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Sökning: mat:dok lärosäte:mah år:(2016)

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1.
  • Al-Harthy, Mohammad H. (författare)
  • Cross-cultural differences in patients with temporomandibular disorders-pain : a multi-center study
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overall objective of this thesis was to investigate patients with TMD-pain and TMD-free controls in three cultures (Saudi Arabia, Sweden, and Italy) to determine the influence of culture on and crosscultural differences in pain prevalence and intensity, sensitivity to mechanical and electrical stimulation, pain-related disability for four comorbid pain conditions (back, head, chest, and stomach pain) in the last 6 months, and the type of treatment that patients with TMD pain received. The specific aims were: (i) To determine the frequency of TMD pain in Saudi Arabians (I). (ii) To compare psychophysical responses to mechanical and electrical stimuli in female TMD patients and TMD-free controls, nested within each of three cultures (Saudi, Italian, and Swedish) (II). (iii) To assess pain prevalence and intensity, and pain-related disability associated with comorbid pain conditions by testing for the interaction effect between three different cultures and case-status (III). (iv) To assess the type of treatment that female patients with TMD-pain in three cultures received, and their beliefs about the factors that contribute to and aggravate TMD, as well as the factors that are important to include in TMD treatment (IV). Study (I) material included 325 Saudi Arabian patients (135 males, 190 females) aged 20–40, who were referred to the Specialist Dental Center at Alnoor Specialist Hospital, Makkah and answered a history questionnaire. We offered a clinical examination to patients reporting TMD pain in the last month and assessment according to the Arabic version of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD). Of these patients, 58 (18%) reported TMD pain and 46 underwent clinical examination. All TMD pain patients had a diagnosis of myofascial pain, and 65% had diagnoses of arthralgia or osteoarthritis. The TMD-pain group reported high levels of both headaches/migraines in the last 6 months (93%) differing significantly (P < 0.01) from the TMD-pain-free groups. All pain group were suffering at least from one TMD subdiagnosis The TMD-pain group had high depression and somatization scores but low disability grades on the Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS). Studies (II-IV) compared 122 female cases of chronic TMD pain (39 Saudis, 41 Swedes, and 42 Italians) to equal numbers of agematched TMD-free controls. The study (II) measured pressure pain threshold (PPT) and tolerance (PPTo) over one hand and two masticatory muscles, and electrical perception threshold, electrical pain threshold (EPT), and electrical pain tolerance (EPTo) between the thumb and index fingers. Italian females reported significantly lower PPT in the masseter muscle than the other cultures (P < 0.01) and in the temporalis muscle than Saudis (P < 0.01). Swedes reported significantly higher PPT in the thenar muscle than the other cultures (P = 0.017). Italians reported significantly lower PPTo in all muscles than Swedes (P < 0.01) and in the masseter muscle than Saudis (P < 0.01). Italians reported significantly lower EPTo than other cultures (P = 0.01). TMD cases reported lower PPT and PPTo than TMD-free controls in all three muscles (P < 0.01). Cultural differences appeared in PPT, PPTo and EPTo. Overall, Italian females reported the highest sensitivity to both mechanical and electrical stimulation, while Swedes reported the lowest sensitivity. Mechanical pain thresholds differed more across cultures than did electrical pain thresholds. Cultural factors may influence response to type of pain test. In Study (III), self-report questionnaires assessed back, chest, stomach, and head pain for prevalence, intensity, and interference with daily activities in the last 6 months. Logistic regression assessed binary variables and ANCOVA provided parametric data analysis, adjusting for age and education. Back pain was the only comorbid condition that varied in prevalence across cultures; Headache was the most common comorbid pain condition in all three cultures; the average head pain intensity was lower, however, among Swedes compared to Saudis (P = 0.029). The total number of comorbid conditions did not differ cross-culturally, but the TMD group reported more comorbid conditions compared to TMD-free controls (P < 0.01). For both back and head pain, TMD cases reported higher average pain intensities (P < 0.01) and interference with daily activities (P < 0.01) than TMD-free controls. Among TMD patients, Italians reported the highest pain-related disability (P < 0.01). This study indicates that culture influences the comorbidity of common pain conditions with TMD. The cultural influence on pain expression is reflected in different patterns of physical representation. Study (IV) compared patient characteristics, treatment beliefs, and type of practitioner advice received before referral for TMD treatment. Patients responded to a questionnaire that assessed treatments received, then completed an explanatory model form about their beliefs regarding which factors contribute to and aggravate TMD, and what factors are important for treatment to address. Of the various treatments, Swedes most commonly sought behavioral therapy and Saudis Islamic medicine (P < 0.01). Swedes received acupuncture and occlusal appliance therapy significantly more than Saudis (P < 0.01) or Italians (P = 0.012). Italians were significantly less likely than Saudis and Swedes (P = 0.042) to believe that TMD pain treatment should address behavioral factors. Among Saudi, Italian, and Swedish females with chronic TMD pain, culture did not influence the type of practitioner consulted before visiting a TMD specialist or their beliefs about factors contributing to or aggravating their pain. Overall, the treatments patients received and beliefs about behavioral factors differed cross-culturally. Islamic medicine was fairly common among Saudis and acupuncture was common among Swedes.
2.
  • Anderud, Jonas (författare)
  • On guided bone regeneration using ceramic membranes
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Regeneration of bone in the oral and maxillofacial region can be achieved with different techniques such as autologous bone grafts, bone substitutes and guided bone regeneration. Guided bone regeneration is defined as creating a space between the bone and its surrounding tissues, using a barrier that allows new bone to migrate into the space while preventing other cell types from interfering. The barrier material should be biocompatible, have suitable occlusive properties and be able to maintain the created space for bone regeneration. A wide range of different materials has been used. The general aim was to evaluate a novel method of guided bone regeneration using designed ceramic space maintaining devices on animals and humans. An experimental rabbit model was used in studies I, II and III. 60 different domes shaped as halfspheres were fixed with titanium screws to the skull bone of 30 rabbits. The domes had 5 different characteristics; 1) Dense hydroxyapatite with a moderately rough inner surface (HA rough), 2) Dense hydroxyapatite with a smooth inner surface (HA smooth), 3) Microporous hydroxyapatite with a moderately rough inner surface (HA μ), 4) Dense hydroxyapatite with a moderately rough inner surface and macroscopic holes (HA holes) and 5) Zirconia with a moderately rough inner surface (Zirconia). The domes were left to heal for 12 weeks before the animals were euthanized and the results were analysed with histomorphology and micro-CT. The results revealed that Zirconia with a moderately rough inner surface produced the largest amount of newly formed bone although the results were difficult to interpret as the Zirconia domes were difficult to X-ray because of the very dense nature of the material. In study IV, 3 patients had bone regeneration treatment with a Zirconia barrier. Patient 1 had posterior maxillary bone deficiency in a transverse direction. Patient 2 had anterior maxillary bone deficiency in a vertical and transverse direction. Patient 3 had posterior mandibular bone deficiency in a vertical direction. Based on individual digital models, Zirconia membranes corresponding to the amount of bone intended to be regenerated were designed and manufactured. The Zirconia membranes, were attached to the underlying bone with titanium screws and covered with the periosteum and mucosa. After a mean healing time of 7 months the membranes were removed and dental implants were installed. The results showed new bone regeneration corresponding to the design of the space maintained. None of the patients had any major complications aside from normal postoperative discomfort. According to evaluation with CBCT all patients gained new bone in the desired and preoperatively planned region.
3.
  • Boonsatean, Wimonrut (författare)
  • Living with type 2 diabetes in a Thai population : excperiences and socioeconomic characteristics
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Type 2 diabetes is a matter of global concern, and has been shown to have an impact on an individual’s way of living, family, and social life. In addition, there is limited knowledge concerning the life experiences of Thai people with diabetes. The aim of this thesis was to explore the experiences of people with type 2 diabetes who live in partly low socioeconomic suburban areas of Thailand. Both qualitative analyses with 19 women of low socioeconomic status with diabetes and quantitative analyses, including 220 people with diabetes, were conducted in the suburban communities near Bangkok between 2012 and 2015. The thesis consists of the results of four studies described in four papers. In paper I the aim was to explore how Thai women of low socioeconomic status handled their lives with diabetes. The findings showed that the women went through many stages of changes in the process of adaptation in handling their vulnerable situation influenced by diabetes and socioeconomic status. A threatened loss of status was sometimes seen as a barrier to handling their disease, whereas empowerment by one’s family helped them to feel powerful and gave them a sense of hope in living with this disease. Paper II illuminated the life experience of Thai women of low socioeconomic status living with diabetes. The findings revealed that women confronted susceptible feelings such as worrying about an unpredictable future and fears of being a burden to their family. However, they were able to maintain a balance through empowerment via the inner and outer sources of their beliefs. In paper III the aims were to investigate and compare the illness perception and self-management among women and men with diabetes, examine the association between illness perception and self-management, and to investigate the psychometric properties of the translated instruments. Both Thai versions of the measurement tools (the revised illness perception, diabetic version questionnaire and the new revision of the diabetes self-management questionnaire) demonstrated acceptable content validity and reliability, including internal consistency, inter-rater, and test-retest reliability. The findings showed that the illness perception and self-management strategies among the women and men had similar patterns, except for three aspects of illness perception. Whereas the women more often perceived the consequences of diabetes and fluctuating symptoms, the men felt more confident about efficiency of the treatment prescribed by the healthcare professionals. Furthermore, the illness perception, especially the confidence in controlling diabetes by themselves and the confidence about treatment effectiveness, in both women and men showed a weak possitive association with many aspects of self-management strategies. Paper IV examined the illness perception and self-management of Thai people with diabetes according to their socioeconomic status, as defined by income and educational level. The participants of the low-income and low-education groups perceived more negative consequences of diabetes, and the participants in the highincome and high-education group felt more confident in controlling the diabetes by themselves and were more confident about the treatment effectiveness. The participants in the low-education group perceived more fluctuating symptoms of the disease, and the high-education group showed greater understanding of their disease conditions. Furthermore, the participants in the low-education group demonstrated less effective self-care in terms of overall self-management strategies and physical activity. The Thai people with type 2 diabetes demonstrated an ability to be able to adjust to their life situation and to keep a balance in their minds to continue their usual life with the disease. Their experiences of living with diabetes were partially affected by sex differences and socioeconomic characteristics. It may be helpful to take educational level into consideration when designing specific and proper interventions for people with diabetes in low socioeconomic areas. The Thai sociocultural context, especially in terms of family closeness and Buddhist beliefs, might also have an effect on the life of people with diabetes.
4.
  • Brännvall, Mari (författare)
  • Frigörelse med förhinder : om polisanmälan när kvinnor tar sig ur mäns våld i nära relationer
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Avhandlingen uppmärksammar polisanmälan vid mäns våld mot kvinnor i nära relationer. Studiens syfte är att undersöka kvinnors syn på polisanmälan och deras interaktioner med det straffrättsliga systemet när de tar sig ur mäns våld i nära relationer. Avhandlingens teoretiska ramverk omfattar främst teorier om mäns våld mot kvinnor, kvinnors uppbrott ur våld och organisationer. En kvinna anses ha tagit sig ur våld när hon separerat, frigjort sig emotionellt från mannen, definierar våldet som mäns våld mot kvinnor i nära relationer samt när mannen upphört med våldet. Kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes under 2010 och 2011 med tjugo kvinnor som lämnat en våldsutövande partner. En tematisk analys har genomförts av empirin, som består av 33 intervjuer. Avhandlingen belyser en komplex beslutandeprocess om polisanmälan. Under denna process framstår polisanmälan som alltmer tänkbar i takt med att kvinnan frigör sig från våld – såväl emotionellt, som kognitivt samt genom separation – samtidigt som mannens våld fortsätter. Vid beslutet om polisanmälan tar kvinnan hänsyn till dess förväntade konsekvenser, såväl för hennes möjligheter att ta sig ur våld, som för hennes livssituation i övrigt. Avhandlingen belyser även polisanmälans betydelse för frigörelsen från våld. Resultaten visar att det straffrättsliga systemets gensvar på våldet, i synnerhet rättsprocessens utfall, är central för den betydelse polisanmälan får. Gensvar i form av giltiggörande bemötanden, adekvata skyddsåtgärder, frihetsberövanden och fällande domslut kan underlätta en separation, underlätta förståelsen av våldet samt försvåra för mannen att fortsätta utsätta kvinnan för våld. Och omvänt, gensvar i form av ogiltiggörande bemötanden, otillräckligt skydd och nedläggningsbeslut kan försvåra möjligheten att definiera våldet och göra kvinnan fortsatt åtkomlig för mannens våld. Resultaten tyder på att både våldsutövare och våldsutsatta kan uppfatta rättsprocessens utfall som en signal om vad som är tillåtet respektive otillåtet i samhället, vilket i sin tur kan få konsekvenser för förekomsten av fortsatt våld. Avhandlingen synliggör även olika hinder för att våldsutsatta kvinnor ska få tillgång till rättssystemets skydd, stöd och hjälp. Det omfattar såväl hinder för att kvinnor ska vända sig till rättssystemet, som hinder för att kvinnor som vänt sig dit ska erhålla dess stöd. Avslutningsvis belyser avhandlingen rättssystemets praktiska hantering av våldet, i relation till det jämställdhetspolitiska målet om att mäns våld mot kvinnor ska upphöra. Ett mål rättssystemet fått i uppdrag att medverka till. Resultaten tyder på att samtidigt som rättssystemet genomför satsningar för att motverka mäns våld mot kvinnor i nära relationer, så kan den praktiska hanteringen av våldet ha motsatt verkan, och i förlängningen reproducera könsojämlikhet.
5.
  • Carlström, Charlotta (författare)
  • BDSM : paradoxernas praktiker
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • BDSM är en akronym för bondage/disciplin, dominans/submission (underkastelse) och sadomasochism som används för att beskriva flera, ofta sexuella, former av beteenden och uttryck, där ett utforskande av makt är centralt. Avhandlingens syfte är att söka förståelse för BDSM som en dynamisk, komplex och kollektiv företeelse. Den fokuserar på hur utövare, genom sina berättelser, ger mening till sina upplevelser och erfarenheter. Avhandlingens teoretiska ramverk innefattar både poststrukturalism och symbolisk interaktionism. Etnografiskt fältarbete genomfördes under 2012 och 2013 i flera BDSM-gemenskaper i Sverige. Fältarbetet omfattar intervjuer, observationer och deltagande på möten, workshops, pub- och klubbkvällar. Totalt intervjuades 29 personer som definierar sig som BDSM-utövare. Avhandlingen visar hur olika synsätt, tolkningar och politisk-ideologiska praktiker har format och strukturerat den sociala verklighet som utgör BDSM av idag. Denna process har ägt rum på olika diskursiva arenor; från medicin och forskning till politisk aktivism, litteratur, film och media. Dominerande diskurser, där makt och våld är centrala, utmanas av motdiskurser, där motstånd till heteronormativa normer och sexualitet är betydande. Utövandet ses som en väg att uppnå känslor av trygghet och tillhörighet. BDSM möjliggör ett utrymme där starka affekter, kroppsliga sensationer, förändrade medvetandetillstånd och spirituella upplevelser kan utforskas och erfaras. Beteenden som i andra situationer betraktas som felaktiga och omoraliska, kan göras moraliskt försvarbara i en BDSM-kontext. Avhandlingen belyser ambivalenser och paradoxer i utövandet, där diskurserna såväl möjliggör som begränsar utövarna.
6.
  • Dahlskog, Steve (författare)
  • Patterns and procedural content generation in digital games : automatic level generation for digital games using game design patterns
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The development of content in digital games, such as game worlds, quests, levels, 3D-models, and textures, is costly and time consuming. To address this, different approaches to automate the process of creating game content, often referred to as procedural content generation (PCG), has been suggested. However, PCG is a complex task and include challenges such as creating content with variation, coherent style, speed, and correctness. The research in the thesis is concerned with generating game content with the aid of game design patterns, both by establishing models and exploring different methods to generate actual game content for different games. The methods include implementations of evolutionary computation, i.e. a set of search-based approaches that searches for instances of game design patterns on different abstraction levels that make up Super Mario Bros. (SMB) levels and a learning algorithm implementation based on a model (n-grams) of patterns from the original SMB-game. The different generators were evaluated with metrics concerned with the expressive range of the generators and with user tests.
7.
  • Diogo Löfgren, Christina (författare)
  • Oral dryness in relation to film-forming properties of saliva
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Dry mouth, or oral dryness, is a complex and quite common condition, reported with a varying prevalence of 10-80 %, expressed as a physiological deficiency with or without perceived dysfunction. This condition can severely affect oral health, oral function and quality of life.This t hesis is based on f our s tudies: Study I is a systematic review of the scientific literature and an evaluation of the quality of the evidence for diagnostic methods used to identify oral dryness. The literature included publications during the time period January 1966 to February 2011. Results and conclusions : The database searches resulted in 224 titles and abstracts. A total of 18 original studies were judged relevant and interpreted for this review . When evaluating the included studies with a quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy , many of the studies exhibited shortcomings. The most common shortcomings were that the patient selection criteria were not clearly described and the test or reference methods were not described in sufficient detail. Seven of the included studies presented their results as a percentage of correct diagnoses. The evidence for the efficacy of clinical methods to assess oral dryness is sparse and improved standards for the reporting of diagnostic accuracy are needed in or der to assure the methodological quality of studies. Furthermore, a global consensus regarding the terminology of oral dryness is needed in order to facilitate diagnostic procedures, choice of treatment and research design. Salivary dysfunction has mainly been described as being related to low salivary flow rate but the correlation between salivary flow rate and symptoms has shown to be weak. This suggests that not only quantity as a parameter , but also qualitative parameters of saliva, are needed to be included as factors of importance in evaluating the perception of oral dryness. The protective functions of saliva are performed both through and within the bulk liquid phase of saliva, but maybe more implicit through saliva components being dynamically associated as a thin intermediary film on all surfaces exposed in the oral cavity . For instance, examples of qualitative protective functions of surface associated saliva would be the film- forming capacity and rheological characteristics of saliva. T oday there is a lack of clinical diagnostic methods that systematically combine individual’ s perception of saliva and tests of protective functions of s a li v a , w h i ch i n c om b i na t i on m a y id e n t if y i n di v id u a ls a t r is k a n d need of directed preventive regimens. The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate scientifically reported diagnostic methods in use to identify oral dryness and to explore methods for clinical monitoring of protective functional characteristics of salivary films Study II surveyed the occurrence of subjective and objective oral dr yne ss i n t wo po pul at ion s, on e r an dom ly se le cte d gr oup a nd one dental care-seeking group. The relationship between subjective and objective oral dryness to clinical parameters was analyzed and individuals were designated into one of four groups depending on the occurrence of subjectively described and /or clinically measured oral dryness. Results and conclusions: No association between subjective oral dryness and flow rates of unstimulated and stimulated saliva was found in either of the two populations studied. Individuals identified with subjective oral dryness or objective oral dryness presented to a greater extent a history of oral rehabilitation compared to individuals who showed no indications of oral dryness. Results and conclusions: Individuals with subjective oral dryness exhibited lower values for saliva viscosity and elasticity , when compared to the other groups. Additionally , the amount of saliva associated to a germanium prism was the lowest measured in this group, even if the total protein concentration was not extremely low . These test results in combination with a moderate decrease in surface tension after 600 s may be indicative of a lower film forming capacity of saliva from individuals expressing subjective oral dryness.
8.
  • Economou, Catarina (författare)
  • "I svenska två vågar jag prata mer och så" : en didaktisk studie om skolämnet svenska som andraspråk
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis takes its point of departure in recent criticism directed at the Swedish school system, especially regarding the fact that students with a foreign background do not get the same opportunities or attain the same results as Swedish-born students. The general aim of this thesis is to study and analyse multi-lingual students’ situation from a critical didactic perspective, focusing on content and teaching in Swedish as a Second Language in upper secondary school. The legitimacy of and views on the subject are examined, as well as how the students are selected and categorised. The role that fiction has in the context of the subject is also investigated and discussed. The main sources of inspiration for the theoretical framework of the study have been the works of Nussbaum and Cummins. In addition, theoretical and methodological approaches are drawn from McCormick ́s socio-cultural model, Rosenblatt’s reading forms, as well as Tengberg, and Goodlad’s curriculum theory. The methodology used in this thesis is ethnography as well as curriculum and text analysis. The thesis consists of four articles. Article one, “The secondary school subject of Swedish as a Second Language – is it necessary?” examines the subject from different angles. The second “Swedish and Swedish as A Second Language – two equal subjects?” compares and analyses the two curricula. The third “Reading Fiction in a Second Language Classroom” and fourth “Multilingual Pupils’ Reading of Doctor Glas” consider the role of fiction within the subject, examining how a group of second language learners interpret and discuss the novels and how they interact with each other in relation to the literary texts. Furthermore, the last two studies analyse what forms of reading the students use. The thesis shows that the subject Swedish as a Second Language is still subordinated to the first language subject Swedish, with fewer cognitive challenges, as the aims of the curriculum reveal. Swedish as a Second Language focuses more on linguistic forms, often in isolated contexts, and less on meaning-making, e.g. reading of fiction and personal development. It also indicates that second language learners, in this context, are competent readers, able to understand and make meaning of different novels, use different forms of reading as well as make use of their broad experiences of different cultures in relation to literary texts. Finally, the thesis concludes with a discussion about the content in a future, new and inclusive subject of Swedish that is necessary to develop in today’s multicultural and globalized society.
9.
  • Edenborg, Emil (författare)
  • Nothing more to see : Contestations of belonging and visibility in Russian media
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Popular Abstract in Swedish Syftet med denna avhandling är att undersöka vilken roll synlighet spelar i skapandet och utmanandet av tillhörighet till politiska gemenskaper. Baserat på en empirisk studie av ryska medier under 2010-talet föreslås ett sätt att teoretiskt begreppsliggöra förhållandet mellan synlighet och tillhörighet, som utgår från idén att vad som blir synligt för en publik och hur, samt vad som blir osynligt, är föremål för ständig politisk reglering och konflikt. Denna teori försöker nå bortom både ett synsätt på tillhörighet som enbart fokuserar på tal och en binär förståelse av synlighet som antingen emancipatorisk eller repressiv. I tre fallstudier undersöker avhandlingen olika aspekter på problematiken kring tillhörighet och synlighet. I varje fall – vilka samtliga fokuserar på konflikter kring specifika tillhörighetsprojekt som utspelar sig i samtida ryska medier – står könade, sexualiserade och etnifierade föreställningar om gemenskapen i centrum för konflikterna. För det första, genom att analysera narrativ i ryska medier om 2013 års förbud mot ”homosexuell propaganda”, visar avhandlingen att eftersom tillhörighetsprojekt vilar på särskilda könade och sexualiserade föreställningar om gemenskapen, strävar de efter att reglera hur ej önskvärda, icke-normativa subjekt blir synliga. Men dessa regleringsförsök innehåller spänningar som kan fungera som utgångspunkt för konflikt. För det andra, genom att studera medienarrativ kring Olympiska spelen i Sotji 2014 visar avhandlingen att spektakulära mediehändelser kan bidra till att avpolitisera specifika föreställningar om gemenskapen genom att göra dem hyper-synliga och få dem att framstå som naturliga och oundvikliga, men sådana händelser kan också fungera som utgångspunkt för återpolitisering. För det tredje, genom att analysera hur den ryska statens narrativ om kriget i Ukraina 2014-15 utmanades, av rysk satir på internet och av medieavslöjandet om hur ryska soldater som dött i Ukraina begravdes i hemlighet, visar avhandlingen att försök att utmana dominerande tillhörighetsprojekt tar sin utgångspunkt i osynlighet och ofta har ett ambivalent förhållande till dominerande narrativ, samtidigt innanför och utanför dem. Avhandlingens centrala argument är att tillhörighetsprojekt som syftar till att (om)forma politiska gemenskaper och deras gränser strävar efter att skapa särskilda synlighetsarrangemang vilka reglerar vad som kan ses och hur det kan ses i offentligheten, liksom vad som inte kan ses. Dessutom, då synlighet inte kan låsas fast blir precis dessa arrangemang utgångspunkter för politisk konflikt. På ett mer analytiskt tillämpbart plan föreslås att politik kring tillhörighet innefattar strävanden att begränsa, utvidga och utmana synlighet.
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10.
  • El-Schich, Zahra (författare)
  • Novel imaging technology and tools for biomarker detection in cancer
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Normally the balance between cell growth and cell death is strongly controlled. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is an indolent disease that has a highly variable clinical course and is the most common hematological malignancy amongst adults in the Western countries. The protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 is a key regulator that controls the intracellular phosphotyrosine level in lymphocytes by inhibiting the B cell receptor signals. We have compared the expression and activity of SHP-1 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells from lymph nodes with matched peripheral blood samples. The expression levels of SHP-1 were higher in peripheral blood, but the phosphatase activity in lymph nodes and peripheral blood did not differ significantly. All cells in the body normally present glycans on the cell surface, which are involved in cellular communication and in processes like cell differentiation, proliferation and infection, including protecting the cells from invaders and in cell-cell contacts. Sialic acid occurs on the terminal end of glycans, and the frequency of sialic acid expression is increased on metastatic cancer cells and overexpression controls tumor cell growth and cell differentiation. The availability of specific antibodies against sialic acid is limited. We have been screening sialic acid on cancer cells by using a molecular imprinting polymer technique. Our results show that sialic acid is expressed on chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell lines at different levels at the plasma membrane. Higher expression of sialic acid in the more aggressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell lines was observed. To analyze morphological changes of death cells, digital holographic microscopy was used. Digital holographic microscopy is an approach for label-free non-invasive 3D imaging of cultured cells. We have analyzed cell death of adherent cancer cells using digital holographic microscopy and developed it to analyze suspension cells by combining this technique with antibody based microassays. Digital holographic microscopy can be used for cell-death induced cell analysis of both adherent cells and suspension cells. This thesis takes us one step further in cancer research as regards developing techniques for screening circulating cancer cells in blood as well as for individualized treatment of cancer patients.
11.
  • Emilsson, Henrik (författare)
  • Paper planes : labour migration, integration policy and the state
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation collects four peer-reviewed articles that are published in academic journals. Two of the articles are about the multi-level governance of integration polices, and two study the effects of labour migration policies. The two topics are tied together by an introduction where a common theme of the articles is discussed – the role of the state. Based on the results of my four articles, I argue that the relevance of the state as a unit of analysis is still strong and impossible to ignore if one wants to understand the patterns of migration and the conditions which migrant newcomers face in their countries of residence. When the Swedish labour migration policy was changed, and the veto of the unions and the state (the Employment Service) was abolished, it enabled social networks and market forces to play out more freely, which led to an increase in labour migration. The Swedish 2008 labour migration policy was designed to solve labour shortages. However, the effect of the new law was mainly the creation of new opportunities for migrants to get work permits and visas to Sweden in order to apply for asylum or work in low-skilled jobs in sectors without labour shortages. Thus, state policies do matter, even if not always in the way in which policymakers intend them to. The state has also tightened its grip on local integration policies in both Denmark and Sweden, despite very different overall policies. Where Denmark´s civic integration policies have formed a tighter relationship between the state and the individual, the Swedish way has been to centralise and standardise integration services and reduce local policy autonomy.
12.
  • Galli, Silvia (författare)
  • On magnesium-containing implants for bone applications
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The biomedical technologies for bone application are employed in millions of patients every year to restore function and aesthetics following trauma, diseases and congenital deformities. They achieved significant advancements in the last decades and have resulted in the development of implants that function for long periods of time. However, some fundamental clinical challenges still remain and are exacerbated by the aging of the population and by the increased life expectancy of the patients. First of all, permanent implants, despite having very high success rates, still face the risk for marginal bone loss and peri-implant osteolysis in some number of cases. Strategies to fasten, to strengthen and to maintain the bone integration of these implants are desired to enhance the implant clinical performances especially in situation of compromised bone. Secondly, the fixation of fractures and the repair of bone defects are required in a large number of clinical situations, where the intrinsic ability of bone to repair itself is limited. A constantly advocated requirement for osteosynthetic devices is the biodegradability, to avoid a second surgery for implant removal or the permanence of the device in the body for long time, with possible adverse effects. However, especially for osteosynthesis devices, materials that possess adequate mechanical properties for load-bearing applications and that biodegrade upon the substitution of new healthy osseous tissue are not yet available. Magnesium (Mg) is a material that offers potential benefits in these clinical issues. Magnesium is a natural component of the human body, which is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions and metabolic processes; thus, it is tolerated at high levels. It has a prominent role in bone homeostasis and bone health in general and it is considered bioactive, osteoconductive and angiogenetic. Therefore it could be applied as a doping agent to permanent implants and bone grafts, to increase their osseointegration. In addition, magnesium is potentially unique in the field of orthopaedic and cranio-maxillofacial surgery because it provides the mechanical properties of metals, although with an elastic modulus closer to that of cortical bone, and at the same time it degrades under physiological conditions in non-toxic by-products. Based on these clinical needs and on these observations, one aim of the current thesis was to explore the effects of the local release of Mg ions directly at the peri-implant sites on the osseointegration of titanium implants in healthy bone and in bone compromised by osteoporosis. In particular, it was of interest to attempt to elucidate the molecular and biochemical pathways that were stimulated in the peri-implant tissues by the presence of Mg ions and to correlate those to biomechanical and histomorphometrical observation. The other aim of this thesis was to characterize in vivo the degradation behaviour of 3 Mg-alloys tailored for biodegradable osteosynthesis devices and their associated bone response. In Study I to IV, the effects of the local release of Mg ions on the osseointegration of titanium implants in both healthy and osteoporotic bone were investigated. Mg ions were loaded into engineered mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) carriers coated onto titanium implants. Mesoporous films acted as reservoir of drugs and bioactive substances and released them directly at the implant interface in a sustained fashion. After surface characterization of the mesoporous carriers with and without Mg ions by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical light interferometry (IFM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), the same types of implants were implanted in animal models. In Study I, Mg-loaded implants were placed in the hind limb of rabbits for 3 weeks and examined with biomechanical analysis and histology. The results suggested that the increased local availability of Mg could accelerate and strengthen the early bone fixation of titanium implants. In Study II, the activation of biological pathways of bone healing and osseointegration of Mg-releasing implants installed in the rabbit tibia model was investigated at the gene level by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after 3 weeks in vivo. The results found that several osteogenic markers (OC, RUNX-2, IGF-1) were significantly up-regulated in the presence of Mg during the first weeks of healing. This finding was correlated with the histological results, since significantly more threads for the Mg-doped implants were filled with new bone compared to the TiO2 implants without Mg. In Study III, the performance of Mg-loaded implants in bone was studied at a longer healing time of 6 weeks. It was found that the effects of Mg release are prominent in the early healing phases than compared to the later healing, presumably due to the rapid mobilization of the Mg ions from the coatings. In fact, the expression of osteogenic genes in the bone around control implants were dominantly expressed approximately 3 weeks after the dominant expression in the Mg-loaded group. Within the limitation of the observed healing period, no signs of increased inflammation and activation of bone remodelling were triggered by Mg release. In Study IV, the potential benefits of the local administration of Mg ions on implant osseointegration were tested in ovariectomized rats, which mimicked osteoporotic conditions. The presence of Mg-doped implants in osteoporotic subjects induced a significantly faster new bone formation compared to Ti controls and the activation of BMP6, an important anabolic agent that is normally suppressed in osteoporosis. In addition, other osteogenic factors, such as VEGF, were up-regulated in presence of Mg. In Study V, 3 recently developed Mg-alloys intended as temporary materials for osthesynthesis applications were tested in vivo to evaluate their degradation behaviour and the response they elicited in tissues. Mg-2Ag, Mg-10Gd and Mg-4Y-3RE in the form of mini-screws were implanted in the tibia and femur of rats for 4 and 12 weeks. Their degradation rates were investigated by means of high-resolution synchrotron-based micro computed tomography (SRµCT) and by histological sectioning. The tissue reaction to the different materials was analyzed both on histology and on 3D reconstructions of the bone-implant samples. In addition, the chemical composition of the degradation layers was assessed with Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA). Finally, the expression of genes in the tissues in proximity of the mini-screws was investigated by means of qPCR employing a super-array technique. The SRµCT enabled the identification of the degradation layers, the original metal and the bone, thanks to the high spatial and density resolution. The 3-months degradation rates were similar for all materials, but the behaviour of the degradation products differed. The products of Mg-2Ag underwent rapid solubilisation. The rapid loss of sample integrity for this material led to fibrous encapsulation, rather than the desired osseous encapsulation. In the other 2 alloys, the degradation layers deposited in the same shape as the original screws and were mainly stable. That allowed the growth of bone in direct contact with the surfaces of the degradation products and they were osseointegrated at the 3-month healing time. That was confirmed on the histological slides. In addition, the chemical analysis revealed that the degradation products of the alloys were not formed by Mg, but contained Ca, P, C and O in similar amount to the surrounding bone The combination of histological, tomographic and chemical images provided new insight on the nature of the bone-to-implant interface and of the degradation products, which appeared to have great similarities to the host bone. Finally, the analysis of the genes expressed in the peri-implant bone, showed up-regulation of several genes related to osteogenesis around Mg implants compared to Ti ones. In conclusion, this thesis demonstrated that Mg is a suitable doping agent to increase the bone encapsulation of endosseous implants, especially at the early stages of healing and in particular in osteoporotic subjects. That is desirable to shorten the healing period and when early implant loading is considered an option. In addition, Mg-10Gd and Mg-4Y-3RE are biodegradable alloys with a degradation rate and behaviour that is suggested to be suitable for the new bone regeneration and the bone encapsulation.
13.
  • Guidi, Paolo (författare)
  • Social work assessment of families with children at risk : similarities and differences in Italian and Swedish public services
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The thesis aims at understanding and explaining social work assessment of families with children at risk, at the level of practice, considering social workers' role in their national welfare system.· The thesis embodies four articles and is informed by a comparative perspective between Sweden and Italy. The first three articles are based on a vignette study focusing on social workers' assessment of three cases of children at risk and the fourth article draws on a broad cross-national survey focusing on social workers' perception of power. The comparison shows great similarities in assessment and line of reasoning when it comes to cases involving infants and small children, while differences are more evident when it comes to adolescent behaviour. Italian social workers are in general more oriented to intervene than their Swedish counterparts. However, Swedish social workers perceive that they have greater power towards their · clients than their Italian colleagues. Differences in the assessment at level of practice are only partly explained by national welfare systems. Also local organisational structures, cultural understandings, and the role assumed by professionals in respect.to their mandate, seem to be influencing factors when it comes to soda! workers' assessment of families with children at risk.
14.
  • Hafen, Niklas (författare)
  • En vandring längs välviljans väg : en studie om idrott och internationellt utvecklingsarbete genom de skandinaviska exemplen LdB FC For Life i Sydafrika och Open Fun Football Schools i Moldavien.
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this doctoral thesis is to analyze Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) initiatives from the initiators, sponsors and donor’s perspective through the Scandinavian examples LdB FC For Life in South Africa and Open Fun Football Schools in Moldova. On this basis, it seeks to explore the relationship between rhetoric and practice surrounding both projects. The study is grounded in neo-institutional theory – primarily through the work of John Meyer and Brian Rowan, Nils Brunsson and Mark Suchman. On a general level, neo-institutional theory is suitable when studying the social interaction between organizations and their environments. Given the thesis aim and explicit focus on two SDP organizations it thus becomes appropriate to use. Current study is predominantly based on data constructed through fieldwork in Sweden, Denmark, South Africa and Moldova during a period between 2011 and 2013. The methods used are qualitative ranging from observations to semi-structured interviews. In addition, homepages and documents relating to the two projects have been analyzed. A case study research methodology has been applied and the writing has been inspired by ethnographic fiction. The study shows that there is indeed a discrepancy between theory and practice – that is a gap between intention and implementation meaning initiators, sponsors and donors do not exactly practice what they preach. This inconsistency has been explained by the use of the theoretical concepts of decoupling, moral legitimacy and organizational hypocricy. A common feature of LdB FC For Life and Open Fun Football Schools is that they position themselves as SDP initiatives using sport merely as a means, not an end. This can be illustrated by their objectives, which is to mitigate the spread of HIV/AIDS and create political stability. However, from observations and interviews on site in South Africa and Moldova an opposite picture emerge, namely a strong focus on the development of sport through training and competition. In addition, the empirical findings show that both initiatives serve as a means by which initiators and sponsors can create lucrative advantages on a competitive market. Moreover, the undertaken activities function as a means by which they can be associated with something that the general public considers good, namely social responsibility. Even if both initiatives have good intentions, more research has proven crucial to justify the existence and magnitude of many of today´s SDP programs. This study has aimed to contribute to that discussion, mainly by examining the pros and cons of two specific examples. Consequently, it hopes to fill the parts of a missing gap.
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15.
16.
  • Keshavarz, Mahmoud (författare)
  • Design-Politics : An Inquiry into Passports, Camps and Borders
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is an interrogation of the contemporary politics of movement and more specifically, migration politics from the perspective of the agency of design and designing. At the core of this thesis lies a series of arguments which invite design researchers and migration scholars to rethink the ways they work with their practices: that states, in order to make effective their abstract notions of borders, nations, citizenship, legal protection and rights are in dire need of what this thesis coins as material articulations. The way these notions are presented to us is seldom associated with artefacts and artefactual relations. It is of importance therefore, as this thesis argues, to speak of such material articulations as acts of designing. To examine the politics of movement and migration politics from such a perspective, this thesis focuses on practices that shape specific material articulations such as passports, camps and borders. At the same time, it discusses the practices that emerge from these articulations. By doing this, it follows the politics that shape these seemingly mundane artefacts and relations as well as the politics that emerge from them. Consequently, it argues that design and politics cannot be discussed and worked on as two separate fields of knowledge but rather as interconnected fields, as design-politics. This thesis unpacks this claim by focusing specifically on the lived experiences and struggles of asylum seekers, refugees and undocumented migrants as well as rearticulating some of the artefacts and artefactual relations involved in the politics of movement and migration.
17.
  • Korduner, Eva-Karin (författare)
  • The Shortened Dental Arch (SDA) concept and Swedish general dental practitioners : attitudes and prosthodontic decision-making
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • 10 ABSTRACT A Shortened Dental Arch (SDA) is defined as a dentition where most posterior teeth are missing. The SDA concept, described by Käyser and co-workers in the 1980s, was developed mainly for elderly and high risk-patients, those with poor general health and those with accumulation of dental problems. It was however, proposed as a treatment option based on individual preferences. The SDA concept suggested that a dentition comprising teeth in the anterior and premolar region might meet the requirements of a functional dentition. The aim of this thesis was to study attitudes towards the Shortened Dental Arch (SDA) concept and to explore the factors affecting prosthodontic decision-making, with a focus on the SDA concept, among Swedish General Dental Practitioners (GDPs). Two different research approaches (quantitative and qualitative) were used: a questionnaire study (Study I and II) and an interview study (Study III and IV). The base in the questionnaire study was made up of 102 responses from a random sample of 189 Swedish GDPs. The sample was taken from the membership register of the Swedish Dental Association. Besides questions about gender, age, years in profession and place of dental education, the questionnaire contained questions about factors to be considered when planning for a prosthetic treatment in an SDA. There were also questions related to risks and benefits of an SDA and various statements concerning the SDA concept. For all items the dentists were asked to mark on a Visual Analogue Scale ranging from 0 to 10 with different anchors for each section. The data was described and analyzed in contingency and frequency tables. The treatment planning statements were subjected to principal component analysis. A multiple linear regression analysis was used to study explanatory patterns regarding the assessment of importance for the variables influencing dentists’ choice of treatment in an SDA. Eleven Swedish GDPs were strategically selected for the interview study, the necessary inclusion criterion being that the participant had to have at least one year of practice to ensure experience of treating dentitions without molar support. The in-depth, semi-structured interviews dealt with treatment considerations relating to two patient cases and the participants’ opinions on pre-formulated statements about the SDA concept. Two authentic patient cases were discussed; initially with complete dental arches, and later a final treatment plan based on an SDA. The cases involved patients with compromised teeth situated mainly in the molar regions. One patient suffered from extensive caries and the other from severe periodontal disease. Qualitative Content Analysis was used to analyze the data. The participants of the questionnaire study received a short description of the SDA as an introduction and the participants of the interview study were given a brief explanation of the SDA concept after discussing the two patient cases. Attitudes towards the SDA and the SDA concept, results and conclusions The questionnaire study (I) showed that the Swedish GDPs had a positive attitude towards the SDA concept which they also considered carried few risks. There were small differences in attitudes between different groups of dentists (private practice dentists/dentists employed in the public dental health service and male/female dentists) but vast differences in attitudes among individual practitioners. Female practitioners envisaged a higher risk of impaired oral function, periodontitis and TMD in an SDA than male practitioners. Private practice dentists saw fewer advantages in using the SDA concept compared to Public Dental Health Service dentists in terms of reduced risk of overtreatment, better patient costs, and the patients’ ability to keep their own natural teeth as they aged. The results of the interview study (III) showed that none of the GDPs was familiar with the SDA concept of treatment although two dentists had heard the expression SDA before. Swedish GDPs showed little or no cognizance of the concept and they did not appear to apply it in their treatment planning. Prosthodontic decision-making with a focus on SDA and compromised molars, results and conclusions The study with a quantitative approach (II) showed that there were vast individual differences when Swedish GDPs ranked the importance of various patient-related items when planning a treatment in an SDA. The results of a factor analysis showed that dental care delivery system, place of dental education and also attitudinal factors influenced the decision-making process in relation to the SDA. The analysis also indicated that it was possible to capture common dimensions (“technical”, “comfort” and “time”) of decision-making in prosthodontics compared to other decision-making situations. The study with a qualitative approach (IV) showed that preserving a dental arch which included molars appeared to be important to Swedish GDPs. The SDA concept did not seem to have any substantial impact on prosthodontic decision-making in relation to dentitions with compromised molars. The dentist’s experience, as well as the advice of colleagues or specialists, together with etiological factors and the patient’s individual situation, influenced decision-making more than the SDA concept. There was a contradictory relevance between the patient’s age and the need for molar support when considering the SDA, mainly due to the individual patient’s need. These conflicting results in the prosthetic decision-making process require further investigation.
18.
19.
  • Lundberg, Susanna, 1974- (författare)
  • "Vi kan ju sälja det övriga landet till hugade spekulanter" om tillhörighet, gemenskaper och handlingsmöjligheter i en förändrad ekonomi
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of this dissertation is to contribute to a deeper understanding of how the national community is reproduced and delineated in relation to class, gender and racialisation. It uses a qualitative methodology and interviews with people chosen to represent an economic margin, and is theoretically informed by Pierre Bourdieu, Beverly Skeggs and others. In interviewees’ accounts about work life and societal change, traces are found regarding how the national community is delineated, and how value for the community is claimed or denied.The main findings are that a national community is connected through the idea of value for the community, and that the dominating ideas concerning this value change over time in accordance with economic, political and discursive processes. Recognition is a condition for access to the labour market and for the right to contribute to the future of the community. The values and the community are not homogenous; there is room for competing values and thus competing ways of recognition.Those with less recognised resources get their value for the community questioned in relation to current hegemonic values. Adaptability to the needs of the labour market in terms of expectations of geographic flexibility and the right attitude are common demands that implicitly presumes economic and social resources.Misrecognition of resources and value also relate to the social process of racialisation. Whiteness can be regarded as the result of recognised national inclusion in a country such as Sweden where the ideal of light skin and blue eyes have gained hegemonic position through history. Class relations as well as male domination over women works through the same mechanisms of misrecognition and excluded experiences.
20.
  • Mattsson, Torun (författare)
  • Expressiva dansuppdrag : utmanande läruppgifter i ämnet idrott och hälsa
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Syftet med föreliggande avhandling är att belysa och diskutera lärares och elevers meningsskapande processer när expressiva dansuppdrag iscensätts i skolämnet idrott och hälsa. Avhandlingen tar avstamp i pragmatismen och genom Deweys transaktionella perspektiv studeras lärares undervisning, elevers lärprocesser och expressiv dans som undervisningsinnehåll i en sammanhållen helhet. I en pedagogisk intervention deltog fyra lärare i ämnet idrott och hälsa samt 68 högstadieelever på en skola. Ett sammanhållet danstema med utgångspunkt i Rudolf Labans rörelseramverk skapades för att uppmärksamma rörelseupplevelser och estetiska uttryck. Multipla metoder i form av videoobservationer av undervisningen, intervjuer med lärarna och elevers narrativ i loggböcker användes för att belysa frågeställningarna från olika håll. Transaktionsbegreppet och praktisk epistemologisk analys (PEA) prövades för analyser av rörelsehandlingar och elevers texter. Begreppet risk användes för analyser av pedagogiska konsekvenser i undervisningen. Resultaten visar att lärarna förändrar sin undervisning och blir pedagoger som skapar förutsättningar för att utforska icke-förutbestämda rörelser i stället för instruktörer av danssteg. Lärarna utvecklar nya vanor som möjliggör nyanserade och differentierade samspel med miljön och förmåga att ta och hantera risker i undervisningen. Ett förändrat undervisningsinnehåll i form av expressiva dansuppdrag ger möjligheter att återinföra estetiska aspekter på rörelser och därigenom sätta fokus på rörelsers innebörd och mening. Lärarna upptäcker nya grupper av elever, de som vanligen inte dominerar idrottsundervisningen. Resultaten visar vidare att normer kring flickor och pojkars rörelser i ämnet idrott och hälsa rubbas när de deltar i expressiva dansuppdrag. Avhandlingen pekar på att kroppsliggörande är ett värdefullt kunnande och att Labans rörelseramverk ger lärare och elever verktyg och språk att tydliggöra lärandet i ämnet idrott och hälsa. Därtill är estetiska lärprocesser betydelsefulla i en kroppslig praktik för att bättre lära känna sig själv och andra. En utforskande undervisning i kombination med expressiva dansuppdrag kan utmana logiker av tävling och rangordning i ämnet idrott och hälsa.
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21.
  • Nordén, Birgitta (författare)
  • Learning and teaching sustainable development in global-local contexts
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overall aim of this thesis is to develop knowledge of teaching and learning sustainable development in global–local contexts. The research field is global learning for sustainable development (GLSD). Phenomenographic approach and contextual analysis were used as methods of analysis, and data was collected by Semi-structured interviews at secondary and upper secondary schools in Sweden. In Study I, a strategic and systematic literature review was conducted of recent trends and critique to the dominating rhetoric on policy level concerning global education and global learning on sustainability issues. The complexity represented in GLSD is of global interest to face current challenges. The global–local context and the process for global learning were characterised by the learner’s perspective and self-efficacy. The variation of ways in which contextual features were revealed, affected how participants experienced their own learning global learning space. In Study II, empirical investigations were conducted of students’, teachers’, and head teachers’ conceptions of implementation of GLSD. Results indicate that critical knowledge capabilities were needed to act towards sustainability globally. Critical knowledge capabilities developed in the processes were to take command and collaborate as a team. Capabilities that were identified as necessary but which had not been sufficiently developed were to be prepared, act in a transdisciplinary manner and lead for holistic understanding in the learning process. Critical knowledge capabilities to handle complex knowledge were characterised by volition, self-directed learning, and knowledge formation. In Study III, a re-analysis was conducted of the data from Study II. The results shed light on pertinent transition skills in GLSD: (I) transdisciplinary action via knowledge formation in actual practices, (II) democratic collaborative action via processes of understanding, respectively (III) self-directed learning and independent initiative. These transition skills, enabling young people to be prepared for unpredictable changes, were perceived as key features in developing young people’s capability in an uncertain world. They developed worldview understanding, and advanced transformation competencies including critical reflections upon questions of current normativity. In Study IV, collaborative and transdisciplinary teaching with a global–local perspective was investigated in a study with teachers committed to global learning and sustainable development at an upper secondary school. Two main transdisciplinary teaching approaches of GLSD were distinguished: Contributing: Assist and Take Part respectively Ownership: Possess and Reconceptualise. The contributing approach was divided into the sub-categories: (I) Disheartened, (II) Supportive, and (III) Complementing teaching approaches; while the ownership approach comprised (IV) Decisive, and (V) Multi-dimensional teaching approaches. Various dimensions of the results appeared to be relevant for sustainability teaching and learning in global–local contexts, when connections between the studies were analysed in relation to the context and the overarching aims of the thesis. Through transdisciplinary teaching deep approaches to learning can be developed and Global teaching for sustainable development (GTSD) could be advanced. Individual and collaborative learning characterised by selfdetermination, responsibility, and social readiness leading to action emerged as key aspects At a global–local level, there is a growing need to develop competencies and capabilities for transitions towards sustainability. Conflicts and climate change are drastically increasing the number of displaced people who need transnational education on proactive preventive strategies, as well as develop to critical knowledge capabilities that can be useful across numerous contexts and in the face of changing circumstances. Increasingly, also young people need to manage their own learning processes in self-directed learning, regardless of where they are physically or may move in their lifetimes. As established social structures struggle to address global challenges, people across the planet need to be able to organise themselves and to take initiatives.
22.
  • Pankratov, Dmitry (författare)
  • Self-charging biosupercapacitors
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The thesis is focused on an entirely new class of electric power biodevices – self-charging biosupercapacitors, or in other words, charge-storing biofuel cells. The power generating segments of these biodevices rely on different redox enzymes electrically wired to electrode surfaces. Planar electrodes were additionally nanostructured by gold nanoparticles to increase the real surface area/enhance enzyme loading. Bilirubin oxidase was used as a cathodic biocatalyst responsible for oxygen electroreduction, whereas cellobiose dehydrogenase and glucose dehydrogenase were exploited as anodic bioelements catalyzing electrooxidation of glucose. The charge-storing segments of biosupercapacitors were based on different electroconducting polymers, including carbon nanotube based nanocomposites, and osmium modified redox hydrogels. The particular bioelectrodes were characterized in detail using scanning electron and atomic force microscopies, as well as various electrochemical techniques. Self-charging biosupercapacitors were assembled and basic parameters of the biodevices, viz. open-circuit voltages, power and charge densities, and stability, were studied in continuous and pulse operating modes.
23.
  • Rosenlund, David (författare)
  • History education as content, methods or orientation? : a study of curriculum prescriptions, teacher-made tasks and student strategies
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Historical content, historical methods and historical orientation are three aspects that may be included in history education. This study first examines the emphases which are included in formal curricula texts and then those which are included in teacher-made tasks. The results show that the curricula of history education includes historical content, orientation and methods, yet history teachers focus almost exclusively on the historical content. In a second step, this study examines the strategies with which students may process and combine elements from the three emphases of content, orientation and methods. The results provide insight into what strategies the students use and how they process the relationship between historical knowledge, historical methods and historical orientation.
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24.
  • Schlyter, Mona (författare)
  • Myocardial infarction personality factors, coping strategies, depression and secondary prevention
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A longitudinal study with 400 patients diagnosed with myocardial infarction (MI) was conducted at the Cardiology department at Malmö University hospital in Sweden, between 2002 and 2005. The aim of the project was to identify personality and psychosocial factors, influencing patients’ actions and the prognoses after MI. The five factor model of personality, (measures on Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness), coping strategies, depressive symptoms, the impact on delay seeking emergency care, smoking habits and cardiac health care utilization were studied. This thesis reports the result from four papers. In paper I the aim was to investigate whether maladaptive behaviour in the serial Color Word Test (CWT) alone or in combination with any specific personality dimensions were associated with severity of the MI. The indicators of severity of disease were maximum levels above median of the cardiac biomarkers troponin I and creatine-kinase-MB (CKMB), Q-wave infarctions, and a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The findings showed that maladaptive behaviour in combination with low scores on extraversion was associated with higher levels in cardiac biomarkers, following an MI. Another crucial factor for the prognoses and survival after a MI is early arrival to the emergency department and rapid intervention. In paper II we analysed the correlation of personality and psychosocial factors, with the time lag between the onset of coronary symptoms and seeking emergency hospital care. There was no significant conjunction in time delay and personality factors, coping strategies and depression. In paper III we examined whether personality traits, coping strategies and symptoms of depression were related to smoking cessation after an MI. Out of the 149 patients who smoked at baseline, 2 years follow-up data was available on 133 individuals, of these 44% (n=59) still smoked and 56% (n=74) had stopped smoking during the 2 years. Those who still smoked had lower score in the personality factor agreeableness, more lived alone and were unemployed in contrast to those who had stopped smoking. They also had significantly higher coping scores as confrontational behaviour. Finally, in paper IV we examined whether personality factors and depressive symptoms predicted cardiac health care utilization over the first two years after the MI event. Those MI patients showing traits of Neuroticism at baseline had significantly higher utilization at the out-patient cardiac clinic than those without. Individuals with a high score of depressive symptoms at baseline had instead a higher utilization of social workers and telephone contacts over the two year follow-up. In conclusion, we found that the personality factors extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism were factors that had impact on MI severity, smoking cessation and out-patient clinic contacts, while delay in seeking acute care was not affected by personality factors, depression or coping strategies. Maladaptive behaviour and a confronting coping strategy influenced MI severity and smoking cessation 2 years after an MI. Taking personality factors and coping strategies more into consideration when caring for patients in cardiac rehabilitation might be indicated.
25.
  • Simeone, Luca (författare)
  • Design Moves : translational processes and academic entrepreneurship in design labs
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This study investigates the relation between the design activity and entrepreneurial ambition of three academic labs: MIT Senseable City Lab, metaLAB (at) Harvard, and Medea at Malmö University. These labs are positioned at the borderland of academic research, as they operate in connection with external stakeholders (industry, NGOs, government institutions) through, for example, joint strategies of intellectual property management or the creation of start-ups. Various economic and social factors motivate the development of these collaborative spaces including the need for academia to secure alternative sources of funding and the political ambition to incorporate knowledge production into the existing value circuits of the market economy. In these spaces, stakeholders with varying interests, agendas, and power positions interact through what can be conflictual and tense processes. Through the combination of ethnographically inspired methods and a semiotic interpretative framework, the study explores how design practice contributes to value creation in entrepreneurial academic labs. It also focuses on the translation aspect of academic entrepreneurship as emerging from the interrelation of varying and transversal design moves and modes. Spatially dislocated and materially re-articulated within different contexts, the format of the lab actualizes diverse interpretative directions and shifts in meaning relating to multiple stakeholders at certain moments in time. While some moves were pulled toward a linear development process by logic aimed at creating products to be commercialized or publicly showcased, other design moves aimed to preserve complexity and redundancy and retained a high level of openness to external contributions. To varying extents, the three labs also activated and sustained the more ambiguous aspects of design as a translational practice. In a sense, these three academic labs exemplify in-between spaces that, within the context of the design projects studied, articulate a type of translational entrepreneurship which allows multiple stakeholders to retain their divergences while simultaneously building upon their convergences in coordinated action. This translation activity traveled nonlinear routes but was firmly anchored to what was found to be asymmetrical power dynamics and negotiation as well as certain alliances and actively sustained ambiguity.
26.
  • Vejzovic, Vedrana (författare)
  • Going trough a colonoscopy and living with inflammatory bowel disease : children's and parents' experiences and evaluation of the bowel cleansing quality prior to colonoscopy
  • 2016
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis focuses on children aged 10-18 years with symptoms of, or diagnosed with, inflammatory bowel disease (henceforth referred to as IBD). Before the disease can be diagnosed, a child must undergo several procedures, with colonoscopy as an established investigation, including bowel cleansing, which is crucial for the safe examination of the intestine. The prevalence of paediatric IBD is increasing worldwide, which will augment the number of paediatric colonoscopies. When the recommended laxative polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used for bowel cleansing, the children and their accompanying parents experienced the procedure as difficult due to the large volume of badtasting PEG. Once IBD is diagnosed, the children must undergo lifelong medical treatment, which entails several follow-up colonoscopies. Furthermore, IBD is a chronic illness with an unpredictable activity pattern that can have a negative impact on the children’s quality of life. One of the aims of this thesis was to explore a child/child’s perspective of going through a colonoscopy and child’s perspective of living with IBD. A further aim was to investigate whether sodium picosulphate (NaPico) can be used as an adequate alternative when the bowel is cleansed prior to colonoscopy in children. Three of the studies were interview studies (Papers I, II, & IV) with children and parents as participants. The data from 17 children and 12 parents (Papers I & II) was analysed using content analysis, and a phenomenological hermeneutic method was used when 7 children (Paper IV) were interviewed. The children’s experiences prior to colonoscopy (Paper I) were identified as belonging to an overall theme, A private affair, which could be divided into four categories: Preparing yourself, Mastering the situation, Reluctantly participating, and Feeling emotional support. The result from the parents’ experiences when their child is undergoing an elective colonoscopy was structured into one theme, Charged with conflicting emotions, with three categories: Being forced to force, Losing one’s sense of being a parent, and Standing without guidance (Paper II). The initial findings from these empirical studies undertaken served as a preparation for another study, aimed at comparing the quality of bowel cleansing using either PEG or sodium picosulphate (NaPico) in relation to the tolerability and acceptance of the laxatives among children and their accompanying parents (Paper III). This study was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) that was conducted as an investigator-blinded study within the Department of Paediatrics at a university hospital in Sweden (www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT02009202). A total of 72 children were randomly placed into one of two groups (PEG or NaPico). The Ottawa Bowel Preparation Quality Scale (OBPQS) was used to evaluate the quality of the bowel cleansing. Two different questionnaires were used to evaluate both the acceptability and the tolerability of the laxatives. In total, 67 protocols were analysed according to the OBPQS. No significant difference in bowelcleansing quality was detected between the two groups. However, rates of acceptability and tolerability were significantly higher in the NaPico group than in the PEG group, according to both the children and the parents. Finally, in order to illuminate the meaning of children’s lived experience of IBD, an interview study with seven children was conducted. The meaning of their lived experience of IBD was interpreted as A daily struggle to adapt and to be perceived as normal. This interpretation was discussed in relation to Ingmar Pörn’s theory of adaptedness (Paper IV). The findings point to the conclusion that both children’s and parents’ perspectives are important, in order to improve the paediatric colonoscopy. The children (10-18 years) with symptoms of, or diagnosed with, IBD were reluctant to talk about their problems, including colonoscopy. However, they were willing to share their experiences in order to help other children with similar problems, or in order to influence and improve paediatric care. It emerged that both children and parents need to feel confident in their dealings with healthcare professionals and to feel that healthcare professionals take their opinions seriously when preparing the child for colonoscopy. It is also important that the children have the opportunity to choose the bowel-cleansing protocol. NaPico can be recommended as the option for bowel cleansing in children aged 10 years and older. The meaning that can be extracted from the children’s experience of IBD is that they are struggling to adapt and to be perceived as normal. This is a conscious process entailing a confrontation with various problems, such as ambitions and goals that are hard to achieve, due to reduced abilities resulting from the illness or from an insufficiently adapted environment.
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