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Sökning: mat:dok lärosäte:mah år:(2013)

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1.
  • Abrahamsson, Cecilia (författare)
  • Masticatory function and temporomandibular disorders in patients with dentofacial deformities : studies before and after orthodontic and orthognathic treatment
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Ca 30 % av Sveriges befolkning genomgår någon gång i livet behandling med tandreglering. I de fall där bettavvikelsen är mer omfattande är enbart tandreglering inte tillräckligt för att uppnå ett bra bett. Istället kombinerar man tandregleringen med en kirurgisk förflyttning av käkarna s.k. ortognat kirurgi. Dessa patienter besväras ofta, före behandling, av smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkar och tuggmuskler och är dessutom ofta missnöjda med sitt utseende. Då denna behandling är omfattande, kostsam och inte helt utan komplikationer är det av stort intresse att undersöka utfallet av behandlingen och om denna motsvarar förväntningarna hos patienterna. Tidigare studier som har utvärderat utfallet av tandreglering i kombination med ortognat kirurgi har kommit fram till motsägelsefulla slutsatser vad gäller hur behandlingen har påverkat förekomsten av smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkar och tuggmuskulatur. Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling är att i en serie studier, före och efter ortognat kirurgi, utvärdera och jämföra före- komsten av smärta och käkfunktionsstörningar hos patienter med stora bettavvikelser. Avhandlingen är baserad på följande studier: delarbete I är en systematisk litteraturöversikt med följande frågeställning: Påverkar ortognat kirurgi förekomsten av smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkleder och tuggmuskulatur? I studien utvärderas den tillgängliga vetenskapliga litteraturen ur ett evidensbaserat perspektiv. Översikten omfattade tidsperioden januari 1966 till april 2006 och utökades senare till maj 2013. Slutsatser i delarbete I • Det finns ett otillräckligt vetenskapligt underlag för om förekomsten av diagnostiserad smärta och funktionsstörning i käkleder och tuggmuskler minskar efter ortognat kirurgi • Det vetenskapliga underlaget är begränsat när det gäller en minskning av palpationsömhet i tuggmuskler efter ortognata kirurgi. • Det finns ett otillräckligt vetenskapligt underlag för om förekomsten av käkledsljud påverkas av ortognat kirurgi. • Det behövs ytterligare en studier som är av hög eller medelhög kvalitet för att på ett evidensbaserat sätt kunna styrka behandlingsutfallet av ortognat kirurgi när det gäller smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkleder och tuggmuskler. delarbetena II och III är kontrollerade studier som undersöker förekomsten av smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkleder och tuggmuskler hos patienter med stora bettavvikelser, i jämförelse med personer med eller utan små bettavvikelser (ej i behov av tandreg- lering). Patienterna var remitterade för behandling med ortognat kirurgi. I delarbete III, som är en longitudinell uppföljningsstudie, analyseras hur förekomsten av smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkleder och tuggmuskler påverkas av behandlingen och även hur patienttillfredsställelsen är tillgodosedd. Slutsatser i delarbete II och III • Patienter som ska behandlas med ortognat kirurgi har mer smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkleder och tuggmuskler jämfört med kontrollgruppen. • Patienter som genomgått ortognat kirurgi har ett positivt behandlingsutfall avseende smärta från käkleder och tuggmuskler. • Efter behandling är förekomsten av smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkleder och tuggmuskler låg och i nivå med den i kontrollgruppen. Delarbete IV utvärderar den självupplevda tuggförmågan och den testade tuggprestationen före och efter ortognat kirurgi hos samma individer som i studie II och III. Slutsatser i delarbete IV • Patienter med stora bettavvikelser har innan ortognat kirurgi en sämre självupplevd tuggförmåga och testad tuggprestation jämfört med kontrollgruppen. • Efter behandling förbättras både den självupplevda tuggförmågan och tuggprestationen. Klinisk betydelse: Patienter som har stora bettavvikelser och dessutom smärta och funktionsstörningar i käkleder och tuggmuskler har oftast ett positivt behandlingsutfall efter ortognat kirurgi. Dessutom förbättras den självupplevda tuggförmågan och den testade tuggprestationen efter behandlingen. Patienter med stora bettavvikelser som ska behandlas med tandreglering i kombination med ortognat kirurgi kan därför rekommenderas behandlingen för möjlighet till minskade besvär från tuggmuskler och käkleder och förbättrad tuggförmåga.
2.
  • Andersson, Frida (författare)
  • The female offender : patterning of antisocial and criminal behaviour over the life-course
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The studies included in the thesis illustrate the patterning of female offending over the life course. The overarching aim is to contribute to a better understanding of the female offender and of the heterogeneity in female criminal offending trajectories over the life course, and also of factors that differentiate between these trajectories. In order to extend the knowledge on individual predictors of female offending, the thesis analyses the correlations between offending and measures of crime propensity. Study I analyses sex differences in criminal career patterns using a group-based trajectory method. The overall conclusion is that the females in the study were much less predisposed to offend than the males, but when they did, they tended to follow a similar set of career trajectories. Four offending trajectories were identified for each sex, two sex-invariant and two sex-unique. Among both females and males, a group of Low Rate Desisters (LRD) and a group of High Level Chronics (HLC) were identified, which correspond with the groups commonly identified in earlier research focused on various cohorts. In addition, every sixth female offender was characterized as an Early Onset Desister (EOD). The offending pattern of this group was characterized by a very early onset of criminality, followed by almost no offending at all in the subsequent age categories. The second of the two female-unique patterns was denoted Adult Onset (AO). The offending pattern of this group was characterized by a late onset in crime followed by a high level of criminal activity over subsequent years. Studies II and III explore the within- and between-individual patterning of the different female offending trajectories identified in the Study I. Individual and social characteristics were investigated, along with the question of how such factors change and shape patterns of criminal involvement. Research has consistently shown that childhood risk factors appear to be important for distinguishing chronic from adolescent-limited offenders. Based on the data available to this thesis, the analyses confirm that this baseline assumption appears also to apply to females. The analyses show that it is possible on the basis of variables measuring different aspects of socio-demographic background and family functioning to separate offenders from non-offenders, and chronics from less severe offenders. Study III examines the AO group in more detail. Predictors in childhood and adolescence that are known to be related to chronic offending all produced significant effects in relation to memberships of the AO group. In addition, variables related to working class background, such as father’s occupation and coming from a family that had received social welfare payments during childhood, a low level of educational achievement and unemployment in adulthood, all seem to be related to the AO trajectory and indicate a need for further research. Studies I-III had provided indications of sex differences not only in criminal patterning but also in risk factors and life events and transitions. In Study IV, the aim was to try to identify and evaluate whether and how self-control and morality affect criminal activity for females and males respectively. Results from a split sample analysis showed that self-control was the strongest independent predictor for both sexes; further, self-control did not help explain the gender gap in offending. Overall, different aspects of morality also seemed to be powerful predictors of offending for both sexes. As regards the explanation of sex differences in offending, the impact of anticipated guilt appeared to be most important. No interaction effects were found between self-control and morality.
3.
  • Dawson, Andreas (författare)
  • Experimental tooth clenching : a model for studying mechanisms of muscle pain
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • “I felt like I’d done three rounds with Mike Tyson…all because I was grinding my teeth in my sleep”, så beskrev en patient som intervjuades av Daily Mail i en artikel där det ökade problemet med överbelastning i käkarna beskrevs, vilket kan leda till tandslitage, muskelsmärta, och frakturer på tandmaterial. Det personliga lidandet, och de ekonomiska kostnaderna för både individ och samhälle är stort. Bruxism innebär en daglig och/eller nattlig tandpressning eller tandgnissling och anges med en förekomst av ca 10-20% i befolkningen. Tidigare undersökningar har visat att tandpressning och psykologisk stress är vanligare bland patienter med kronisk muskelsmärta i ansiktet jämfört med friska försökspersoner, och anses kunna bidra till kronisk muskelsmärta i ansiktet, så kallad myofasciell temporomandibulär dysfunktion (M-TMD). Det har även föreslagits att bruxism, t ex tandpressning, kan leda till träningsvärk i tuggmuskulaturen. M-TMD är ett smärttillstånd som kan drabba tuggmuskulaturen och är ungefär dubbelt så vanligt hos kvinnor som hos män. Vanligt förekommande symtom är smärta och ömhet i tuggmuskulaturen, men även en reducerad tuggfunktion. Flera studier har använt sig av experimentella tandpressningsmodeller för att öka förståelsen mellan tandpressning och smärta i tuggmuskulaturen. I dessa studier har olika stor bitkraft använts vid tandpressningen, vilket resulterar i att det blir svårt att jämföra resultaten från dessa studier och dra slutsatser om vilka tandpressningsmodeller som är de mest optimala. 12 Vid tandpressning så kan det bli syrefattigt i tuggmuskulaturen, vilket kan resultera i en frisättning av smärtframkallande substanser, såsom serotonin och glutamat. I tuggmuskulaturen finns det smärtreceptorer som kan aktiveras av dessa substanser. I tidigare studier har man observerat att patienter med M-TMD har en högre halt av dessa substanser i tuggmuskulaturen jämfört med friska individer. Finns det ett samband mellan tandpressning och träningsvärk? Hur kommer det sig att patienter med M-TMD har en högre halt av serotonin och glutamat i tuggmuskulaturen? Denna kunskap saknas idag, således var det övergripande målet med denna avhandling att öka kunskapen om detta. På sikt kan denna kunskap bidra till förbättrade diagnostiska metoder, och behandlingsmodeller. I studie I så utvecklades ett instrument som undersöker kvaliteten på experimentella bruxismstudier, som senare kan användas i en systematisk översikt, så att slutsatser kan dras avseende de mest optimala experimentella bruxism modellerna som inducerar en smärta på friska individer som efterliknar den kliniska smärtan som patienter med M-TMD uppvisar. I studie II undersöktes sambandet mellan tandpressning vid olika bitkraftsnivåer och träningsvärk. Våra resultat antyder att träningsvärk i tuggmuskulaturen inte tycks uppstå efter experimentell tandpressning hos friska individer. I delstudier III och IV undersöktes frisättning av serotonin och glutamat efter tandpressning hos friska individer och patienter med M-TMD med hjälp av mikrodialys. De huvudsakliga fynden var att vi kunde bekräfta tidigare fynd, att patienter med M-TMD har en högre halt av serotonin i tuggmuskulaturen. Däremot utsöndrades dessa substanser inte i samband med tandpressning, varken hos friska individer eller hos patienter.
4.
  • Gansing, Kristoffer (författare)
  • Transversal media practices : media archaeology, art and technological development
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Transversal Media Practices work across specific situations of technological development, critically examining and redefining the terms of production in different media by bringing heterogeneous histories, institutions, actors and materialities into play with one another. This dissertation is all about trying out and refining the methodologies of such transversal media practices, in the end outlining a conceptual set of tools for further development. Following the technological hype of the “digital revolution” of the mid-1990s, the field of new media studies gained popularity over a ten year period. This dissertation takes its cue from a historical turn in new media theory, and argues that it is time leave behind strict polarisations between old and new as well as analogue and digital. The study unfolds through two case-studies. The first, “The World’s Last Television Studio”, looks at tv-tv, an art and media-activist project that negotiates the socio¬cultural and material changes of the “old” and institutionalised mass medium of television. In the second case study, “The Art of the Overhead”, another old medium is engaged: the overhead projector – a quintessen¬tial 20th century institutional medium here presented as a device for rethinking the new through the old. The problematic of technological development, i.e. dealing with questions of how (media) technologies develop over time, forms the background to these two case studies. A key issue being how cultural and artistic practices dealing with the interaction of old and new media invite us to conceptualise technological development in new ways. The emerging field of media archaeology is employed as a methodology in media studies and cultural production, comprising a theoretical and applied analysis of media history, materiality and practice. This transversal approach allows media archaeologists to deal with the relation between the old and the new in a non-linear way as well as to pay attention to the technical materiality of media. It is argued that the transversality of the media-archaeological approach should be seen in contrast to other conceptions of media history and technological development, such as progressivist, mono-medial and evolutionary ones. In this study, the author tries out the potential of media archaeology to reform our conception of media technologies, and eventually formulates a set of concepts for thinking and doing media archaeology as a transversal media practice. These tools are about the imaginary, residual and renewable dimensions of media technologies and are meant to assist in the opening up and intervening into processes of standardised media development. On a general level the resulting set of tools for transversal media practices builds a bridge between theory and practice: they can be used for further research and cultural analysis where objects of study speak back to analytical concepts. At the same time these are tools for transversality that expand this form of cultural analysis in that the travelling between disciplines here also means a travelling between theory and practice. On a specific level, the tools enable this travel between theory and practice in media- and communication studies, and as such they contribute to the development of new practice-based methodologies in media research.
5.
  • Hulusjö, Anna (författare)
  • The multiplicities of prostitution experience : narratives about power and resistance
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is not primarily about ‘the rights and wrongs of prostitution’, at least not as they are conveyed in the prostitution debate, rather it aims to shift the focus from what prostitution is (work or violence, empowerment or exploitation), the topic of most prostitution debate, to how prostitution operates. That is, how power relations, knowledges, discourses and practices interconnect in making particular forms of prostitution and particular ways of making sense of prostitution experience possible. The study is situated on the feminist narrative field and is constituted of interviews with twenty women with prostitution experience. With a genealogical approach to narrative analysis the participants’ narratives are not treated as reflections of an assumed prostitution ‘reality’, but rather there is an exploration of what the participants do as they narrate their experience, how they, through their narratives, construct their identities and make sense of their experiences and their lives. By engaging with the participants’ narratives, the power and domination of the institution of prostitution and the multitude of tactics that the participants employed in order to negotiate, resist and destabilize power and domination were explored. The participants’ narratives were both entangled with and positioned against dominant narratives about prostitution and ‘the prostitute’. They contained complexities, contradictions and multiple meanings; prostitution was described as both enabling and constraining, as a means of resistance and as an effect of power. The participants spoke of how the institution of prostitution produced different experiences of being constituted as a ‘commodified body’, an ‘appropriate target for violence/undeserving victim’ and a stigmatized identity. 8 Depending on their social location and personal biography the participants were more or less able to manage the emotional and physical risks that prostitution involved. The narratives revealed how prostitution, as it currently operates, is conditioned by intersecting structures of social inequality.
6.
  • Ivert, Anna-Karin (författare)
  • Adolescent mental health and utilisation of psychiatric care : the role of parental country of birth and neighbourhood of residence
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The studies included in this thesis aim to illustrate different aspects of mental health and the utilisation of psychiatric care among Swedish children and adolescents, with the overarching aim being to improve the existing knowledge on how the neighbourhood of residence and parental country of birth influence adolescents’ mental health and their pathways into and utilisation of psychiatric care. The first study investigates referral pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics, directing a special focus at how these pathways differ on the basis of parental country of birth and neighbourhood of residence. The results show that parental country of birth plays an important role in how children and adolescents are referred to the child and adolescent psychiatric sector. Children and adolescents with Swedish-born parents appear more often to have been referred by their families, whereas by comparison with children and adolescents with Swedish-born parents, those with foreign-born parents had more often than been referred by someone outside the family, such as the social services or their school. Neighbourhood of residence was found to play a significant role in relation to family referrals; children and adolescents living in neighbourhoods with low levels of socioeconomic deprivation were more likely to have been referred by their families by comparison with those from more deprived neighbourhoods. The second study investigates how parental country of birth and individual gender are associated with the utilisation of psychiatric care. The findings from the study indicate that adolescents whose parents were born in middleor low-income countries present lower levels of psychiatric outpatient care utilisation than those with Swedish-born parents. Initially, no associations 7 were found between parental country of birth and inpatient care. Following adjustment for socio-demographic variables, it was found that adolescents whose parents were born in low-income countries were also less likely to utilise inpatient care. Girls were more likely to have utilised psychiatric care, but controlling for possible interactions revealed that this was true primarily for girls with parents born in Sweden or other high-income countries. In the third study, psychiatric care utilisation patterns are analysed in relation to the neighbourhood of residence. In part the aim was to investigate the validity of the neighbourhood when it comes to understanding variations in adolescents’ utilisation of psychiatric care, but the study also examines whether neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with individual variations in the utilisation of psychiatric care. The results indicate that the neighbourhood of residence has little influence on the utilisation of psychiatric care, only 1.6 % of the variance was found at the neighbourhood level. No clear association between the neighbourhood level of socioeconomic deprivation and levels of psychiatric care utilisation was found in the study. The final study investigates how adolescents’ perceptions of the social characteristics of their neighbourhood are related to their self-reported mental health, while controlling for the socioeconomic structure of the neighbourhood. The results show that adolescents’ perceptions of their neighbourhood are associated with their self-reported mental health, particularly their perceptions of social disorder. However, these associations differ between girls and boys, and between adolescents with Swedish- and foreign-born parents. In conclusion, the results presented in the thesis show that parental country of birth is an important factor when it comes to understanding differences in referral patterns and in the utilisation of psychiatric care. However, the role of the neighbourhood of residence appears to be more complex.
7.
  • Koch, Margaretha (författare)
  • On implementation of an endodontic program : change of practice, treatment outcome and cost-effectiveness
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • It is widely accepted that the uptake of research findings by practitioners is unpredictable, yet until they are adopted, advances in technology and clinical research cannot improve health outcomes in patients. Despite extensive research there is limited knowledge of the processes by which changes occur and ways of measuring the effectiveness of change of practice. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate aspects of an educational intervention in clinical endodontic routines and new instrumentation techniques in a Swedish County Public Dental Service. Special reference was made to the establishment of changed behaviour in practice, the process of change, and the clinical effects. Although a high level of competence in root canal treatment procedures is required in general dental practice, a number of Swedish studies have revealed inadequate root-fillings quality and associated periapical inflammation in general populations. It is suggested that the adoption of the nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation (NiTiR) technique would improve the cleaning and shaping of root canals and the quality of the root-filling. However, there is limited knowledge of the effectiveness of the technique when applied in general dental practice. In two of four consecutive studies, the subjects were employees of a county Public Dental Service. The aim was to investigate the rate of adoption of clinical routines and the NiTiR technique: the output, and the qualitative meaning of successful change in clinical practice. In the other two studies the aim was to investigate treatment effect and the cost-effectiveness of root canal treatment in a general population: the outcome. Four hundred employees (dentists, dental assistants, administrative assistants and clinical managers) of a Swedish County Public Dental Service were mandatorily enrolled in an educational and training program over two years. Change of practice was investigated in a post-education survey. The NiTiR technique was adopted by significantly more dentists in the intervention county compared to a control county (77% and 6% respectively). Dentists in the intervention county completed root canal instrumentation in significantly fewer sessions than the dentists in the control county. Eight in-depth interviews, two with each participant, (dentist, dental assistant, receptionist, clinical manager), were strategically selected for a phenomenological analysis. Four factors were identified as necessary for successful change: 1) disclosed motivation, 2) allowance for individual learning processes, 3) continuous professional collaboration, and 4) a facilitating educator. A random sample of 850 performed root canal treatments was used for a study of treatment outcome; 425 before and 425 after the education and adoption of the NiTiR technique. Root-filling quality, periapical status and tooth survival were assessed on radiographs taken at treatment and at follow-up, ≥4 years later. Apical periodontitis was found in 34% of the teeth root-filled before the education compared to 33%, after. After the education, root-filling quality improved significantly, tooth survival was significantly higher, however, without a subsequent improvement in success rate posteducation; 68% vs. 67%. A micro-costing model was used to calculate the costs of root canal instrumentation, pre- and post-education, in the same sample used in the study of treatment outcome. Costs were lower post-education: by SEK 264 for teeth with one canal and SEK 564 for teeth with three or more canals. A reason for lower costs was that the NiTiR technique dominated after the education and required significantly fewer instrumentation sessions. A cost-minimization analysis disclosed that root canal treatments undertaken post-education were more cost-effective. In conclusion, there was only a partial relationship between output and outcome. Although root-filling quality improved significantly, the study did not show any association between the more frequent use of NiTiR and an improvement in remaining teeth with normal periapical status or success rate. However, the use of NiTiR was more cost-effective. These results are in accordance with previous findings of the so called efficacy-effectiveness gap in clinical practice: a high output is not predictive of a high outcome. The overall conclusion to be drawn from these studies is that further research is warranted to identify factors associated with improvement of the quality of endodontic care. The general interpretation of the findings of these implementation studies is as important as the effects of the change in endodontic instrumentation: a clinically relevant and applicable intervention, introduced by experienced expertise under allowing learning and collaborating circumstances, disclosed clinicians’ motivation and facilitated implementation. The finding of qualitative differences between the questionnaire responses and the in-depth interviews suggest that a critical approach is warranted when comparing surveys and qualitative methods aimed at investigating qualitative experiences of change, due to their different epistemological premises.
8.
  • Lindroth, Malin, 1968- (författare)
  • Utsatthet och sexuell hälsa : : en studie om unga på statliga ungdomshem
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The dissertation concems youths in detention at residential group homes, their sexuality in general, their sexual health in particular. and their sex education. According to Swedish law, sex education is required in the Swedish public school system.The education must be perceived as relevant by youths and promotion rather than preventive-focused. Despite this legislative measure, Swedish research data on this youth population are scarce; available international research shows that youths in detention have poor sexual heal th. The aim is thus to gain knowledge about the sexual health among youths in detention at residential group homes, and to develop and present a sex education curriculum targeted to their special needs. A survey followed by an interview study seeks to assess knowledge of sexual health among these adolescents (papers I-III). Exposure to untoward sexual behaviors alongside sexual risk taking is found, concomitant to apportunities for these youths to experience healthy sexual encounters that may outweigh the risks. Furthermore, this group of detained adolescents are more risk taking and exposed to negative sexual experiences compared to their non-detained same aged peers. In focus group interviews, the sex education curriculum is presented to the detainees (paper IV). They consider the information relevant and share advice of how to furtherad just the material to thei r needs. The data are discussed from the perspective of social psychology, and the rationale behind the youths' risk taking is explored. The study pennits the voices of the youths be heard; it presents a nuanced portrait of the camplexity behind their sexual risk taking and elucidates the pereceived advantages of unsafe sex. The results are of i nterest to researchers and clinicians in areas of sociaJ work where specialized knowledge of socially disadvantaged youth and sexual health has been lacking.
9.
  • Linge, Anna (författare)
  • Svängrum för en kreativ musikpedagogik
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this doctoral dissertation is to investigate what mechanisms produce a creative music education. The method used is based on critical realism where a social science phenomenon consists of empirica!events, operating mechanisms and the structures that produce them. I have ehosen to utilize creativity theory to investigate the different mechanisms that become evident when analyzing the empirical material in relation to problem-solving, flow, as weil as theory of play and games. The empirica1 material consists of group interviews with music teachers colleagues at an upper secondary school, and observations oftwo ensemble classes at two separate upper secondary schools during one term. Mechanisms that are found to produce a creative music pedagogue according to the thesis analysis chapter, are overriding based on authentic problems, intemalization and transformationalleaming, and by uniting intemal and externa!motivation. The survey's structures appear in the thesis introductory chapter. The discussion chapter gives a retroduction of the structures that make a creative music education possible. The structures are the role of the teacher, the role of the students, and the importance of intemalization of the musical tools. The focus is on both traditional roles and structures, and the contributions to the new rules that this thesis has discovered. These new rules, I have termed Svängrum, include two major themes: making something your own, i.e. one's own interpretation of another's work as intemalization, and making your own, i.e. autonomous leaming and your own creation. This results in the school's environment imbues a spirit of day-to-day leaming, where problem-solving activities motivate and make possible creative abilities, based on students' own engagement.
10.
  • Lund, Martin, 1984- (författare)
  • Rethinking the Jewish-Comics Connection
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is a study of configurations of identity in American mainstream comics. It focuses on how a small number of writers of Jewish descent have expressed or disciplined their Jewishness in relation to their creations. In an attempt to revise common linear narratives, the thesis presents three case studies of famous and influential comics texts with different primary foci: a chapter on Superman asks how characterization was used to configure identity in relation to contemporary society; a chapter on Will Eisner asks how identity was configured and reconfigured in the creator’s work and self-representation; and a chapter on the X-Men asks how identity was configured and reconfigured with reference to the series’ central trope, mutantcy. The aim of these studies is to investigate how Jewishness and Americanness, as well as other subject positions that implicitly affect how people think and write, can intersect or converge in mass culture representation. In doing this, the thesis also engages in a critical dialogue with extant writing on the subject of Jews and comics. The chosen texts are analyzed using a methodology based on theories of representation and on the basis of a social constructivist paradigm of identity and identity formation. From this perspective, it is first argued that the early Superman, rather than being a Moses or golem figure as others have suggested, reverberated with a contemporary Jewish American project to construct a Jewish American heritage and to represent Jewish interests as aligned with national interests. The second chapter argues that Will Eisner’s The Spirit was configured in similar ways, but also that its use of blackface stereotypes constituted race talk, or denigration of African Americans as a means of entry into majority culture. The second half of the chapter argues that Eisner’s use of Jewish significations in his later career was not ethnography but a claim to authenticity, in support of an attempt to “whiten” the comics medium and bring it into the mainstream of American culture. The third chapter suggests that rather than having initially been racial allegory, the X-Men was a product of the Cold War, and that when civil rights discourse began to enter the series, it did so in a way that was common to liberal Jewish rights activism. It is then argued that the increased prominence of themes of prejudice and oppression in the second series was not directly intended to metaphorize Jewishness, as has been claimed, but to construct an open sign of outsiderhood for any reader to inhabit. Finally, it is argued that the reimagining of one the series’ oldest characters as a Holocaust survivor was connected with the writer’s Jewishness, but that this expression of ethnic identity was subsumed under an Americanizing representational logic. The concluding chapter argues that the popular literature on Jews and comics is best situated within a framework of present-day Jewish American identity formation, and that it constructs myths of a Jewish–comics connection to bolster contemporary Jewishness. In doing so, it is argued, the books employ common contemporary Jewish American themes and symbols to reshape the past of American comics in a way fitting current Jewish American concerns. The chapter then turns to methodological problems stemming from the use of these books in academic writing. This use, along with other issues that have become visible during the production of the thesis, is argued to be potentially detrimental to the study of Jews and comics, and to comics studies in general. Finally, after a summation of the thesis’ findings, it is suggested that the historical Jewish–comics connection, rather than being one of surreptitious symbolic or metaphorical reproduction of elements from religious or historical Jewish traditions, is perhaps instead best understood as an existential connection that emerged from the writers’ individual attempts to navigate the ways Judaism and Americanism hailed them and exerted social pressures.
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11.
  • Mordenfeld, Arne (författare)
  • On tissue reactions to and resorption of bone substitutes
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: The increasing need for bone grafting procedures in implant dentistry and the introduction of a variety of bone substitutes require a deeper understanding of the biological response and shortand long-term behaviour of these materials to choose the adequate graft and surgical procedure for the intended clinical application. Aims: The overall aim was to clinically and histologically study the short- and long-term tissue reactions to and resorption of bone substitutes after bone augmentation. Material and methods: In paper I, dentin blocks with different demineralization times were placed subperiostally in 40 rat skulls. After a healing period of 4 weeks the rats were sacrificed and the healing of the dentin blocks were evaluated. In paper II, eleven patients were treated with bilateral sinus floor augmentation using biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) on one side and deproteinized bovine bone (DPBB) on the contralateral side, acting as control. After 3 years, biopsies were retrieved from the grafted area for histological evaluation and histomorphometry and 62 dental implants, placed 8 months after graft healing, were clinically evaluated. In paper III and IV, fourteen (22 sinuses) of the included 20 patients (30 sinuses) treated with sinus floor augmentation with a mixture of 80% DPBB and 20% autogenous bone (AB) from the chin were followed throughout the 10 years study period. These patients had 53 implants placed in grafted sites and 15 implants placed in non-grafted bone. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed. Biopsies were retrieved from the grafted sinuses after 11 years of graft healing for 16 histological evaluation and histomorphometry. The particle sizes were compared with samples retrieved after 6 months from the same patients and pristine particles from the manufacturer. In paper V, 13 patients (14 jaws) were treated with lateral ridge augmentation using 2 different mixtures of DPBB:AB (90:10 and 60:40) in a randomized and controlled trial, designed as a split mouth study. The width and volume changes were evaluated after 7.5 months by means of cone beam computed tomography. After 8 months of graft healing, at the time of implant placement, biopsies were retrieved for histological evaluation and histomorphometry. Results: Resorption increased with increasing degree of demineralization of dentin blocks while bone formation increased with increasing degree of demineralization, in the latter case provided inflammation was compensated for (paper I). After 3 years of healing the BCP particles showed different levels of dissolution, in contrast to DPBB particles that showed no signs of resorption. The overall implant survival rate was 96.8% and the success rate for implants placed in BCP and DPBB was 91.7% and 95.7% respectively (paper II). The cumulative survival rate of the implants after 10 years was 86% and the marginal bone loss was 1.6 mm. There was only a reduction in graft height between 3 months and 2 years but no further reduction up to 10 years (paper III). There was no difference between the size of DPBB particles after 11 years compared to those measured after 6 months or to particles from the manufacturer (paper IV). The gain in width of the alveolar crest was 3.5 mm and 2.9 mm and the reduction of the grafts were 37% and 47% for the 60:40 mixture and 90:10 mixture respectively (significant differences). There were no histomorphometrical differences between the groups (paper V). Conclusions: Partial demineralization may provide a method for optimizing the integration of dentin onlays. A similar degree of bone formation and bone-to-graft contact for BCP and DBB was found 3 years after maxillary sinus augmentation with similar success rates for implants placed in both grafting materials. At 10 years follow-up after sinus floor augmentation with 80:20 (DPBB:AB) graft, the remaining implants presented good clinical and radiological results and there seems to be no further graft resorption after 2 years of 17 graft healing. DPBB particles were found to be well integrated in lamellar bone, showing no apparent signs of resorption after 11 years in humans. Despite a small difference in width changes after lateral ridge augmentation, the amount of AB added to DPBB did not seem to have a major impact on the graft healing and graft reduction, thus making it possible to install implants in all grafted sites.
12.
  • Radmann, Aage (författare)
  • Huliganlandskapet : medier, våld och maskuliniteter
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of the dissertation is to understand and explain how the narrative image of the Swedish hooligan and hooliganism is created and recreated in various (media) descriptions. The dissertation consists of four articles and one summarising chapter. Analysis of different types of media and in-depth interviews constitute the source material for the study, which provides new insights into Swedish hooligan culture. One important conclusion of the study is that hooliganism is understood differently depending on the beholder’s position in the hooligan landscape. The dissertation also demonstrates how various media narratives have had a decisive function in the rise, expansion and manifestation of Swedish hooligan culture.
13.
  • Sjöstedt, Bengt (författare)
  • Ämneskonstruktioner i ekonomismens tid : Om undervisning och styrmedel i modersmålsämnet i svenska och danska gymnasier
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Under vilka villkor formar en dansklärare och en svensklärare sin pedagogiska gärning? Utifrån vilka ideal och organisatoriska förutsättningar möter de sina elever? Bengt Sjöstedt presenterar i denna doktorsavhandling i svenska med didaktisk inriktning sina svar på dessa frågor. Till grund för hans slutsatser ligger omfattande studier av undervisningen i skolämnena danska och svenska i gymnasiemiljöer i Danmark respektive Sverige. Hans undersökningar av den faktiska undervisningen tillsammans med studier av internationell forskning om skolan och dess styrsystem resulterar i en tankeväckande bild av den pedagogiska praktik lärarna har möjlighet att utveckla. Sjöstedts jämförande studie är den första i sitt slag och skapar därmed nya förutsättningar för fortsatt samtal på nordisk nivå om de framtida villkoren för de nordiska modersmålen.
14.
  • Znamenskaya, Yana (författare)
  • Effect of hydration on thermodynamic, rheological and structural properties of mucin
  • 2013
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Mucus, an adherent hydrated layer covering the epithelium, is found in all internal tracts of the body and plays an important role in animal and human life. One of the essential functions of mucus is protection of tissues against dehydration. A major component of mucus, forming the macromolecular matrix and also being responsible for its viscoelastic properties, is the glycoprotein mucin. Mucin is a complex molecule owing to the high molar mass, its polydispersity and high degree of glycosylation. This thesis is aimed to investigate how thermodynamic, structural and rheological properties of mucin are affected by hydration. The effect of hydration on thermodynamic properties of pig gastric mucin (PGM) and bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM) has been studied using sorption calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The analysis of sorption isotherms shows higher water sorption capacity of PGM compared to BSM at relative humidity (RH) levels lower than about 78%. The value of the hydration enthalpy at zero water content at 25ºC for both biopolymers is close to -20 kJ/ mol. RH levels at which glass transition of both mucins occurs are shown to be between 60 and 70%. The RH at which glass transition occurs is weakly dependent on the temperature and mucin type. The phase diagram of PGM demonstrates two different glass transition regions: dependent and independent on hydration levels, respectively. In particular at mucin concentrations from 0 to 67 wt%, the glass transition occurs at a constant temperature of about –15ºC. At higher concentrations of mucin, the glass transition temperature (Tg) increases with increasing mucin concentrations. It is also demonstrated that the QCM-D technique can be used to obtain the water sorption isotherms of mucin films in particular and in general to monitor glass transitions in biopolymers. Hydration-induced changes of rheological properties of mucin films are investigated using a model-free approach. The ratio of G’/G’’ is evaluated as a function of relative humidity. Observed transitions from solid-like behaviour to liquid-like behaviour in mucin system occur in the same humidity range as that found in sorption calorimetric experiments. The structural properties of mucin have been studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). AFM indicates the presence of dumbbell as well as fiber-like structures in PGM samples. In the case of BSM samples, only fiber-like structures are observed. SAXS studies show three ranges of scattering vector q corresponding to different fractal dimensions in dilute PGM and BSM solutions. Dehydration-induced structural changes in PGM are demonstrated by a distinct appearance of peaks on scattering curves starting from 20 wt% of mucin. Structural changes at about 80 wt% obtained in SAXS at 25°C, correspond to mucin glass transition, and are in agreement with sorption calorimetry and DSC studies. Temperature-induced phase behaviour changes occur around 60-70°C at intermediate levels of hydration. A comparison between water sorption isotherms of BSM/chitosan multilayers and those of individual biopolymers shows that the water sorption capacity of BSM/chitosan multilayers is similar compared to that of individual biopolymers, although some differences exist. In particular, at low RH levels the water sorption capacity of multilayers is slightly higher compared to each biopolymer, however at high RH the multilayer films are less hydrated than individual biopolymers.
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