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Sökning: mat:dok lärosäte:mah år:(2014)

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1.
  • Chowdhary, Ramesh (författare)
  • On efficacy of implant thread design for bone stimulation
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction – The mechanism and efficiency of force transfer by dental implants to surrounding biologic tissues are important determinants in the development of the implant-to-bone/tissue interface and implant longevity. Threads are used to improve the initial stability by maximizing bone contact through an enlarged implant surface area and thereby favor distribution of interfacial stresses. However, knowledge about optimal thread design for an enhanced implant integration in bone tissue is still lacking. Aim – The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the efficacy of implant micro thread design when combined with macro threads, for bone stimulation. The hypothesis is that the short threads will contribute with compression forces that may stimulate bone healing, while the larger threads will provide with primary stability necessary during the healing process. A further aim was to use an FEA model to describe the optimal thread form for reduced stress concentration immediately after implant insertion as well as after completed bone healing. Materials and methods – In study 1, Two-dimensional finite element models were made from 8 different thread designs. The crest module and apex of the implants were removed from the implant models, in order to enhance the effect of the thread designs only. Thus, the suprastructures and microstructures of the implants were not considered. All the eight implant models were assumed to be embedded in cortical bone. In addition, a 3D model was used to evaluate stress in the bone generated by 6 different thread designed implants when the implant models included the entire implant. In the In vivo studies 2 and 3, experimental turned implants with a diameter of 4mm and 8mm in length were prepared with micro threads in between macro threads along the body of the implants. These were used as test implants. Implants without micro-threads were used as controls. In study 4, similar implants were made but with alteration in depth of the macro-thread to improve the possibility for bone stimulation by compression during healing. Insertion and removal torque analysis along with histomophometric analyses were done to evaluate the bone response. Results – In study 1, stresses were calculated using von Mises stress analysis. The stress levels in the bone were in the range of 5-13 MPa in osseointegrated model and 14-107 MPa in immediate 2D models. 3D Analysis results showed the von Mises stress in the range of 4.8-30.9 MPa, when a load of 100N was applied vertically. In Study 4 FEA demonstrated stress levels in the range of 0.28 MPa to 62MPa for the control implant model designs, whereas the test implant models displayed a range of 0.28 MPa to 31Mpa. In study 2, the mean values of the ITQ for the control and test groups in the tibia were 15 and 20 Ncm respectively, and in the femur, the values were 11 and 12 Ncm, respectively. In study 4, the ITQ values were 11Ncm and 14 Ncm respectively in the tibia, and in the femur 13 Ncm and 19 Ncm respectively. The RTQ values for the control and test groups in tibia was 11Ncm and 17Ncm, respectively and in the femur, 13Ncm and 23Ncm, respectively. The histomorphometric analysis of study 3, showed the mean total bone area, BA% (SD) to be higher in the test implants, when compared to the control implants in both the tibia 24 (4), and 21(4), the femoral bone 29 (5), and 25 (7), respectively with no statistical significance. In study 4, the total bone area BA% was higher for the test implants with a mean value of 72% compared to 48% for the control group in tibial bone. In femural bone, the bone area was 63% for the test and 38 % for the control group implants with p value of 0.10 for both tibia and femur. Bone to implant contact showed significantly higher value for the test implants in the femur, p= 0.04. Conclusion – The impact of different thread designs, with respect to the magnitude of the transferred stress peak in the bone, was higher for the immediately inserted implants than for the osseointegrated implant model. The stress distribution was more effective in experimental micro-thread implant models, when compared to the non-micro thread models. The addition of pitch shortened threads in the test implant, did significantly improve the primary and secondary stability of the test implants, when mechanically evaluated with ITQ and RTQ analysis in corticular or trabecular bone rabbit bone. Histomophometrical analysis showed that the addition of the pitch shortened threads in between the macro threads did have a bone stimulatory effect in the femur of the rabbits.
2.
  • Dorkhan, Marjan (författare)
  • Effect of surface characteristics on cellular adherence and activity
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Ersättning av förlorade tänder med tandimplantat är numera en vanlig behandlingsmetod med generellt goda resultat. Antalet implantatsystem på den internationella marknaden har ökat kraftigt under senare år. Stora forskningsinsatser har lagts på att utveckla nya modifierade titanmaterial med ytegenskaper som påskyndar integreringen av implantat i benvävnad. Exempel på sådana modifieringar är hög ytråhet och kemiska ytförändringar som förstärker bioaktiva karaktärsdrag hos titan. Vissa modifieringar har visat sig kunna stimulera benceller att bilda benvävnad och därmed skapa bättre förutsättningar för inläkning av implantat. Klinisk forskning pekar på att även mjukvävnad runt tandimplantat, liksom slemhinnan runt naturliga tänder, har avgörande betydelse för skydd mot mikrobiella angrepp. En funktionell mjukvävnadsbarriär anses vara nödvändig för att tandimplantat skall fungera livet ut. Emellertid är kunskapen enbart sporadisk om hur celltyper såsom mjukvävnads- celler och orala bakterier, reagerar när de kommer i kontakt med modifierade titanytor i munhålan. På tandimplantat i den orala miljön, liksom på naturliga tänder, finns salivproteiner (pellikel) och sådana munhålebakterier som har förmåga att kolonisera fasta ytor som titan. Bakterier som fäster till implantat bildar med tiden komplexa bakteriesamhällen som är inbäddade i en matrix, en så kallad biofilm. Under vissa förhållanden kan dessa mikrobiella biofilmer ge upphov till kroniska infektioner. Flera kliniska uppföljningsstudier pekar på att kroniska infektioner i anslutning till tandimplantat är vanligare än man tidigare trott. Sådana infektioner kan vara svåra att behandla och leda till så omfattande benförlust att tandimplantat förloras. Syftet med denna avhandling var att förbättra förståelsen för hur orala streptokocker, fibroblaster och keratinocyter påverkas då de kommer i kontakt med moderna tandimplantat som har modifierade ytstrukturer. Resultaten i denna avhandling visade att titanytor med skrovliga strukturer på mikrometernivå, framtagna för bättre benläkning, främjade även adhesion av orala streptokocker vilket kan tolkas som att biofilmer lättare ackumuleras på sådana ytor. Vidare framkom det att streptokockers vidhäftningsförmåga och metabola aktivitet ökade avsevärt när en naturlig salivfilm fanns på plats på titanytan vilket ytterligare skulle påskynda bilningen av biofilmer på tandimplantat. Karaktärisering av proteinsammansättningen i salivfilmen på titan visade att sekretoriskt IgA, amylas, cystatin och prolactin-inducible protein var de dominerande proteinerna. S. oralis är en bakterie som ofta förekommer i samband med kroniska infektioner runt tandimplantat. Denna bakterie visade sig ha ett adhesin som interagerade speciellt bra med salivproteiner på titan. Detta var första gången som detta adhesin identifierades. Vad gäller adhesion av mjukvävnadsceller som fibroblaster och keratinocyter visade det sig att dessa celler kunde fästa väl till en titanyta som modifierats med hjälp av anodisk oxidering. Vid en karaktärisering av ytan framkom det att den var rik på anataskristaller och hade också nanoporösa strukturer. Orala streptokocker visade sig binda sämre till den anatasrika ytan än till kommersiellt rent titan. Sammantaget förefaller denna ytmodifikation vara en lämplig kandidat för nya implantat då den minskar inbindningen av streptokocker samtidigt som den tillåter fibroblaster och keratinocyter att växa på ytan. Sammanfattningsvis visar resultaten i denna avhandling att ytmodi- fierat titan påverkar såväl adhesion av mjukvävnadsceller som bakterie- celler och deras aktivitet. Studierna visar också att salivpellikeln på implantat spelar en viktig roll för bakteriernas kolonisation och metabolism. Vi föreslår därför att beroende på tillämpningsområde i praktiken, experimentell utvärdering av nya implantatytor ska i så stor sträckning som möjligt innefatta granskning av effekten av ytornas egenskaper på olika vävnadsceller såväl som bakterier i närvaro av vävnadsvätskor.
3.
  • Edman Tynelius, Gudrun (författare)
  • Orthodontic retention: studies of retention capacity, cost-effectiveness and long-term stability
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Retention strategies, cost-effectiveness and long-term stability of treatment outcome are essential aspects of orthodontic treatment planning. The overall aim of this thesis was to compare and evaluate three different retention strategies, with special reference to short- and long-term clinical stability and cost-effectiveness. The approach was evidence-based, hence randomized controlled methodology was used in order to generate high levels of evidence. This thesis is based on four studies: Papers I and II are based on randomized controlled trials, evaluating the stability of treatment outcome after one and two years of retention, using three different retention strategies: a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with a mandibular canine-to-canine retainer; a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with stripping of the mandibular anterior teeth and a prefabricated positioner. Paper III presents a cost-minimization analysis of two years of retention treatment. Paper IV is based on a randomized controlled trial documenting the results five years post-retention. The following conclusions were drawn: Papers I and II • From a clinical perspective, asssessment after one year of retention disclosed that the three retention methods were successful in retaining the orthodontic treatment results.• After two years of retention, all three retention methods were equally effective in controlling relapse at a clinically acceptable level. • Most of the relapse occurred during the first year of retention; only minor or negligible changes were found during the second year. • The subjects were grouped according to the level of compliance (excellent or good). After two years of retention there was a negative correlation between growth in body height and relapse of mandibular LII in the group of subjects with excellent compliance. The group with good compliance showed a positive correlation (Paper II, Figure 3). • After two years of retention, growth in body height, initial crowding and gender had no significant influence on mandibular LII (Paper II, Figure 4 and Table 4). Paper III • The cost minimization analysis disclosed that although the three retention methods achieved clinically similar results, the associated societal costs differed. • After two years of retention, the vacuum-formed retainer (VFR) in combination with a canine-to-canine retainer (CTC) was the least cost-effective retention appliance. Paper IV • After five years or more out of retention, the three retention methods had achieved equally favourable clinical results. Key conclusionsand clinical implications This study compared the short- and long-term outcomes of orthodontic retention by three different methods: a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with a mandibular canine-to-canine retainer; a maxillary vacuum-formed retainer combined with stripping of the mandibular anterior teeth and a prefabricated positioner. All methods gave equally positive clinical results in both the short-term, i.e. after one and two years of retention, and in the long-term, five years or more post-retention. After two years of retention, the level of compliance affected the retention treatment result. However, no such effect was shown for body height, the severity of initial crowding or gender. Today, there is increasing emphasis on the importance of economic aspects of healthcare. Of the three methods evaluated in this study, the least cost-effective, after two years of retention, was a vacuumformed retainer combined with a bonded canine-to-canine retainer. The clinical implication of this finding is that in patients meeting the inclusion criteria, interproximal stripping of the mandibular anterior teeth, or the use of a prefabricated positioner, are highly appropriate alternatives to a mandibular bonded canine-to-canine retainer. The overall conclusions are that there are a number of effective retention methods available and the clinician is not limited to routine use of a bonded mandibular canine-to-canine retainer. The most appropriate retention method should be selected on an individual, case to case basis, taking into account such variables as orthodontic diagnosis, the expected level of patient compliance, patient preferences and financial considerations.
4.
  • Fagerström, Anton (författare)
  • Effects of surfactant adjuvants on plant leaf cuticle barrier properties
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I avhandlingen undersöks växelverkan mellan det yttersta lagret på växters blad (cutikeln), aktiva substanser, och ämnen som tillsätts för att öka bekämpningsmedlens effekt, i detta fall vissa former av tensider. Barriären som hindrar upptag av främmande ämnen i växten sitter i cutikeln. Det är väl känt att tensider förstärker effekten av aktiva substanser. Kunskapen är dock liten om de mekanismer som underlättar upptaget i växtblad. Det övergripande målet i avhandlingen är att öka kunskapen om hur dessa mekanismer verkar. Att klargöra vilka effekter tensider har på cutikeln och hur dessa möjliggör ett ökat upptag av aktiva substanser. Ytterligare ett mål är att bidra till en mer ekologiskt hållbar användning och förnuftig applicering av bekämpningsmedel inom jordbrukssektorn. Det senare av dessa två mål kan uppnås genom att använda den mest effektiva tensiden för respektive bekämpningsmedel, samt det mest effektiva bekämpningsmedlet för respektive växtsort för att på så vis minimera mängden bekämpningsmedel. Men optimering kräver givetvis förståelse. Det övergripande målet har uppnåtts genom kartläggning av vad som sker i växelverkan mellan tensid, vatten och växtblad. Beståndsdelarna som upprätthåller bladets barriäregenskaper beskrivs, samt hur deras smältbeteende och strukturella egenskaper förändras då vatten tillförs och då tensider är närvarande. En ny modell av vaxbarriären i cutikeln etableras och kartläggs. Modellen används till att undersöka de mjukgörande effekterna tensider och vatten har på cutikeln. Hur tensider ordnar sig i en vattenlösning och hur ordningen förändras när vatten avdunstar beskrivs i avhandlingen. Vidare kartläggs hur tensider absorberas i cutikeln och vilka strukturer som påverkas där. Drivkraften för upptag av bekämpningsmedel i växtblad förklaras, hur tensider påverkar drivkraften och vilka egenskaper hos en blandning som påverkar upptaget utrönas. Hur tensider påverkar parametrar i barriären beskrivs också. Dessa parametrar behandlas på ett sätt som gör det möjligt att förklara de effekter som tensider faktiskt har på distributionen av bekämpningsmedel inuti cutikeln. Slutligen så utvärderas formuleringar på intakta växtblad. Detta möjliggör kartläggning över vilka roller mättnadsgraden av bekämpningsmedel i formuleringar samt effekten av tensider på växtblads barriäregenskaper spelar i bladets upptag av bekämpningsmedel. Dessa resultat sammanfattas i en ny algoritm som gör det möjligt att förutse distributionen av bekämpningsmedel i växtblad vid en given blandning. Växter utgör basen för en klart dominerande del av världens sammantagna produktion av livsmedel och djurfoder. De är också en råvara i ett flertal industriella produkter. Då befolkningen ökar och levnadsstandarden förbättras, ökar också efterfrågan på bättre mat och förbrukningsartiklar från växtbas. För att tillgodose efterfrågan strävar producenter och odlare ständigt efter ökad avkastning. Detta uppnås genom ökade odlingsarealer, effektivare användning av befintlig odlingsmark samt skydd mot skadeangrepp på växter. Det sistnämnda kan göras med hjälp av olika bekämpningsmedel som innehåller aktiva substanser. Faktum är att en livsmedelsproduktion på dagens nivå inte hade varit möjlig utan användning av bekämpningsmedel. Dessa ämnen innebär dock risker, användningen är inte fullt optimerad och förståelsen för skeenden och processer i samband med dess användning är i vissa avseenden fortfarande bristfällig.
5.
  • Falk, Magnus (författare)
  • Direct electron transfer based biofuel cells : operating in vitro and in vivo
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I vår moderna värd är vi väldigt beroende av elektrisk energi som vi använder för det mesta i får vardag: för att lysa upp våra hus, generera värme, driva våra datorer och mobiltelefoner och mycket mer. Produktion av elektrisk energi har dock ofta en negativ på-verkan på vår miljö. Ett alternativt sätt att producera elektrik energi är att använda sig av bränsleceller, vilka kan liknas vid öppna batterier som ständigt kan förses med nytt bränsle och således inte behöver bytas ut efter ett tag. Bränslet som används kan väljas så att dess förbrukning inte innebär någon negativ påverkan på miljön. Den här avhandlingen fokuserar sig på en viss typ av bränsleceller, där man använder sig av specifika proteiner, enzymer, för att omvandla energi från bränslet till elektrisk energi. Som bränsle kan vanligt förekommande kolhydrater, dvs. socker, samt syre användas. Socker och syre används även av vår kropp för att skapa energi, och genom att använda sig av rätt sorts enzymer kan även bränsleceller använda sig av dessa ämnen för att producera elektrisk energi. Således är det möjligt för dessa bränsleceller att producera elektrisk energi placerade inuti oss. Dessa biobränsleceller kan sedan användas för att driva t.ex. olika sensorer direkt i vår kropp som kontinuerligt skulle kunna ge information till sjukvården, utan att använda sig av batterier som behöver bytas ut. Avhandlingen är baserad på att undersöka hur olika bränsleceller som använder sig av enzym fungerar samt att testa dem i olika mänskliga kroppsvätskor samt även inuti levande organismer. Genom att öka förståelsen för detta är förhoppningen att bränsleceller baserade på enzym inom en inte allt för avlägsen framtid kan finna tillämpningar som elektriska försörjare för t.ex. självförsörjande biomedicinska sensorer.
6.
  • Finnbogadóttir, Hafrún (författare)
  • Exposure to domestic violence during pregnancy : impact on outcome, midwives’ awareness, women´s experience and prevalence in the south of Sweden
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objective: The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate pregnant women’s history of violence and experiences of domestic violence during pregnancy and to explore the possible association between such violence and various outcome measures as well as background factors. A further aim was to elucidate midwives’ awareness of domestic violence among pregnant women as well as women’s experiences and management of domestic violence during pregnancy. Design/Setting/Population: Paper I utilised material derived from a populationbased multi-centre cohort study. A total of 2652 nulliparous women at nine obstetric departments in Denmark answered a self-administrated questionnaire at 37 weeks of gestation. Among the total sample, 37.1% (985) women met the protocol criteria for labour dystocia. In Paper II an inductive qualitative method was used, based on focus group interviews with sixteen midwives working in antenatal care in southern Sweden who were divided into four focus groups. In Paper III a grounded theory approach was used to develop a theoretical model of ten women’s experiences of intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Paper IV was a cross-sectional study including a cohort of 1939 pregnant women who answered a self-administered questionnaire at their first visit to seventeen ANCs in south-west Scania in Sweden. Results: In paper I, 35.4 % (n = 940) of the total cohort of women reported history of violence, and among these, 2.5 % (n = 66) reported exposure to violence during their first pregnancy. Further, 39.5% (n = 26) of those had never been exposed to violence before. No associations were found between history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy and labour dystocia at term. However, among those women consuming alcoholic beverages during late pregnancy, women exposed to violence had increased odds of labour dystocia (crude OR 1.49, CI: 1.07 – 2.07) compared to women who were unexposed to violence. In Paper II, an overarching category ‘Failing both mother and the unborn baby’ highlighted the vulnerability of the unborn baby and the need to provide protection for the unborn baby by means of adequate care to the pregnant woman. Also, the analysis yielded five categories: 1) ‘Knowledge about ‘the different faces’ of violence’ 2) ‘Identified and visible vulnerable groups’, 3) ‘Barriers towards asking the right questions’, 4) ‘Handling the delicate situation’ and 5) ‘The crucial role of the midwife’. In Paper III, the analysis of the empirical data formed a theoretical model, and the core category, ‘Struggling to survive for the sake of the unborn baby’, constituted the main concerns of women who were exposed to IPV during pregnancy. The core category also demonstrated how the survivors handled their situation. Three sub-core categories were identified that were properties of the core category; these were: ‘Trapped in the situation’, ‘Exposed to mastery’ and ‘Degradation processes’. In Paper IV, ‘history of violence’ was reported by 39.5% (n = 761) of the women. Prevalence of experience of domestic violence during pregnancy, regardless of type or level of abuse, was 1.0 % (n = 18), and prevalence of history of physical abuse by actual intimate partner was 2.2 % (n = 42). The strongest factor associated with domestic violence during pregnancy was history of violence (p < 0.001). The presence of several symptoms of depression was associated with a 7-fold risk of domestic violence during pregnancy (OR 7.0; 95% CI: 1.9-26.3). Conclusions: Our findings indicated that nulliparous women who have a history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy do not appear to have a higher risk of labour dystocia at term, according to the definition of labour dystocia used in this study. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial, including further evaluation of the criteria for labour dystocia (Paper I). Avoidance of questions concerning the experience of violence during pregnancy may be regarded as failing not only the pregnant woman but also the unprotected and unborn baby. Still, certain hindrances must be overcome before the implementation of routine enquiry concerning pregnant women’s experiences of violence (Paper II). The theoretical model “Struggling to survive for the sake of the unborn baby” highlights survival as the pregnant women’s main concern and explains their strategies for dealing with experiences of violence during pregnancy. The findings may provide a deeper understanding of this complex matter for midwives and other health care professionals (Paper III). The reported prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy in southwest Scania in Sweden is low. Both history of violence and the presence of several depressive symptoms detected in early pregnancy may indicate that the woman also is exposed to domestic violence during pregnancy (Paper IV).
7.
  • Hedenbjörk Lager, Anders (författare)
  • Dentine caries: acid tolerant microorganisms and aspects on collagen degradation
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Karies är en stor folksjukdom, trots att den både kan förebyggas och behandlas effektivt. Om man inte ingriper preventivt och låter det naturliga förloppet råda, kommer kariesangreppet till slut att bryta igenom emaljen och involvera även den underliggande dentinvävnaden. Kariessjukdomen orsakas av orala mikroorganismer, som en konsekvens av dessas nedbrytning av kostrelaterade kolhydrater. Som en biprodukt bildas då syror som löser upp (demineraliserar tandvävnaden), så att synliga hål till slut bildas. Syran kan lösa upp mineralfasen i tanden, men dentin består även till stor del av kollagen, vilket inte kan lösas upp av enbart syror. Man hänförde länge detta till proteinnedbrytande bakterier, men det har visat sig att munhålebakterierna inte har förmågan att lösa upp kollagen, och man tror nu att denna nedbrytning sker med hjälp av kroppsegna enzymer, bland annat matrix metalloproteinaser (MMP). De biologiska mekanismerna bakom kollagennedbrytning vid dentinkaries är emellertid dåligt undersökta, och delar av denna rapport (Studie III och IV) inriktar sig därför på detta område. Syran som bakterierna bildar skapar också en sur närmiljö för dem själva, vilket gör det svårt för dem att överleva, särskilt i ett begränsat utrymme som ett kariesangrepp. Man har länge ansett att endast vissa specifika bakterier har förmågan att leva och trivas i sura miljöer, men nya studier har ifrågasatt detta. I denna rapport (Studie II) undersöks även förekomsten av syratåliga bakterier på olika nivåer i dentinkariesangrepp med hjälp av en ny metod. Målet vid avlägsnande av karies är att ta bort fullständigt förstörd tandvävnad, men att försöka spara så mycket som möjligt av den delvis skadade vävnaden, vilken kan återställas. Detta har också aktualiserats då nya operativa principer och material lanserats under den senaste tioårsperioden. Det är emellertid svårt att avgöra var gränsen går kliniskt, och ett sätt att mäta dentinets ”friskhet” kan vara att mäta antalet bakterier i vävnaden. I den första rapporten (Studie I) undersöks den kvarvarande bakterieförekomsten efter kariesborttagning med två olika operativa metoder. Avhandlingen söker svar på följande frågeställningar: Studie I. Finns det några skillnader vad gäller antal kvarvarande bakterier efter dentinkariesavlägsnande med mekanisk (vanligt borr) eller kemo-mekanisk (Carisolv) metod? Studie II. Hur ser sammansättningen av den syratåliga bakteriefloran ut på tre olika nivåer i olika dentinkariesangrepp? Studie III. Finns det något samband mellan förekomsten av etablerade kariesangrepp och nivåerna av enzymet MMP-8 och dess nedreglerande protein TIMP-1 i saliv? Studie IV. Kan man framställa demineraliserat dentinmatrix med bibehållen biologisk aktivitet inför framtida studier av mekanismerna bakom nedbrytning av kollagen vid dentinkaries? Vad händer spontant med detta demineraliserade dentinmatrix över tid? Huvudfynden i studierna är: 1. Båda metoderna för att avlägsna dentinkaries minskade bakterieantalet radikalt. Det finns dock alltid kvar små mängder av bakterier i kaviteten. 2. Alla de undersökta kaviteterna hade en unik sammansättning av syratåliga bakterier, både till typ och antal, vilket indikerar att ett flertal olika bakterier har förmågan att anpassa sig till sura miljöer och potentiellt bidra till kariesutvecklingen. Vidare, fungerade de pH-specifika odlingsmedierna väl för att få fram de syratåliga bakterierna, något som är svårt med konventionella metoder. 3. Försökspersoner med etablerade dentinkariesangrepp uppvisade mycket högre förekomst av MMP-8 i saliven jämfört med kariesfria försökspersoner. Det nedreglerande proteinet TIMP-1 uppvisade inga samband alls. 4. Dentinmatrix framställt med båda testmetoderna uppvisade förekomst av intakt kollagen, samt aktivt MMP-8. Vidare så uppvisades en spontan nedbrytning av kollagen över tid, vilket tolkades som mestadels ett resultat av det aktiva MMP-8 enzymet. De nyvunna grundkunskaperna bildar underlag för nya studier inom forskningsområdet, samt för nya behandlingsmetoder, framför allt sådana som skulle kunna moderera eller förhindra dentinkariesprogression.
8.
  • Hobye, Mads (författare)
  • Designing for Homo Explorens : open social play in performative frames
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Designing for Homo Explorens is a compositional design perspective within interaction design academia. It extends the Homo Ludens view of humans as playful creatures with the perspective of exploratory interaction. It focuses on socially exploratory interaction between participants mediated through designed artifacts. In the form of a Manifesto, four aspects are introduced which highlight important design dimensions to consider in Designing for Homo Explorens. The four aspects of the Manifesto are concerned with creating exploration through internal complexity, experiential exploration through full-body interaction, social playfulness through distortions of situated norms and a frame for performative interactions. The insights in the four aspects come from knowledge gained through experimenting with twelve working prototypes in real-life contexts, combined with contemporary streams of theory regarding ambiguity, somaesthetics, norms, situatedness and performativity.
9.
  • Holmberg, Ylva (författare)
  • Musikskap. Musikstunders didaktik i förskolepraktiker
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Studiens syfte är att genom ett didaktiskt närmande beskriva och analysera musikstunder i förskolepraktiker. Studiens syfte är också att på en vetenskaplig grund spåra och utpröva begrepp som kan beteckna och fånga musikstundernas figuration, i detta fall en beskrivning av fenomenet som leder till ett didaktiskt begrepp. Som teoretisk resurs prövas begrepp inom ramen för musikdidaktisk teori, bildningsteori och musicking-teori. Empiri har genererats genom videoobservation på tre anonymiserade förskolor, en dag i veckan under åtta månader. Det har genererat 46 filmade musikstunder. Ett centrerat innehåll under musikstunderna, handlar främst om lärande i och med musik, mindre om och genom musik. Musikstundernas innehåll framstår som sporadisk och fragmentarisk, musik för stunden, men också som spontant improviserad musik i stunden. En del av till exempel musikens grundelement bearbetas. Musikstunden kan tolkas röra sig mellan en materiell och formell bildningsteori. Ibland är musiken som objekt i fokus, ibland är barnen i fokus, men musikstunder där pedagogerna fokuserar på samspelet mellan musiken och barnen, ett arbete i enlighet med en kategoriell teori är mindre ofta framträdande. Iscensättande handlar sammanfattningsvis om att musikstundernas igångspel och avslut ibland sker genom musik, men för det mesta sker det i form av talad instruktion (mer eller mindre lekfullt). Sång är ofta av reproducerande karaktär, instrumentspel är oftast av improviserande karaktär och rörelsen har såväl reproducerande som improviserande karaktär. För att synliggöra aktörskap i musikstunderna har jag spårat aktörerna, eller som jag i detta musikpedagogiska sammanhang kallar för spelare. Spelarna, det vill säga barnen, pedagogerna och musiken kan tolkas ha olika former av aktörskap, de kan vara igångsättande solister, medspelare, samspelare och/eller motspelare. Genom avhandlingsarbetet formuleras och prövas även musikskap som konstrueras som en resurs för reflektion kring musikstunder. Musikskap, där musiken är en länk i en sammanflätad process, säger sammanhållet något om vad som händer i musikstunder som figuration. Begreppet påverkas även av en mer övergripande syn på vad musik görs till och vad pedagogerna lägger sitt fokus på så som musiken, barn/process eller mötet. Musikskap kan sägas ha tre spår, vilka fokuserar musikstundernas innehåll, form och aktörskap. Den innehållsliga dimensionen handlar om möjliggörande att lära i, om, med och genom musik. Den formmässiga dimensionen handlar om ett iscensättande av musikstundens process, olika aktiviteter, form och tillvägagångssätt. Den tredje dimensionen fokuserar hur det, under musikstunden inte enbart är barnen och pedagogerna som är aktörer, utan även musiken har med sin kraft att påverka aktörskap. Begreppet musikskap koncentreras till att handla om • innehåll som rörelse mellan linjär och icke-linjär riktning. Mellan innehåll som objekt och innehåll som rörelse i riktning, ej fastställt innehåll och rörliga mål. • iscensättande där musik och form för musikstundens aktiviteter (sång, spel och rörelse) varieras i samspel mellan exempelvis reproducerande och improviserande form. • aktörskap i rörelse mellan olika spelare, igång-, med-, sam- och motspelare. Musikstunden som nätverk bestående av aktörer, där alla tre aktörerna, barnen, pedagogerna och musiken har aktörskap. Musikskap kan ses som något som öppnar upp för ett sätt att kritiskt och möjligen även kreativt förhålla sig till musikstunder, inriktat på process och ständig tillblivelse som en form av musikrelaterad gestaltning. En sammanfogning för både frigörande och styrande relationer i nätverk. Ett begrepp som rör sig mellan det faktiska och det som möjligen kan bli, öppnande för analys av och förståelse för musikstunder.
10.
  • Jevinger, Åse (författare)
  • Toward intelligent goods: characteristics, architectures and applications
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In the context of globalization, the requirements on transport logistics continuously rise. Often goods travel through many different countries, using several transport modes and involving a number of different actors. Implementing some level of intelligence on the goods, which provide them with the capabilities to assist in the logistical activities, is one of the instruments that can be used to improve control and efficiency in transports and goods-handling. The concept of intelligent goods both opens up for new types of services and may be used to improve currently available services. The research is mainly focused on the characteristics, possible architectures, and applications of intelligent goods systems. In this context, an intelligent goods system refers to a number of interacting components, e.g. on-board units, servers, and RFID tags, which together provide intelligent goods services. Intelligent goods refer to goods with a higher degree of intelligence than just providing the ID of the goods, and generally the concept involve information processing and/or storage on or close to the goods, acting on behalf of the goods throughout the whole transport. The purpose of the studies is to investigate how intelligent goods can be used to improve goods transports in terms of more efficient goods-handling as well as better control of the goods and the transportation process, but also in terms of more efficient information sharing, e.g. between different actors. This may in turn provide reduced costs, environmental impact and usage of infrastructure. The research is concentrated on the communication and processing of information before, during and after transport. Most of the research results are applicable to ii goods transport by any mode, whereas some of the research has an emphasis on road transport. A framework is presented which can be used to describe intelligent goods systems, including the capabilities of the goods, necessary information entities related to the goods, as well as a number of primitive services that can be used as building blocks when creating more advanced intelligent goods services. Furthermore, a new approach to service description is proposed, which can be used to, amongst others, define an intelligent goods service and to perform architecture analyses. By identifying architectures corresponding to different service solutions, intelligent goods can be compared with other types of solutions, for instance more centralized approaches. In particular, different situations and services put different requirements on a system and the benefits of using intelligent goods vary. In order to investigate how intelligent goods may be applied in practice, two services have been examined in more detail: a dynamic shelf- life prediction service, and a consignment-level emission allocation service. These studies involve field tests, interviews and simulations. Finally, an investigation of how intelligent goods systems can be modelled as multi-agent systems is also included.
11.
  • Kouns, Maria (författare)
  • Beskriv med ord : fysiklärare utvecklar språkinriktad undervisning på gymnasiet
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This doctoral thesis investigatef and describes the design process of two physics teachers and myself in developing and trying out language based learning activities in a first year physics course in two classes in ml urban high school in Sweden. The design process, which goes on for almost three semesters, and these activities are seen as an intervention into the two physics teachers' teaching practice with the aim of contributing to learning and improved practice for them, and in turn, to improved learning of physics for their students. The research questions relate to the design process1 the teachers' teaching repertoire, and to the students' speaking and writing as part of the language based lenrning activities. The background of the thesis is an increased need to high light and to take into account linguistic factors in content area teaching for the reason of linguistic heterogeneity within the student body. Linguistic diversity refers to students having another first langungc tlmn Swedish, the langunge of instruction, and to students being more or less familiar with the specialized academic language used in formal education. The overall theoretical perspective is socio•culturnl, placing an emphasis on language as a mediating tool for meaning-making in situated practices. The empirical mnlerinl mainly consists of field notes and audio recordings from observations of the physics teaching and from the weekly planning meetings but also of sludent texts and audio recordings of students' small group conversations. The teacher group develops nnd tries a number of language centered learning activities1 and their objectives are stated in terms of language tasks to be performed with a specific content. Even though the design process is a collaborative effort, the two physics teachers show difthences in two areas: a) emphasizing speaking or writing aS the main mediating tool in the learning activities, b) creating activities where the students' knowledge construction is either more of a putting together and presenting the content or more of on unpacking and trying it out. This diftercncc might be seen as placing an emphasis on the process towards the goal versus placing it on the film! goal. The student conversations in small groups are oriented towards the content and the topic of the assignment, and they arc cooperative. They also tend to be a matter of accumulating knowledge more than exploring knowledge, which means that criHcal and explorntive features are less prominent The student texts can be seen either ns independent texts or satellite texts, the former intending to state knowledge conclusively while the latter intend to support conversf"ltions. The teacher group tend to plan language centered learning activities towards the end of a content area, and the activities are seen as most relevnnt at points where a move to a more abstract level of knowledge is required. The activities gain a formative function in the teaching process.
12.
  • Lamberg, Peter (författare)
  • Design and characterization of direct electron transfer based biofuel cells including tests in cell cultures
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs) are bioelectronic devices based on redox enzymes, which convert chemical energy into electrical energy via biochemical reactions. A major difficulty to overcome is to successfully connect (using e.g., immobilization) the enzymes to the electrode surface. Since the immobilization process often stabilizes the enzyme, the electrode surface and the enzyme/electrode interface is of utmost importance for both the efficiency and stability of the EFC. In this work several different means of establishing the enzyme/electrode connection have been investigated. In order to construct a device that utilizes direct electron transfer the electrode surfaces were modified with nanostructures and, in some designs, self-assembled monolayers of thiols. The performance of the electrodes was evaluated by electrochemical methods, including potential sweeps and chronopotentiometry. Catalytic constants could be calculated mathematically by combining electrochemical methods with surface characterization methods, such as quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and ellipsometry. All the fuel cells covered by this thesis are based on direct electron transfer processes. All designs also oxidize carbohydrates and reduce oxygen using cellobiose dehydrogenase and multi-copper oxidase, respectively. Our results revealed that the use of particular thiol had the capability to electrically connect cellobiose dehydrogenase to the electrode, equalling the commonly used two-thiol system. Both designs reached similar current densities, Le., about 20 jiA cm 2 with 5 mM lactose and the enzyme immobilized on thiolated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Both Bilirubin oxidase and Trichaptum abietinum Laccase could be directly immobilized on gold nanoparticles and current densities of up to 180 pA cm 2 were achieved. The 9- fold difference in currents with BOx and CDH reveals that the bioanode in this system requires more improvement to match the biocathode in performance. Upon doser inspection of the biointerface as regards the bioanode, it was concluded that a positive charge on the thiol was needed to create a direct (electric) contact between CDH and the electrode surface. Furthermore, the catalytic currents were nearly halved when the charged groups on the thiol were further modified with methyl groups. Biocompatibility of an implantable EFC design was evaluated using cell cultures of mammal cells, which was the first study of its kind. Toxicology tests revealed toxic by-products from the bioanode previously not reported in EFCs implanted in animals. The currents of the EFC was reduced by about half in cell culturing medium (10 1.1A cm') compared to PBS solutions, and was even more drastically reduced upon direct contact with fibroblast cells (1 jiA cm').
13.
  • Leisnert, Leif (författare)
  • Self-directed learning, teamwork, holistic view and oral health
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The dental program at the Malmö dental school, the so called Malmö-model, is guided by four linked principles: self-directed learning, teamwork, a holistic view of patient care, and oral health (Fig.1). Figure 1. The four guiding principles of problem based learning at TVH, Malmö. Self-assessment ability is a critical competence for healthcare professionals, necessary for the successful adaptation to the modern life-long learning environment. Educational research seems to point out two critical factors for the development of such skills, continuous practice of self-assessment (1) and constructive feedback (2). The first study (3) presented in this publication assessed students’ self-assessment ability by means of the Interactive Examination in a cohort of senior dental students, who had gone through an identical assessment procedure during their second year of studies (4). The results indicated that self-assessment ability was not directly relevant to subject knowledge. Upon graduation, there were a number of students (10%) with significant self-assessment difficulties. Early detection of students with weak self-assessment abilities appears possible to achieve. The aim of the second study, concerning teamwork and holistic view (5), was to investigate if highlighting teamwork between dental and dental hygienist students could improve the students’ holistic view on patients, as well as their knowledge of, and insight into, each other's future professions. Thus, this project showed that by initiating teamwork between dental and dental hygienist students, it was possible to increase students’ knowledge on dental hygienists competence, develop students’ perceived holistic view on patients, and prepare students for teamwork. The third study explored findings clinicians use when diagnosing chronic periodontitis. A questionnaire was distributed to students, dental teachers and clinical supervisors in the Public Dental Services. Within all categories of clinicians, the majority of the clinicians used deepened pocket, bone loss on x-rays, and bleeding. There were differences in the use of findings between the categories of clinicians. None of the supervisors used attachment loss as a finding, while 13% to 27% of the other categories of clinicians used this finding. A higher frequency of dental hygienist students used plaque, calculus and pus, compared to the other categories. Dental hygienist students used more findings as compared to the other categories of clinicians. Fifty-eight of the 76 clinicians used each finding solitarily, i.e. one at a time, and not in combination to diagnose chronic periodontitis. However, about a third of the dental students and the supervisors only used findings either from the soft tissue inflammation subgroup or the loss of supporting tissue subgroup. With the exception of the dental teachers, the majority of clinicians within each category used irrelevant findings. The third study (6) gave valuable information when designing the fourth study (7). The In the fourth study, a questionnaire was distributed to 2,440 professional clinicians, i.e. dentists and dental hygienists in public and private activity, and dental students at the Dental school in Malmö. The results showed that two groups, representing dentists and dental hygienists delivering basic periodontal care in Sweden, were to a significant degree not sharing the knowledge basis for diagnosis and treatment planning. This may result in a less optimal utilization of resources in Swedish dentistry. The delivery of basic periodontal care was not in line with the severity of disease and too much attention was paid to the needs of relatively healthy persons. To change this pattern, the incentives in, and structure of, the national assurance system need to be adapted in order to stimulate a better inter-collegial cooperation between dentists and dental hygienists in basic periodontal care.
14.
  • Lilja, Peter (författare)
  • Negotiating Teacher Professionalism. On the Symbolic Politics of Sweden's Teacher Unions
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this thesis is to critically investigate and problematize the Swedish Teacher Unions’ use of the concept of professionalism within the political negotiation of how to ascribe meaning and content to the idea of teacher professionalism within contemporary Swedish education debates. Departing from two recent educational reforms – the certification of teachers and the reformation of teacher education – and using theories from the sociology of professions coupled with an institutional approach to the study of organizations this study analyzes how the Teacher Unions construct professional projects in relation to each other as well as in relation to the reforms of the current Ministry of Education. Viewing professionalism as an institutional logic, it investigates the different strategies employed by the two Unions and considers their effects on the overall professional ambitions of Sweden’s Teacher Unions. By doing so it highlights the complexities facing occupational organizations – such as unions – as they engage in political struggles over how the meaning ascribed to concepts like professionalism is negotiated. In this sense, the Unions are to be considered institutional actors using the idea of professionalism in order to promote their own ideas of how the future development of the teaching profession may best serve the interests of their members. The study is based on analyses of public Union documents, as they are considered the best way to access the "public voice" of the two organizations. The primary material consists of referrals in which the Unions respond to the suggestions of governmentally appointed public commissions suggesting how certain political initiatives are to be realized. In addition to these formal statements, debate articles by (primarily) the Union chairs are also included in the analyses in order to provide a sense of how the Unions place their policies in relation to the overall education policy debates of Sweden. The textual analyses draw on the ideas of "policy sociology" as sociological concepts are used to interpret and understand the policies of the Unions. It is not an analysis for policy, in the sense that it is aimed at providing the Unions with strategies for how they are best to accomplish their policy objectives, but rather a critical analysis of the policies they employ and how these can be understood in the context where they arise. A central argument of the study is that the fact that Swedish teachers are organized in two different Unions complicates the formulation of a common professional project on behalf of Swedish teachers in general. This is because the two Unions, though united in their wish to turn teaching into a "proper" profession, are constructing their professional projects from opposing points of departure, resulting in a process of intraprofessional boundary work, originating from the historical tension between different teacher categories. As a result of the internal struggles between the two Teacher Unions the position of Swedish teachers in general becomes weak in relation to national educational policy makers. As the Unions are forced to compete for political influence in order to gain support for their own policies, their professional projects become dependent upon the political system in general. The overall conclusion to be drawn from the study is that the idea of teacher professionalization in the context of Swedish educational policy making is a decidedly political process, somewhat removed or de-coupled from the everyday practice of Swedish teachers. As a consequence, the Unions are, above all, using the concept of professionalism as a symbolic resource by which to create legitimacy for their efforts of increasing the social status of teaching in society.
15.
  • Lindh, Anders (författare)
  • "Unity pervades all activity as water every wave" : principal teachings and philosophy of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The major purpose of this thesis is to investigate some essential aspects of the teachings and philosophy of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (1917-2008) expressed during different periods of time. There is a primary focus on the teachings expressed in Maharishi’s translation and commentary on the didactic poem, Bhagavadgītā, with extensive references to Maharishi’s metaphorical language. The philosophy and teaching expressed in this text is investigated in relation to later texts. Since maybe the most significant and most propagated message of Maharishi was his peace message, its theory and practice, as well as studies published regarding the so-called Maharishi Effect, are reflected in the thesis. Maharishi’s philosophy and teachings are analysed using three categories: 1. Vision and Tradition, as Maharishi could be considered on the one hand, a custodian of the ancient Vedic tradition and is associated with the Advaita Vedānta tradition of Śaṅkara from his master. On the other hand, Maharishi could be considered an innovator of this tradition and a visionary in his interpretation of the Vedic texts in relation to modern science. 2. Consciousness and Experience are central concepts in the teachings of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, as well as the relationship between them, which is evidenced by their use in Maharishi’s writing and lecturing. 3. Practice before Theory is a concept used because of the numerous instances in Maharishi’s philosophy and teaching indicating that he put practice before theory for spiritual development. The practice of Transcendental Meditation and the advanced TM-Sidhi programme is according to Maharishi in his vision of a better society most essential and he considered the application of a practice forgotten in many interpretations of texts like the Bhagavadgītā. The thesis thus considers Maharishi’s view on “Veda” and the “Vedic literature”, and on the Self, Ātmā, which could be considered the single most important concept in Maharishi’s world of ideas on which his entire teaching is based.
16.
  • Lindström, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Patchworking publics-in-the-making : design, media and public engagement
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This is a collaborative practice-based thesis by publication written across two disciplines: interaction design, and media and communication studies. Based on Threads – a Mobile Sewing Circle, a travelling exhibition in which participants are invited to embroider an SMS by hand and with an embroidery machine connected to a mobile phone, this thesis puts forward the concept of publics-in-the-making. The potentialities of publics-in-the-making is explored through the figuration of patchworking. Patchworking has, for example, been used in the writing of this thesis and in the composition of Threads. As a method, patchworking ways of knowing should be understood as a response to a widespread call across disciplines for new ways of knowing mess and complexities in technological society. We are in dialogue here especially with those engaged with new feminist materialism, the material turn, and posthumanities. More specifically, patchworking ways of knowing means knowing through collective interventions and staying with such interventions. In this thesis patchworking is used to explore and speculate on the potentialities of publics-in-the-making, publics that emerge out of making things together, in which actors and issues are not pre-set but in the making. This kind of public engagement in issues of living with technologies is proposed as part of a larger repertoire of designerly public engagement that happens within participatory design, media archaeology, critical making and speculative design. Drawing on American pragmatism and feminist technoscience, we argue that everyday living with technologies makes us entangled and implicated in diverse issues characterised by multiple uncertainties. Given that it is not always possible to know what the concern is, who is concerned, and how it could be addressed, making is explored both in terms of its potential to bring humans and nonhumans together, and as a mode of engaging with issues related to living with technologies. Publics-in-the-making is thereby put forward as publics that gather because of a shared area of curiosity, rather than an emergency, and where issues are co-articulated in the making. While these co-articulated issues are rarely resolved, we argue that the making in Threads becomes a way of practising caring curiosity towards ongoing and emerging issues related to living with technologies. Publics-in-the-making should not be understood as an argument against other kinds of public engagement, but as complementary, since all handle different aspects of living with technologies. In line with most practice-based research, we argue that method and that which is explored cannot be separated. This means that method and problem emerge together, or are made together. In this case the patchworking ways of knowing have been used to speculate on and to explore potentialities of publics-in-the-making. The patchworking of Threads is thereby both the method and that which is explored and speculated upon. Through patchworking publics-in-the-making we build on and contribute to re-patternings and re-imaginations of interaction design and communication studies through a turn to feminist technoscience. We are thus able to explore multiple temporalities, issues of linearity and discreteness, and concerns around human-centeredness - as well as the ethics of such boundary-making. This thesis works simultaneously with several temporalities: that which is at hand, as well as that which is yet to come.
17.
  • Magnusson, Petra, 1963- (författare)
  • Meningsskapandets möjligheter multimodal teoribildning och multiliteracies i skolan
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis concerns the changing predispositions and conditions for contemporary meaning-making in school education. From a socio-cultural perspective, multimodal theory formation is used to find suitable tools and concepts for developing teaching and learning. The overall aims are to investigate and conceptualize meaning-making in school in the frame ofmultimodal theory. Firstly, the research questions are concerned with how teachers work with written; paper-based, expository texts, and secondly, with students' meaning-making, working with meaning-offerings from different modes and media. This is followed by questions surrounding the predispositions for a multimodal view in the Swedish curriculum outline. Finally, the consequences for the role of fiction in education, using multimodal theory formation as a framework are addressed. The thesis presents two empirical studies which investigate meaning-making in upper secondary education, followed by critical discussions of the cmTiculum outline and the role of fiction. The empirical data was collected using methods inspired by ethnography in classes taking social sciences and media courses. The analyses were inspired by multimodal research, and the main analytical tools consist of a discourse framework and model inspired by Roz IvaniC, the Leaming Design Sequence developed by Staffon Selander, the wheel of multimodality and the pedagogy of multiliteracies, both developed by the New London Group and Bill Cope and :Mary Kalantzis. The first study focuses on the teachers' perspective in trying to develop students' meaning-making through written, paper-based expository texts. Analyses within the discourse framework and design layer model are used to describe the teachers' practical theory. The wheel ofmultimodality is used to differentiate the meaning-offerings used in class, and the pedagogy of multiliteracies is used to describe and analyze the discussions in groups and with the teacher. Results highlight three major possibilities for working with written, paper-based expository texts: a vvider view on meaning-making, meaning-offerings encompassing several modes and media, and the teacher's modeling ofthe reading through discussion. The second study describes and analyzes meaning-making and design in learning \vith meaning-offerings from different modes and media from the students' perspective. The analytical tools are the wheel of multimodality, the Learning Design Sequence and the further-developed pedagogy of multiliteracies. Results show a similarity in meaning-making regardless of mode and media, staiiing with the visual mode and with the students focusing their efforts on comprehending the meaning-offering. This can be explained by lack of clarity and lack of guidance which are seen as obstacles for learning. The discussions surrounding the curriculum outline and the role of fiction show that, in using a multimodal theory formation frame, the curriculum does not explicitly support a multimodal view on meaning-making and that fiction can not be seen as unique due to neither mode nor media. The results suggest that multimodal theory formation gives access to tools that are useful in developing students' meaning-making according to the predispositions and conditions oftoday, in which reading development is viewed as part of developing meaning-making as a who lei and that meaning-making in school should be based on a non-hierarchical and inclusive view on modes and media to create a readiness and a flexibility to meet demands of a rapidly-changing society. As a consequence, the curriculum outline needs to be reworded and the role of fiction in education needs to be problematized.
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18.
  • Papia, Evaggelia (författare)
  • Micromechanical retention and chemical bonding to polycrystalline dental ceramics : studies on aluminum oxide and stabilized zirconium dioxide.
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Det pågår en ständig utveckling av olika dentala material avsedda för att ersätta förlorad tandsubstans. En materialgrupp som är särskilt intressant är höghållfasta keramiska material, oxidkeramer så som yttriumdioxidstabiliserad tetragonal polykristallin zirkoniumdioxid (Y-TZP). Förutom utveckling av material, är en av de större utmaningarna att få tandersättningar att sitta fast i munnen på ett vävnadsbesparande sätt. Vid traditionell cementeringsteknik, fästs tandstödda ersättningar med vattenbaserade cement, vars vidhäftning dels är beroende av att tänderna slipas i syfte att skapa en geometrisk form för att åstadkomma makromekanisk retention och dels av ytstrukturen på tand och tandersättning som skapas under processen och utgör mikromekanisk retention. I kliniska situationer med otillräcklig makromekanisk retention kan det vara nödvändigt att använda adhesiv cementeringsteknik. En förutsättning för en tillförlitlig adhesiv bindning mellan tandersättning, cement och befintlig tand är mikromekanisk retention och resinbaserade cement som möjliggör en kemisk bindning. Det senare har visat sig vara svårt och oförutsägbart att uppnå för oxidkeramer. Olika tekniker för modifiering av oxidkeramers cementeringsyta har föreslagits för att möjliggöra adhesiv cementeringsteknik. Övergripande mål med föreliggande avhandlingsarbete var att utveckla och utvärdera metoder för att modifiera polykristallina keramers yta och därigenom möjliggöra kombinerad mekanisk och kemisk bindning mellan oxidkeramer och adhesiva cementsystem. I delarbete I utvärderades bindningsstyrkan mellan olika adhesiva cementsystem och en tätsintrad aluminiumoxidbaserad keram. Två av sex undersökta cementsystem uppvisade acceptabel bindning till aluminiumoxid. Valet av ytbehandling på oxidkeramen bör baseras på vilket cementsystem som ska användas. I delarbete II presenterades och utvärderades en ny framställningsteknik för ytmodifierad Y-TZP, lämpad för adhesiv cementeringsteknik. Ytmodifieringen visade ökad mikrostruktur och högre bindningsstyrka jämfört med obehandlad Y-TZP. Uppföljning gjordes i delarbete IV med ytterligare ytanalyser och hållfasthetstest. En kemisk sammansättning med glas och monoklin fas identifierades med ökad ytråhet. Ytmodifieringen med glasmedium resulterade i lägre hållfasthet som dock ökade i samband med cementering. Delarbete III var en systematisk litteraturöversikt med syfte att inventera olika metoder för ytbehandling/modifiering av oxidkeramer och utvärdera vilka av dessa som ger kliniskt relevant bindningsstyrka. Indelningen av de olika ytbehandlingarna var: fabriksproducerad, slipad/polerad, sandblästrad, ytmodifierad med olika typer av täckande lager, laser-, syra- och primerbehandlad. Sandblästring eller kiseltäckning av cementeringsytan kombinerat med primer utmärkte sig med högre värden på bindningsstyrkan, något som dock ännu inte blivit bekräftat i kliniska studier. Det finns ingen universell ytbehandling. Valet av ytbehandlingar bör baseras på vilket material som ska användas. Sammanfattningsvis visar resultaten i avhandlingen att olika ytbehandlingar av oxidkeramer, i synnerlighet ytmodifiering med glasmedium, kan öka bindningsstyrkan mellan keram och adhesivt cementsystem. All ytbehandling påverkar dock materialets egenskaper och slutligen tandersättningen. Valet av ytbehandling bör göras utifrån specifika materialval, avseende både keram och respektive cementsystem.
19.
  • Richert, Torkel (författare)
  • Överdoser, försörjningsstrategier och riskhantering : livsvillkor för personer som injicerar narkotika
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • People who inject illegal drugs constitute a vulnerable group in society. Their vulnerability can partly be explained by the negative consequences of the drug use itself and the particular risks associated with injecting, but also by society’s negative view of, and harsh attitude towards, drug users. Injection drug use is a relatively understudied topic in Sweden. The overall aim of this dissertation is to examine life circumstances of people who inject heroin or amphetamines. The dissertation is based on two research projects at Malmö University and includes interviews with a total of over two hundred visitors at the needle exchange program in Malmö as well as focus group discussions with twenty-seven heroin users in treatment. The first project focus on women who use the needle exchange program and on their social situation, income strategies, experience of treatment and care, as well as on their wishes for further societal assistance. The results present a picture of a very heterogeneous group of women, in which most differ from the stereotypical image of the female injection drug user as homeless, destitute, marginalized, and primarily dependent on men or prostitution for their livelihood and access to drugs. Most women were active in the drug economy, they obtained most of the drugs they used on their own, and they supported their drug purchases through both formal and informal sources of income. A small group, mainly women who primarily use heroin, described a very vulnerable and marginalized existence with insecure housing and incomes restricted to dealing, stealing or sex-work. The vast majority of the interviewed women did wish for some sort of societal support in order to change their situation. Most requests involved substance abuse treatment. More than anything, heroin users wished for better access to opioid substitution treatment. Many women also wanted access to women-only treatment facilities. Not all women, though, saw their drug use as problematic or intended to stop using illegal drugs. Some saw society’s poor treatment of drug users and the “repressive” drug policy as a greater problem than the drug use itself. The second research project focus on heroin overdoses. The aim of the project was to gain further knowledge on why overdoses occur, a greater understanding of how heroin users interpret and handle the overdoses of others, as well as to discuss potential interventions to reduce the number of overdose deaths in Sweden. The results showed that the interviewed heroin users generally had good knowledge about overdose risks. Different circumstances, however, caused restricted possibilities to avoid overdose risks or meant that risks were seen as minor compared to the potential gains of drug use. The desire for a powerful high, experience of severe withdrawal symptoms, an unsafe environment, mental ill health, and an “unbearable life situation”, were examples of factors associated with an increased risk of overdoses. Those heroin users who had been present at someone else’s overdose generally had a positive attitude towards assisting the victim, and their actions were often life-saving. However, a number of factors such as the witness’s own intoxication or lack of knowledge of lifesaving measures, as well as fear of police involvement in some cases, led to inadequate responses to overdoses. The interviewees’ accounts point to the need for a more diverse and accessible drug abuse and addiction treatment model but also to the need for interventions that aim to reduce vulnerability and improve life circumstances and health for persons who, for various reasons, continue to use illegal drugs. The results also reveal the need for interventions that improve heroin users’ possibilities for safer drug use, as well as the importance of increasing their potential for helping other heroin users who overdose.
20.
  • Seravalli, Anna (författare)
  • Making Commons : attempts at composing prospects in the opening of production
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis accounts for a designerly inquiry into the swamp of the opening of production. The “opening of production” refers to the rising of openness, collaboration and sharing in processes through which things are made and service delivered. It is defined as a swamp, because it represents a complex landscape where theory and practice meet and where diverse views and understanding of what openness, collaboration and sharing may entail are intertwined. The interest in exploring such a swamp stems from two concerns. The first is understanding the nature of open, collaborative, sharing production practices and to what extent they can lead to more environmentally and socially sustainable ways of producing things and delivering services. The second concern is how, as a designer, it might be possible to engage in not only envisioning and prototyping, but also in constructing open, collaborative, sharing-production practices. In methodological terms, this thesis uses a programmatic approach, which means the way knowledge is produced is in the interaction between the practice and the program that defines the focus of the inquiry; also, in what is to be explored and how to explore it. In regard to practical work, this thesis is based on two long-term engagements: the setting up and running of a makerspace, Fabriken, and the long-term collaboration with an NGO of immigrant women, Herrgårds Women Association (HWA). The program aims at exploring making commons and does so out of an interest in composing prospects. The notion of making commons brings into the work theories and frames from the academic discourses around commons (i.e. collective and collaborative organizational forms) in order to articulate the nature of open, collaborative and sharing practices; it allows for discussion of the engagements, what they produce, and how they do it. It also allows for consideration into how these practices have been initiated, implemented, and carried out over time. Composing prospects entails a particular way of exploring alternative futures by engaging in collective and located attempts at constructing them. Thus, it defines a possible way for designers to engage in the making. Further, it provides the possibility to relate the engagements to the expectations and broader scenarios emerging in the opening of production and to articulate what kind of making may be at play in acknowledging hypothetical futures as possible presents. This inquiry builds on and addresses the fields of design for social innovation, participatory design, and commons
21.
  • Sjöblom, Ingela (författare)
  • Planerade hemförlossningar i Norden : kvinnors och barnmorskors perspektiv
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Home birth is common in an international perspective but in the West it is a rare occurrence. In the Nordic countries, Iceland and Denmark have the highest home birth rates with about two per cent, Norway and Sweden approximately one per thousand, and in Finland only a dozen women a year give birth to their children in the home. Background: Home birth is common in an international perspective but in the West it is a rare occurrence. In the Nordic countries, Iceland and Denmark have the highest home birth rates with about two per cent, Norway and Sweden approximately one per thousand, and in Finland only a dozen women a year give birth to their children in the home. Data collections and methods: Two interview studies (study I and V) and three questionnaire studies (study II, III and IV) were carried out. The interviews were analyzed with phenomenological-hermeneutical respectively phenomenological approach and the questionnaires with content analysis and descriptive statistical analysis, in study III as parts of the mixed method. Results: Women giving birth at home experience that they can give birth in their own terms with selected supporters around them in an environment where they feel safe (study I). They state that they are highly satisfied with their home birth midwives (study IV). The midwives described their work with assisting home birth as a lifestyle, with an opportunity to realize their full midwifery competence (study V). Women feel that they in a negative way are treated as irresponsible as they choose to give birth at home, and that this seems to strengthen their position to realize it (study II and III). Conclusion: The few women who choose to give home birth in Sweden are highly satisfied with their births experience. They have experienced that people around them, healthcare professionals as well as private individuals, were adverse to their choice and tried to make them change their minds. Women in the Nordic countries experienced that the midwife who assisted the home birth possessed good knowledge, medical as well as emotional and nurse care. Being a home birth midwife in the Nordic countries means to have chosen a lifestyle and a rewarding work, which allows her to use all her midwifery competencies to full extent.
22.
  • Truedsson, Anna (författare)
  • An injectable biphasic bone substitute in sinus augmentation
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis concerns a new synthetic, injectable bone substitute, Cerament ™ , primarily developed for treatment of vertebral fractures. The purpose of the thesis was to investigate the properties of the new bone substitute, that is, whether it can contribute to the generation of new bone formation needed for placement of future dental implants. When the amount of bone in the upper jaw is insufficient, primary stability of dental implants cannot be achieved. Sinus augmentation is a well-established method for increasing the bone volume. This technique can be performed with autologous bone graft and / or bone substitute. Autologous bone graft can be harvested either from a local source in the oral cavity or from an extraoral source. The iliac crest is a common donor site for bone grafts when large quantities are needed, but bone harvesting from the iliac crest require surgery under general anesthesia resulting in an increased morbidity and higher costs. The thesis is based on study I-IV, both animal experimental studies and clinical applications. The question is what gains can be achieved with the use of a bone substitute. Therefore, to start with, study I analyzed and compared the costs of local bone grafts from the oral cavity and extra-oral bone grafts from the iliac crest. In addition, post-operative health parameters were analyzed for those patients who underwent sinus augmentation, performed under general anesthesia, with bone graft from the iliac crest. Finally, the total cost of sinus augmentation, performed under general anesthesia, with iliac bone graft was calculated and analyzed with respect to the cost of surgery, anesthesia, hospitalization and sick leave. 9 To achieve a broader understanding of the properties of the bone substitute study II and III were performed. Firstly, an animal experimental study in rats, with the intention to investigate if and to what extent Cerament ™ onlay is able to stimulate new bone growth on a cortical bone surface. Secondly, an animal experimental rat study that analyzed and estimated to what extent Cerament ™ , in an onlay application, adds strength to the osseointegration of a titanium screw, measured as removal torque resistance. Further, to investigate the effect of a titanium screw without any bone substitute on a cortical bone surface analyzed with regard to bone remodeling. Finally, as a clinical application (study IV), sinus augmentation with Cerament ™ was performed in four patients. The patients received either pure Cerament ™ or Cerament ™ mixed with autologous bone chips. The studies resulted in the following: Costs for sinus augmentation with iliac graft are several times larger than those for policlinic procedures. Most patients, who received iliac graft surgery, had recovered after 14 days. LoP (loss of production) constituted 41% of the total cost for sinus augmentation with iliac bone graft. Cerament ™ guided bone generation from a cortical surface on rats’ tibia. The second animal study displayed no difference in torque resistance between screws embedded in Cerament ™ and controls. Sinus augmentation in a mixture of bone chips and 50-75% Cerament ™ rendered new bone formation after 6-11 months. Conclusion: There are gains to be made, in both economic and morbidity terms, by using Cerament ™ . When applied as an onlay, Cerament ™ is capable of guiding and generating new bone formation on rats’ tibia. In sinus augmentation, Cerament ™ has been proven to generate new bone without any adverse reactions. Future research should clarify how the clinical findings made in this thesis can be applied in the orofacial environment.
23.
  • Wirén Åkesson, Joakim (författare)
  • Idrottens akademisering : idrottsvetenskaplig kunskap inom forskning, utbildning och på arbetsmarknaden
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the academisation of sport in Sweden. This is done by mapping and analysing the scientific knowledge produced in sport research which is then mediated through academic sport education and demanded on the sport labour market. The relationship between these three arenas is also analysed. Various problems, subjects and perspectives which are focused in the arenas above are analysed, as well as the various conditions under which scientific knowledge is produced, mediated and demanded. Finally, the knowledge which is produced, mediated and demanded is analysed in relation to each other. Theory: Academisation can be considered as the process by which scientific knowledge expands and grows in importance for the area of knowledge as a whole. The academic status of an area of knowledge is dependent on the role of scientific knowledge within research, education and in the field of practice. In this thesis, the focus is on the academisation of the specific area of knowledge of sport. The production of scientific knowledge in sport research, mediation of scientific knowledge in higher sport education, application of scientific knowledge in the field of practice and the relationship between the three knowledge arenas is analysed. The study also includes an institutional perspective. Methodology: The thesis consists of three empirical part-studies: sport research, higher sport education and the labour market of sport. Each part-study has its own specific empirical data and specific approach for the collection, processing and analysis of data. Various documents comprise the main source of empirical data in this thesis, and the main methodological approach is content analysis and analysis of existing data. Results: The academisation process of sport in Sweden has come a long way. Today there exists extensive sport research in a wide range of disciplines with a strong core within a few of them. Academic sport education, with two distinct branches/orientations, has been established. There are also employers in the sport labour market seeking employees with academic backgrounds, including a wide variety of organisational types and activities. The way sport is handled and where interest is directed within, however, varies between the arenas of research, education and the labour market; there are diverse traditions and interests within each one. Also, in some areas, the arenas are more in tune with each other than in other areas. As a consequence of research, education and the labour market having been established and institutionalised during different eras and under varying ideological circumstances, they possess different logics as part of their ideological structures. They reproduce specific, historically-shaped patterns of thinking and behaviour. This also explains why research, education and the labour market looks so disparate in terms of what scientific knowledge is being produced, mediated and demanded. In areas where institutionalisation has occurred for a long time, there is a clear reproduction of patterns of thought and action; actors in such areas can be said to be more “path dependent” than others. As a result of sport education being institutionalised to such a low degree, it is also more customisable and flexible compared to the thoroughly-institutionalised sport research; however, it lacks the stability and continuity of sport research. Therefore, education also has, to a larger extent, an ability to adapt to the prevailing ideas and logic of the times, such as market logic – for better or for worse. The academisation of sport can thus be seen as an uneven process or a process “out of step”. Scientific knowledge has different characteristics within sport research, higher sport education and the sport labour market due to disparate institutional conditions and different histories of the different academic arenas. They are, in other words, “children of different times”.
24.
  • Zachrison, Mozhgan (författare)
  • Invisible voices understanding the sociocultural influences on adult migrantsʼ second language learning and communicative interaction
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation is a qualitative study exploring the sociocultural influences on adult migrants’ second language learning and the communicative interaction through which they use the language. Guided by a theoretical perspective based on the concepts of life-world, habitus, social capital, symbolic honor, game, and the idea of the interrelatedness of learning and using a second language, this study aims to understand how migrants’ everyday life context, attachments to the home country, and ethnic affiliations affect the motivation for and attitude towards learning and using Swedish as a second language. Furthermore, the study explores in what way the context within which the language is taught and learned might affect the language development of adult migrants.The research questions of the study focus on both the institutional context, that is to say, what happened in a particular classroom where the study observations took place, and a migrant perspective based on the participants’ experiences of living in Sweden, learning the language and using it. Semi-structured interviews, informal conversational interviews, and classroom observations have been used as strategies to obtain qualitative data.The findings suggest that most of the participants experience feelings of non-belonging and otherness both in the classroom context and outside the classroom when they use the language. These feelings of non-belonging make the ties to other ethnic establishments stronger and lead to isolation from the majority society. The feelings of otherness, per se, are not only related to a pedagogical context that advocates monoculturalism but are also rooted in the migrants' life-world, embedded in dreams of going back to the home country, while forging a constant relation to ethnic networks, and in the practice of not using the Swedish language as frequently in the everyday life context as would be needed for their language development.
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25.
  • Örmon, Karin (författare)
  • Experiences of abuse during the life course : disclosure and the care provided in a general psychiatric context
  • 2014
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Experiences of abuse are common among women in Sweden and being abused during childhood as well as adulthood has consequences for the lives of girls and women. One consequence of abuse is the impact on their mental health, which entails them seeking psychiatric care as a consequence of this. Being abused as a child has consequences during childhood as well as during adolescence and adulthood and there is a link between childhood abuse and mental ill health as an adult. Adults who have experienced abuse during their childhood have poorer mental health as adults and are overrepresented within the health care systems. Women who experience abuse as adults often describe consequences such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety. The psychiatric context is often described as being unhelpful when you have experience of abuse and women could be reluctant to disclose their experiences to staff for a variety of reasons. This thesis aims to identify experiences of abuse during childhood and adulthood among women who have experienced abuse and have mental ill health. The thesis also aims to explore women’s disclosure of abuse and experiences of the care provided in a general psychiatric context. The first study aimed to explore women’s disclosure of experiencing physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse to staff during their latest contact at a general psychiatric clinic. The study also aimed to explore whether the women had ever disclosed abuse to anyone at all. Seventy-seven women completed a questionnaire at the clinic and the results showed that the women often disclosed their experiences of abuse to others, but they had often chosen not to disclose their experiences during their latest contact with staff at the general psychiatric clinic. In the second study 10 women were interviewed regarding their experiences of physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse and its influence on their self-reported mental ill health. The overall theme evolving from the interviews were, “Being vulnerable and without protection in a frightful reality that limits one’s possibilities of living and being the person one wishes to be”. The categories that emerged were: ”Living in fear that persistently influences the substance of life”, “Living with the sense of being worthless”, “Living with a constant question about who you are” and “Living between hope and despair”. The third study aimed to elucidate how women subjected to physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse experience the care provided at a general psychiatric clinic after the disclosure of abuse. The overall theme capturing the essence of the nine interviews was visualized as ”Dependency as a reality containing a duality of suffering and trust”. The categories that emerged in the text were: “Being belittled”, “Being misinterpreted” and “Being cared for”. The fourth study aimed to investigate the life course of women within psychiatric care who had experienced abuse. The study also aimed to focus on the women’s resources, stressful events, experience of abuse, perpetrators, mental ill health and care and support throughout the life course. The subcategories that shaped the categories were presented within the life spans; childhood 0-12 years, adolescence 13-19 years and adulthood 20 years and above. The life charts revealed that adulthood was the period of life that had most frequent events of abuse. The women who had few experiences of abuse during childhood had also only a few noted events of mental ill health during that period of life. Emotional abuse was most frequent throughout the life course. Sexual abuse was the lesser noted abuse during childhood, but increased during adolescence and adulthood. The life charts also visualize that the women had seldom revealed the abuse during their childhood to others growing up and as adults the women often went to formal networks for support and care. The results of the thesis show that the general psychiatric care must improve their efforts to identify and support women who have experienced abuse. The women’s own stories regarding experiences of abuse during the life course must be recognized and integrated with traditional biomedical care.
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