 38:2, s. 141-153
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Twenty-three offenders convicted of homicide or attempted murder/manslaughter, and their respective crimes, were examined to identify any common characteristics. Court documents were assessed, and the most prominent information of the offenders was that they were often single, most of them had no psychiatric diagnoses, the most frequent modus operandi was a knife or sharp weapon (although firearms resulted in more homicides), and the most common homicide typology was domestic disputes, and disputes between friends or acquaintances. Based on a cluster analysis, two profiles emerged: one with so-called traditional criminals and another profile over-represented with offenders who commit domestic crimes.
10.
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