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Sökning: mat:dok lärosäte:mah år:(2017)

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1.
  • Afzelius, Maria (författare)
  • Families with parental mental illness : supporting children in psychiatric and social services
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Children living with a parent with a mental illness can face difficulties. Parental mental illness may influence the parents’ ability to cope with family life, where the parents’ awareness of their illness plays an important role. Family interventions provided by psychiatric and children’s social care services can be a way to support these children, making them feel less burdened, and improving the relationships within the family. The aim of this thesis was to illuminate how children in families with a parent with a mental illness are supported in psychiatric and social services, especially by means of family interventions, and how families experience the support. Study I explored how professionals in adult psychiatric outpatient services deal with children and families when a parent has a mental illness. The findings showed that professionals balanced between establishing, and maintaining, a relationship with the patient and fulfilling the legal obligations towards the patient’s children. Asking the patient about their children could be experienced as intrusive, and involving the patient’s family in the treatment could be seen as a dilemma, in relation to the patient. Efforts were made to enhance the family perspective, and when the patient’s family and children joined the treatment this required flexibility from the professional. Study II examined how professionals in children’s social care services experience working with children and families when a parent has a mental illness. The social workers’ objective was to identify the needs of the children. No specific attention was paid to families with parental mental illness; they were supported in the same way as other families. When the parental mental illness became difficult to handle both for the parent and the social worker, the latter had to set the child’s needs aside in order to support the parent. Interagency collaboration seemed like a successful way to support these families, but difficult to achieve. Study III investigated if patients in psychiatric services that are also parents of underage children, are provided with child-focused interventions or involved in interagency collaboration between psychiatric and social services and child and adolescent psychiatry. The findings showed that only 12.9% of the patients registered as parents in Psykiatri Skåne had registered children under the age of 18 years. One fourth of these patients had been provided with child-focused interventions in psychiatric service, and 13% of them were involved in interagency collaboration. If a patient received child-focused interventions from the psychiatric services, the likelihood of being involved in interagency collaboration was five times greater as compared to patients receiving no child-focused intervention. Study IV explored how parents and their underage children who were supported with family interventions experienced these interventions. The results showed that parents experiencing mental illness were eager to find support in explaining to and talking with their children about their mental illness, although the support from the psychiatric service varied. Both children and other family members appreciated being invited to family interventions. After such an intervention, they experienced the atmosphere in the family as less strained and found it easier to communicate with each other about difficulties. Unfortunately, the participating partners felt that they were left without support specifically targeted at them. The thesis showed that there is a gap between how professionals deal with questions concerning these families and their support, and the parents’ and the families’ needs to receive support in handling the parental mental illness in the family. The psychiatric and social services need to expand their approach and work with the whole family, in order to meet the needs of the child and other family members involved.
2.
  • Al-Okshi, Ayman (författare)
  • Maxillofacial cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) : : aspetcs on optimisation
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Inom odontologisk såväl som inom medicinsk radiologi sker en snabb utveckling av nya tekniker. Nya metoder för att kunna diagnosticera och följa sjukdomsförlopp över tid introduceras. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) är en sådan ny teknik, som introducerades inom odontologin under sent 1990-tal. Tekniken innebär att man får en avbildning av kroppen i genomskärning i tre mot varandra vinkelräta plan. Efter en långsam start med få fabrikanter och typer av CBCT-maskiner har antalet tillverkare och modeller ökat och en snabb spridning av tekniken har skett. CBCT kan ge en utökad och bättre diagnostisk information än konventionell röntgenteknik, men till priset av högre stråldos. Eftersom utveckling av nya tekniker liksom försäljning av ny apparatur går snabbare än forskning som undersöker nyttan med de nya teknikerna, är det angeläget att vetenskapligt utvärdera i vilken utsträckning nya tekniker är till nytta för de patienter som undersöks. Alla undersökningar som görs med röntgenstrålning ska vara berättigade och optimerade dvs utföras med lägsta möjliga stråldos för en specifik klinisk frågeställning. Därför är det viktigt att forskning som rör nya tekniker beaktar olika aspekter av optimering av undersökningar som utförs vid olika kliniska indikationer. Denna avhandling behandlar några aspekter av hur undersökningar med CBCT kan optimeras. I det första delarbetet gjordes en systematisk granskning av den vetenskapliga litteratur som publicerats då det gäller hur stora stråldoser som en undersökning med CBCT av tänder, käkar och ansiktsskelett ger upphov till, samt hur dessa stråldoser beräknas. För att hitta all relevant litteratur gjordes en sökning i tre databaser vilket resulterade i att över 700 publikationer identifierades. Efter en första genomgång kvarstod 38 publikationer som handlade om dosmätningar vid CBCT undersökningar av tänder, käkar och ansiktsskelett. Få studier beskrev i tillräcklig omfattning hur stråldoser beräknats, vilka protokoll och mätmetoder som använts. Likaså var beskrivningen av hur stråldoser relateras till kvalitén på de röntgenbilder som undersökningen resulterade i, mestadels knapphändig. Det behövs mer forskning som beskriver hur beräkningar av stråldoser sker samt hur man kan använda den lägsta möjliga stråldosen för att uppnå den kvalitén på röntgenbilderna som är optimal för en given klinisk frågeställning. En modell för vilka parametrar som är nödvändiga vid rapportering av uppmätt stråldos för CBCT undersökningar av tänder, käkar och ansiktsskelett föreslås. Syftet med det andra delarbetet var att testa en metod för att beräkna stråldos, som inte tidigare använts i nämnvärd utsträckning för odontologiska undersökningar. Denna metod innebär att en röntgenkänslig film placeras i ett fantom som är sammansatt av material vilka simulerar biologisk vävnad. Stråldosen från tre CBCT apparater från olika tillverkare beräknades för tre olika kliniska frågeställningar. Därutöver jämfördes de uppmätta stråldoserna från de tre CBCT apparaterna med doser från tre konventionella röntgenapparater som ger två dimensionella bilder av tänder och käkar sk panoramaröntgenbilder. Stråldoserna från CBCT apparaterna varierade beroende på strålfält, samt energi och mängd av röntgenstrålning för de olika undersökningarna och var generellt högre än de uppmätta stråldoserna från panoramaröntgenapparaterna. I det tredje delarbetet var målet att relatera stråldos till bildkvalitet för en specifik klinisk frågeställning och en specifik CBCT apparat. Stråldoser uppmättes med en DAP-meter och bildkvalité utvärderades såväl fysikaliskt (objektivt) som subjektivt. För beräkning av den objektiva bildkvalitén användes ett fantom som tagits fram i ett tidigare EU-finansierat projekt (SEDENTEXCT) och för bedömning av den subjektiva bildkvalitén användes att fantom som var sammansatt av material liknande biologisk vävnad. Från resultaten av denna studie kunde ett undersökningsprotokoll föreslås för undersökning av tänder och omgivande vävnad som ger den bästa bildkvalitén med lägsta möjliga stråldos. I det fjärde delarbetet användes röntgenbilder tagna på unga individer som skulle genomgå behandling för att korrigera snedställda tänder. En sådan tandreglerings behandling kan ge upphov till vissa icke önskvärda sidoeffekter så som förkortade tandrötter och/eller att den benvävnad som omger tänderna till viss del blir förstörd. Det kan därför vara viktigt att utföra röntgenundersökningar på denna patientgrupp både innan behandlingen påbörjas och vid uppföljningar av behandlingen. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur olika bedömare identifierar och mäter anatomiska strukturer (tandrötter och den benvävnad som omger tänderna) i röntgenbilder från CBCT undersökningar och jämföra med mätningar i röntgenbilder från två konventionella tekniker. Sex bedömare granskade röntgenbilderna och utförde mätningarna. Resultatet visar att i röntgenbilder från CBCT undersökningen var det lättare att identifiera de anatomiska strukturerna än i röntgenbilderna från de konventionella teknikerna. Likaså var samstämmigheten mellan och inom bedömare högst för CBCT undersökningen då det gäller mätning av rötternas längd. Då det gäller mätning av benvävnaden runt tänderna fanns ingen skillnad mellan de olika teknikerna. Sammanfattningsvis visar denna avhandling att det saknas studier av hög kvalitet då det gäller mätning av stråldos relaterat till optimal objektiv och subjektiv bildkvalitet för givna kliniska frågeställningar. Vidare förslås en modell som innehåller nödvändiga parametrar för att rapportera uppmätt stråldos vid undersökning med CBCT av tänder, käkar och ansiktsskelett. Ett protokoll för CBCT undersökning av tänder och omgivande benvävnad som ger bästa möjliga bildkvalitet med minsta möjliga stråldos föreslås liksom vilka aspekter som bör beaktas i vetenskapliga studier för röntgenologisk kartläggning av icke-önskvärda effekter av tandregleringsbehandling.
3.
  • Alm, Jens (författare)
  • Hög standard? En studie om kommunal anläggningspolitik och elitfotbollens standardiserande arenakrav
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sedan millennieskiftet har den kommunala idrottspolitiken i Sverige och Danmark alltmer kretsat kring elitidrottens krav på anläggningar. Medan företrädare för idrotten krävt ökade investeringar, ofta med hänvisningar till de nationella eller internationella idrottsförbundens standardiserade arenakrav, har kritiker invänt att arenakraven är orimligt stora och inte i överensstämmelse med kommunernas faktiska behov. Trots kritiken har få kommuner i praktiken kunnat stå emot de höjda anläggningskraven, särskilt om motståndet riskerat att utmynna i bestraffningar för kommunens egna elitlag. Denna avhandling handlar om de politiska processer och kom munala erfarenheter som elitfotbollens arenakrav ger upphov till. Från institu­tionell utgångspunkt analyseras svenska och danska kommuners möjligheter, utmaningar och problem i mötet med elitfotbollens standardiserade arenakrav. Hur kan vi förstå elitfotbollens inflytande över den kommunala idrottspolitiken? Vilka handlingsalternativ har kommunala aktörer? Varför agerar kommunala aktörer som de gör? Detta är frågor som analyseras. Författaren intresserar sig särskilt på de institutionella regleringar som i många fall är styrande för den kommunala anläggningspolitiken – men han konstaterar också att det tas kommunala initiativ för att förändra de strukturer som arena­kraven ger upphov till. Jens Alm (f. 1982) är verksam som analytiker vid Idrættens Analyse­institut i Köpenhamn. Hög standard? En studie om kommunal anläggningspolitik och elitfotbollens standardiserande arenakrav är hans doktorsavhandling i idrottsvetenskap.
4.
  • Alvén, Fredrik (författare)
  • Tänka rätt och tycka lämpligt : historieämnet i skärningspunkten mellan att fostra kulturbärare och förbereda kulturbyggare
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This doctoral thesis describes the subject of history as being filled with suspense. On the one hand, that is, in the syllabus and the teaching plan, the subject of history seeks to create students who affirm a certain culture and a certain way of understanding the past. On the other hand, students are supposed to learn to think independently and critically. This tension has consequences for the way in which students use history in school, and the way in which history teachers interpret their assignment. Students have difficulties in distancing themselves from their own approach to culture, and to comprehend that history consists of interpretations and constructions. Instead, they perceive historical narratives as either true or false. This makes it difficult to deal with questions regarding the past that challenge their view on history and are difficult to handle ethically. The dissertation also shows that the students’ use of history is limited to that which is called the school’s value system, and a view of the past that results from this value system. In those cases in which historical narratives correspond with the students’ own views and opinions, often in harmony with those voiced by the school, they tend to believe in and affirm them. In those cases in which the narratives do not correspond with the students’ views, they do not believe in them and reject them. At the same time, teachers have difficulties with handling students’ use of history in those cases in which it differs from the value system’s premises, as well as from a version of history that can be regarded as established at the school in question. This became apparent in the teachers’ evaluations, in which they systematically gave student responses that were located outside of this framework poorer evaluations and tougher scrutiny. The findings of this thesis can be considered as important from a number of different perspectives. The instructions for teaching and learning history in school are inconsistent and therefore difficult to understand for both teachers and students. To be sure, this applies primarily to those who find themselves outside of the life-world defined within the framework of the school in question. Assessing the use of history in school, in particular in a formative way, may therefore become difficult for teachers. How are teachers, who dismiss certain uses of history based on ethical reasons that can be found in the value system, but not in the knowledge requirements, supposed to be able to argue for their dismissal based on the knowledge claims of the syllabus? Students whose work is dismissed based on invisible criteria can perceive themselves as misunderstood and unwelcome in discussions regarding history at school. They can also come to perceive that their historical narratives are not allowed to exist in this context. Therefore, this dissertation suggests the creation of evaluation criteria for the subject of history that take into account ethical aspects in regard to students’ use of history. With the syllabus as starting point, this can serve to provide a basis for more precise evaluations and more equal conversations between students and teachers. A fertile ground for a vibrant democracy, in which students are taught to take responsibility for their use of history.
5.
  • Andersson, Helena (författare)
  • Möten där vi blir sedda : : en studie om elevers engagemang i skolan
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis concerns students’ engagement with school. In Sweden there are as many as 17,5 % of the students, who after year nine do not get the grades in order to be admitted to the national program at the upper secondary school. In this thesis, Students’ experiences are focused in order to understand engagement with school. The study is grounded in a socio cultural perspective on learning where learning is considered to originate from social actions, as well as theoretical perspectives on engagement. In the thesis learning is seen as development not as a process within the child but rather as development that takes place when the child participates in practices within their cultural community and in relations with others. Learning is looked upon as a perspective where the context of our lived experience of participation in the world is important. Learning should be seen as social participation. This kind of participation does not only shape what we do but also who we are and who we can become. In this thesis the concept of engagement is considered as both the wanting to do something, and what the student actual do, the agency of the student. An exploratory sequential mixed method has been used in the data collection, mainly with a student perspective. This means that both quantitative and qualitative methods of collecting and analyzing data has been used to be able to answer the research questions. The overall aim of the thesis is to contribute with knowledge about students’ engagement in school by identifying aspects that influence the engagement. The thesis consists of three different studies. One quantitative study, where 1298 student participated in a survey concerning student engagement with school, which was followed by two qualitative studies, where the descriptive analysis was broadened with interviews, one with students and teachers in two different classes and one with students from eight different schools. Apart from that, students have written reflections on how they experience their learning environments in school. The discussion concerns whether students in year seven are engaged with their school, both according to the psychological and according to the cognitive engagement. The discussion also concerns what aspects of engagement students and their teachers in two highly engaged classes have experienced. In the study students with different socioeconomically and cultural backgrounds take part. The concepts of students’ participation and influence in their schoolwork is also discussed.
6.
  • Chrcanovic, Bruno (författare)
  • On failure of oral implants
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduktion: Behandling med orala implantat är idag en effektiv och fungerande metod att ersätta bettfunktion vid partiell eller hel tandlöshet. Trots höga överlevnads- och lyckandesiffror finns ändå riskfaktorer som för vissa patienter kan resultera i implantatförlust. Man behöver noggrant utreda olika faktorer som kan påverka benförankringen, osseointegrationen, av implantaten för att ytterligare förbättra lyckandesiffrorna. Om faktorer som leder till ökad implantatförlust kan identifieras, skulle det underlätta för såväl tandläkare som för patienten genom att man då får möjlighet att undvika eller kompensera för individuella risker. Den här avhandlingen har haft som syfte att presentera kända riskfaktorer bakom implantatförluster. Material och metodik: Artiklarna som ingår i denna avhandling kan indelas i tre olika sorters studier. Först gjordes en allmän översikt om kända faktorer bakom implantatproblem (arbete I). Därefter utfördes en meta-analys innebärande en genomgång av relevant litteratur för att mer djupgående kunna analysera en selekterad riskfaktor, nämligen att patienter som röker kan påverka såväl benförlust runt implantatet som postoperativ infektionsrisk och implantatförlust.(Arbete II). Därefter utfördes sju retrospektiva (tillbakablickande) studier(Arbeten III-IX) baserat på 10.096 implantat, konsekutivt insatta på tillsammans 2670 patienter på en klinik – folktandvården i Skåne, specialisttandvården Malmö under tiden 1980 till 2014. Efter godkännande från etisk nämnd har det blivit möjligt att datorbehandla tandläkarjournaler från detta patientmaterial. Data införs på en SPSS fil (SPSS software, version 23, SPSS Inc, Chicago, USA). Anatomiska-, patient-, hälso- och implantatrelaterade faktorer registrerades. De kliniska studier som ingår i avhandlingen har fokuserats kring frågeställningar som implantatförlust och bruxism(tandgnissling), medikamentell behandling med protonpumpsinhibitorer(magsårsmedicin) eller serotonin(antidepressivt medel), lyckandedata för implantat insatta av olika kirurger, tidiga förluster och s k clusterbeteende. Klusterbeteende avser att implantatförluster inte är jämnt fördelade bland patienterna, utan att det rör sig främst om ett fåtal patienter som har många misslyckanden. Därtill utfördes röntgenologiska beräkningar av benförlust runt implantat som varit insatta under mer än 20 års tid. Olika statistiska modeller användes för att testa om erhållna data var signifikant skilda åt i jämförelse med relevanta kontroller. Resultat och Diskussion: Den systematiskta genomgången av litteraturen antydde att det fanns en serie faktorer som kunde påverka implantatutgången; t ex lågt vridmoment vid implantatinsättningen om man samtidigt avsåg belasta implantaten snabbt; att oerfarna eller dåligt skolade kirurger har sämre kliniskt resultat än mer skolade kollegor; implantatinsättning i överkäken; implantatinsättning i bakre delen av käkarna eller i ben av dålig kvalitet/kvantitet; rökande patienter; användning av korta implantat eller för många implantat; insättning av icke gängade implantat eller användande av s k täckprotes. Därtill fanns antydningar om andra faktorer som möjligen skulle kunna påverka implantatframgången negativt, som att låta implantaten ha direkt genomgång i slemhinnan utan tidigare vilofas, som direktbelastning av implantaten, som insättning av implantat direkt efter tandutdragning, som implantat med liten diameter. En del senare studier antydde att moderna moderat råa implantatytor kunde kompensera för risker med en del faktorer som insättning i överkäken, användande av korta implantat eller vid direktbelastning (Studie I). Den mer systematiska analysen av rökande patienter fann en ökning av implantatförlusterna hos rökare och därtill påverkades infektionsrisken efter implantatinsättningen och man fick ökad benförlust runt implantaten när patienten rökte (Studie II). Rökning kunde verifieras som riskfaktor i den kliniska analysen och även om patienten åt antidepressiva tabletter av serotonin-typ, så ökade i vart fall de tidiga implantatförlusterna (Studie III). Patienter som gnisslade tänder hade signifikant ökning av implantatförluster och fick därtill ökning av implantatfrakturer och brott på tandbroar (Studie IV). Resultaten visade också att en vanlig typ av magsårsmedicin; s k proton pumphämmare, resulterade i ökning av antalet implantatförluster (Studie V). Man fann däremot inga säkra tecken på ökad implantatförlust vad gällde sena resultat för de som åt antidepressiva mediciner av serotonintyp (Studie VI). Vidare fanns klara antydningar att vissa kirurger hade fler implantatförluster än andra, något som kan ha att göra med vald kirurgisk teknik, kirurgisk förmåga, kirurgiskt omdöme(vissa tänkta implantatpatienter skall kanske inte operas utan få annan behandling) (Studie VII). Vissa patienter med specifika karaktäristika som pekats på i studie I förlorade klart fler implantat än medelpatienten (Studie VIII). Slutligen noterades en mycket klar övervikt för tidiga implantatförluster under de första två åren efter implantatinsättningen, varefter ytterliga implantatförluster förekom men var långt mer ovanliga. En särskild faktor som antytts ställa till stora kliniska problem, som benförlust runt implantaten, visade sig i verkligheten sällan leda till implantatförlust. De flesta implantat som uppvisade benförlust fungerade trots detta utmärkt kliniskt (Studie IX). Den övergripande målsättningen med denna avhandling har varit att öka kunskapen om olika faktorer bakom implantatförlust för att på så sätt kunna bidra till ytterligare förbättring av kliniska resultat i framtiden.
7.
  • Christell, Helena (författare)
  • Cost and benefits of cone beam computed tomography : for maxillary canines with eruption disturbance
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I tandvården finns allt fler metoder för prevention, diagnostik och behandling. Eftersom resurserna är begränsade bör den metod väljas där nyttan uppväger kostnaden. Idag saknas dock vetenskapliga belägg gällande kostnadseffektivitet för undersökning med Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). En systematisk översikt i Studie I identifierade 160 hälsoekonomiska utvärderingar inom tandvård varav 12 gällande diagnostiska metoder. Översikten kunde inte identifiera någon kostnadsanalys på patientnivå för diagnostiska metoder. Därför konstruerades i Studie II ett ramverk för analys av kostnader förknippade med diagnostiska metoder i tandvården. Applicering av ramverket visade att CBCT och panoramaröntgen hade en signifikant högre kostnad (128,80€) jämfört med intraoral och panoramaröntgen (81,80€). I Studie III jämfördes kostnader för CBCT undersökning av patienter med olika kliniska tillstånd på kliniker i Cluj -Rumänien, Leuven -Belgien, Malmö -Sverige och Vilnius -Litauen. Klinikrelaterade kostnader varierade mellan sjukvårdssystemen vilket främst berodde på olika höga inköpskostnader för CBCT-apparaterna. I enkätundersökning i Studie IV ombads specialister i tandreglering att ta beslut om behandling gällande patienter med misstanke om eruptionsstörning av överkäkshörntanden. Majoriteten av behandlingsvalen var samma oavsett om de hade tillgång till CBCT och panorama eller till intraoral röntgen och panorama. Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att det finns ett stort behov av hälsoekonomiska studier med god kvalitet gällande diagnostiska metoder inom tandvård. Undersökning med CBCT medför en högre kostnad än konventionella röntgenmetoder och för majoriteten av patienter med misstanke om eruptionsstörning av överkäkshörntänderna medför den ingen extra nytta avseende behandlingsbeslut.
8.
  • Dahlstedt, Inge (författare)
  • Swedish Match? Education, Migration and Labor market Integration in Sweden
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Avhandlingen syftar till att analysera och undersöka utbildningens roll för både immigranter och deras barn när det gäller att säkra en plats på den svenska arbetsmarknaden. Med andra ord handlar avhandlingen om relationen mellan utbildning och arbete. Följande frågor står i fokus: Vilken roll, om någon, spelar typen av utbildning för arbetsmarknadsinträdet? I vilken utsträckning matchar individens utbildning arbetets kompetensnivå? Finns det skillnader i matchningen mellan utbildning och arbetets kompetensnivå mellan grupper födda i olika länder? Har barnen till immigranter en högre yrkesmässig matchning än sina föräldrar? Hur ser relationen mellan utbildning och arbete ut när en stor del av populationen har fått sin utbildning i ett annat land? Avhandlingen består av ett inledande kapitel där resultaten från de tre självständiga artiklarna diskuteras. Den första artikeln fokuserar på möjligheterna att säkra ett arbete i paritet med individens utbildning och karaktäristika. Artikel två och tre fokuserar på den yrkesmässiga matchningen på den svenska arbetsmarknaden, med andra ord huruvida individer har arbeten som motsvarar deras utbildningsnivå. Artikel två fokuserar på immigranter och artikel tre på immigranternas barn. Avhandlingen visar att framgång på arbetsmarknaden i termer av sysselsättningsgrad och yrkesmässig matchning beror på individuell karaktäristik såsom födelseland, tid i landet och typ av utbildning (generell och yrkesutbildning). Det finns stora skillnader mellan de som har en yrkesutbildning och de som har en generell utbildning. De som har en yrkesutbildning har också högre sannolikhet att få ett arbete. De största skillnaderna märks i yrkesmässig mismatch, där utrikes födda är överrepresenterade bland dem som arbetar på en lägre kompetensnivå än vad de har utbildning till, samtidigt som inrikes födda är överrepresenterade bland dem som arbetar på en högre kompetensnivå än vad de har utbildning till. Resultaten i artikel tre visar att immigranternas barn har en starkare position än sina föräldrar när det gäller yrkesmässig matchning.
9.
  • Ekelund, Robin (författare)
  • Retrospektiva modernister : om historiens betydelse för nutida mods
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • "Retrospective modernists. On the significance of history for contemporary mods" This thesis studies the use and significance of history among contemporary mods in Sweden, that is, how the actors on the mod scene articulate and perform a sense of community with a specific past. Mod culture is first and foremost associated with the 1960s and the contemporary mods regard the 60s as the template and essence of their style. The actors thus become mods by enacting associations that stretch out over time, towards an imagined community that is based on the histories of mod cultures and mod styles of the past. Hereby I argue that the contemporary mod scene is an example of a retrospective trend through which the general interest in history as well as the use of history have increased. The thesis is based on a performative theory, inspired by Bruno Latour’s Actor-Network-Theory. History is thus regarded as makings-of-pasts-in-the-present. A qualitative ethnographical approach, based on interviews and observations, is used as the main method. Newspapers, magazines and fanzines from the 1960s, 1980s and 1990s are also studied. The four empirical chapters adress, in order, a differentiation between a Swedish and a British history of mod culture; the use of objects, such as vinyl records and tailor made suits, as a subcultural capital; how historically charged atmospheres at clubs and scooter rallies are evoked by networks of objects and human actors; and how maps of time and continuities are articulated as a way of dealing with and controlling temporal distances. Primarily, the thesis raise three themes in regards to the retrospective trend of the present. First, it illustrate how individuals and groups, by using and performing history, create meaningful boundaries for themselves. Retrospection thus functions as a way of gaining an existential presence and stability in an elusive present. Second, the use and performance of history seemingly narrows the distance towards the past. A central point in the thesis is, however, that the contemporary mods not only try to get closer to the desirable past, they also try to regain a distance and remoteness towards this past, in order to not reduce and deprive this past of its mystery and attraction. Thirdly, this regaining of the past’s remoteness is also a way of articulating this specific past as valuable. History is thus performed and used as a capital. I illustrate how this use of the past is performed in a selective way, through an ’us and them’ relationship, in which ”our own” history is elevated as holding the key to higher values and truths, while ”their” history is articulated as negative and problematic. The thesis thus contributes with new perspectives and knowledge on the significance and use of history in the present. It also contributes analytically and methodologically to subcultural studies, studies on history culture and to historical studies in general.
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10.
  • Erovic Ademovski, Seida (författare)
  • Treatment of intra-oral halitosis
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Intra-oral  halitosis  (bad  breath)  is reported  to affect  15-83 % of the adult population. Having intra-oral halitosis is a social and psycho-logical handicap, and may cause people in the  person’s social circle to increase the physical distance or to turn their faces in another direction to avoid the unpleasant smell from the exhaled air. Such behaviours may affect the individual’s self-confidence resulting in insecurity in social and intimate relations. The oral health-related quality of life status has also been reported to be lower in individuals with halitosis. Approximately 90% of what is considered as bad breath is the result of the degradation of organic substrates (proteins) by an- aerobic bacteria of the oral cavity. Intra-oral halitosis can be  assessed using both subjective and objective methods to evaluate the subject’s exhaled air. The most common one and the one often referred to as the ”gold standard”, is the organoleptic scoring system (OLS). OLS is a subjective method  evaluating  the  strength  of halitosis in exhaled air using a scale from 0-5. One objective  method to assess the presence of volatile sulphur compounds in exhaled air is to use a sulphide monitor measuring the total sum of the volatile sulphur  compounds  (T-VSC) in exhaled  air.  The three  gases  (hydrogensulphide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (MM) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS)) in exhaled air related to intra-oral halitosis can be assessed separately using a simplified gas chromatograph. Different treatment models such as periodontal treatment, tongue scraping and rinsing with Zn ion containing products have been used to reduce intra-oralhalitosis. The  present  thesis  has  evaluated  the  efficacy of  different treatment models in the treatment of intra-oral  halitosis.
11.
  • Gerell, Manne (författare)
  • Neighborhoods without community : collective efficacy and crime in Malmö, Sweden
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Brottslighet i utsatta bostadsområden har de senaste åren fått stort utrymme i samhällsdebatten. Polisen har börjat sammanställa nationella listor över de bostadsområden i Sverige som anses präglas av kriminella nätverk, samtidigt har media rapporterat att vissa brott, främst skjutningar och bilbränder, är betydligt vanligare i dessa områden än i andra delar av samhället. Denna avhandling undersöker utsatta bostadsområden och brottslighet i Malmö och bidrar på så vis till att öka kunskapen om brottslighet i denna typ av områden. Mina studier visar att det finns en stark koppling mellan ett bostadsområdes kollektiva förmåga, kombinationen av tillit och samarbete för att lösa problem, och mängden gatuvåld, men inte någon sådan koppling till anlagda bränder på bostadsområdesnivå. Studierna visar även att såväl anlagda bränder som kollektiv förmåga förstås bäst på mycket mindre geografiska analysenheter än bostadsområden. Avhandlingen berör två grundläggande frågeställningar, som båda är av relevans för hur vi kan förstå utsatta bostadsområden. Den första frågan handlar om hur bostadsområden ska definieras, och hur stora områden det är meningsfullt att prata om som sammanhängande enheter. I polisens sammanställning av utsatta områden räknas till exempel Rinkeby-Tensta i Stockholm med 34 903 invånare som ett sådant, men också Seved i Malmö som är en del av bostadsområdet Södra Sofielund med 5 570 invånare. Den andra frågan handlar om huruvida kopplingen mellan brottslighet och fattigdom, segregation kan förklaras av skillnader i de boendes kollektiva förmåga att hantera problem. Kollektiv förmåga definieras som kombinationen av tillit och gemensamma förväntningar om att agera för det allmännas bästa i ett bostadsområde, och kan ses som en form av socialt kapital som är särskilt viktig i relation till brott, oordning och otrygghet. I avhandlingen studeras huruvida kollektiv förmåga kan förklara varför det är mer gatuvåld och anlagda bränder i vissa bostadsområden i Malmö. Avseende gatuvåld identifieras mycket riktigt en sådan koppling. Utsatta områden som bland annat präglas av ekonomisk och social utsatthet samt etnisk heterogenitet och stor omflyttning har mer gatuvåld än andra platser, men om hänsyn tas till att dessa områden också har också en lägre kollektiv förmåga spelar inte längre nivån av utsatthet, etnisk heterogenitet eller omflyttning någon roll. Förståelsen för gatuvåld förbättras dessutom när hänsyn tas till variabler baserade på rutinaktivitetsteorin, som bland annat säger att var brott begås till stor del kan förstås utifrån var motiverade gärningspersoner och potentiella offer möts. Centrala platser i staden kommer att ha mer brott just på grund av mängden folk, alldeles oavsett nivå av utsatthet eller mängden invånare i bostadsområdet. För att mäta det inkluderas variabler över hur många personer som kliver på lokalbussen i närheten av bostadsområdet under ett år samt mängden barer och nattklubbar, och detta bidrar i analysen till en bättre förståelse för varför vissa bostadsområden har mer gatuvåld än andra. Gatuvåld i Malmö kan till stor del förstås som två delvis separata processer, det är mycket gatuvåld i centrum, kopplat till nattliv och stora mängder folk i rörelse, och det är relativt mycket gatuvåld i utsatta bostadsområden med låg kollektiv förmåga. Huruvida den bristande kollektiva förmågan faktiskt är en kausal orsak till gatuvåldet kan denna studie ej säga, men sambandet håller även när hänsyn tas till mängden gatuvåld under tidigare år. När det gäller anlagda bränder finns inte något signifikant samband med områdets nivå av kollektiv förmåga. Områden med mycket bränder tenderar att ha en låg kollektiv förmåga, men sambandet försvinner när hänsyn tas till ett områdes fattigdom och liknande. I teorin om kollektiv förmåga behandlas social och ekonomisk utsatthet samt etnisk heterogenitet som två viktiga variabler, men i Malmös fall visar det sig att dessa samvarierar så mycket att det inte går att separera dem. Områden där de boende kommer från många olika delar av världen är också områden där bland annat arbetslösheten och trångboddheten är hög. Dessa områden har också många anlagda bränder, inklusive bilbränder, men det förklaras inte av kollektiv förmåga på bostadsområdesnivå, utan av andra, okända, mekanismer. Avhandlingens andra huvudfrågeställning fokuserar på hur ett bostadsområde ska definieras. Det görs i två separata studier, en som berör hur stora områden som är lämpliga för att förstå den kollektiva förmågan, och en avseende hur områden bör definieras för att förstå anlagda bränder och kollektiv förmåga. När det gäller sammanhållning och gemensamt agerande för att hantera problem, kollektiv förmåga, noteras att boende som intervjuas i fyra bostadsområden framför allt har förväntningar kring detta på sin gård eller i sitt kvarter, inte i det betydligt större bostadsområdet. Detta bekräftas också av en statistisk analys av en boendeenkät i dessa fyra bostadsområden. Kollektiv förmåga verkar primärt ta plats på ganska små geografiska analysenheter med 1000 invånare eller mindre, snarare än de relativt stora bostadsområden som ofta är utgångspunkt för såväl akademiska studier som samhälleliga förebyggande insatser. Ett liknande fenomen noteras när det gäller anlagda bränder. Dessa förstås bäst genom att studera vad som finns på den specifika plats där det brinner, och bostadsområdets inflytande är som störst om vi utgår från mycket små bostadsområden. Såväl kollektiv förmåga som anlagda bränder förstås bäst utifrån små geografiska enheter.Det kan inte uteslutas att det på en sådan lägre nivå också finns en koppling mellan förekomst av anlagda bränder och nivån av kollektiv förmåga även om en sådan koppling alltså ej finns på bostadsområdesnivå. Sammanfattningsvis visar avhandlingen att vi bör fokusera på små geografiska enheter för att förstå brott, och att vi kanske då snarast bör prata om utsatta gator eller kvarter snarare än bostadsområden. När det gäller större geografiska enheter går det att förstå våldsbrott utifrån förekomsten av tillit och kollektiv förmåga i ett bostadsområde. Avhandlingens titel, ”Neighborhoods without community”, som översatt till svenska blir ”Bostadsområde utan gemenskap”, syftar på fyndet att bostadsområden inte består av ett socialt sammanhang, utan snarare av många mindre, och att den kollektiva förmågan i vissa områden är låg. Även om dessa områden också ofta präglas av stolthet och ett levande civilsamhälle dominerar problemen, att vända utvecklingen i dessa områden framstår som en av de viktigaste uppgifterna inom det kriminalpolitiska fältet i Sverige idag. Genom att fokusera på gatan, gården eller kvarteret snarare än stora bostadsområden och stärka de boendes kollektiva förmåga finns möjlighet att vända utvecklingen. I framtida forskning är det av vikt att gå vidare med mer detaljerade studier av brottsligheten, men även att undersöka om vi kan stärka den kollektiva förmågan, och om detta resulterar i minskad brottslighet.
12.
  • Jakobsson, Jenny (författare)
  • The process of recovery after colorectal cancer surgery : patients' experiences and factors of influence
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this thesis was to describe and compare how patients recovering from different forms of colorectal cancer surgery experience their postopera-tive recovery, general health, and anxiety, up to six months after surgery. In addition, the aim was to describe the influence of patient- and surgery-related factors on patient-reported recovery. Data was collected through questionnaires containing instruments measuring general health, trait and state anxiety, and recovery. Recruitment was made consecutively. In total, 176 patients chose to participate and received the questionnaires before surgery, on the day of discharge, and one and six months after surgery. In addition, information concerning patient character-istics and factors related to surgery were retrieved from the patients’ medical journals. Data was also collected through in-depth interviews one and six months after surgery with ten purposefully included patients. Postoperative recovery after colorectal cancer surgery was described as a pro-gressive process. Experiences of physical powerlessness, difficulties with food intake, altered bowel function, and dependence on others, were prominent and changed from being intense in the beginning of the process to gradually disappearing as time went by. On the day of discharge, no patient was considered fully recovered or almost fully recovered. Thereafter, it could be seen that patients after colonic resec-tion improved regarding the majority of symptoms connected to recovery al-ready during the first month after surgery, while patients after abdominoper-ineal resection deteriorated somewhat. Patients after rectal resection recovered better during the first month than those after an abdominoperineal resection but not as well as patients after colonic resection. Health was shown to be generally good preoperatively. One month after surgery, patients recovering from abdominoperineal resection and rectal resection had a temporary reduc-tion in health, while patients after a colonic resection had improved. Six months after surgery, health had improved to better than preoperative values without any differences between groups of patients. Regarding anxiety, both as a trait and as a state, this was shown to be low, without any differences between groups. Once at home from hospital, the patients experienced a continued difficulty with food intake, and the physical powerlessness made them initially de-pendent on relatives or friends in order to manage everyday life. The bowel function as well as the practical management of a possible stoma caused feel-ings of insecurity and concern. During the period from one month to six months after surgery, improvements were seen in symptoms connected to re-covery for all patients and especially after abdominoperineal resection. How-ever, it was also clear that patients after a rectal resection had not recovered to the same extent as those after an abdominoperineal or colonic resection. Some factors related to patient characteristics and surgery were shown to be associated with the odds for a good recovery one and six months after sur-gery. Those factors were age, grade of ASA, EQ VAS, EQ index, BMI, dura-tion of surgery, APR procedure, presence of stoma, LoS, and postoperative treatment. In addition, the dimensional levels of recovery could to a great ex-tent predict recovery in corresponding dimensions. The result of this thesis showed a diverse pattern of recovery. Nevertheless, there were also some similarities. This illustrates the complexity of postoper-ative recovery. In order to avoid unnecessary concerns, it is important for health care professionals to provide the patients with appropriate infor-mation and support throughout the whole recovery period and to design in-dividual follow-up strategies.
13.
  • Johansson, Pär (författare)
  • On hydroxyapatite modified peek implants for bone applications
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • People are living longer today than ever before, and the number of older adults will increase exponentially over the next coming years. However, that does not necessarily mean that they are living healthier. An aging population presents many opportunities but also challenges in the public health care with a sharp increase in incidence of many diseases associated to the bone, teeth and joint systems. Orthopedic and dental implants commonly used mostly consist of metals, composites, polymers and ceramics. Titanium has been widely used in the orthopedic and dental field to replace or support mineralized structures. Titanium possesses good mechanical, physical and biologic properties. However, titanium has in the clinic presented some critical drawbacks. The modulus of elasticity is higher than that of bone which may cause stress shielding and bone resorption ultimately jeopardizing the implant retention. In addition, with rare cases of titanium allergy and patient desires for non-metallic treatments, alternatives to titanium are being studied. Furthermore, the radiopacity of titanium causes interference with the radiographic evaluation and the non-esthetic color may discolor the gingiva of thin biotypes. Recently, advanced polymeric implantable materials have been introduced into the medical field. Polyetherether ketone (PEEK) is widely used in various orthopedic applications, such as spine implants, joint replacements and fracture fixations. In dentistry, PEEK can be manufactured as prosthetic components, fixed and removable bridges and dentures. PEEK is a thermoplastic polymer with mechanical properties that are close to those of human bone, for example the elastic modulus. This will minimize the stress shielding upon loading and stress distribution. Besides, PEEK holds excellent biocompatibility with no toxic or mutagenic effects in vitro and in vivo. However, unmodified PEEK is biologically inert with limited pro-tein and cell adhesion to the surface. Therefore, improving the bio-activity of PEEK is a significant challenge and a prerequisite to possess all of its potentials as a biomaterial. There are currently 2 methods to improve the bioactivity of PEEK; surface modification and composite preparation. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is the most widely used material due to its biocompatibility and osteoconductive potential in association with biomaterials. There are many developed and evaluated methods to deposit HA on metallic implants, but the only commercially used one is plasma spraying. However, the technique has some severe disadvantages such as irregular coating thickness with deficient adherence to the implant surface. Clinical complications have been confirmed with inflammation caused by fragments of delaminated coating. To challenge these disadvantages, several alternative coating techniques have been introduced. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate a novel surface modification of bioactive hydroxyapatite deposited by a spincoating technique. The technique generates a crystalline, nanosized coating homogenously distributed over the implant surface. In particular, the thesis encompasses a comprehensive topographic analysis to evaluate the coating properties. In addition, the HAPEEK implant will be compared in vivo with an unmodified control with respect to its oste-oconductive and bioactive properties. In study I, the surface topography was characterized using interferometry (IFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the same types of implants that were evaluated in the experimental animal models. The chemical characterization before and after the coating procedure was evaluated with X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS). Mechanical testing of implants were completed in accordance with the tensile testing standard (ISO 527-2). Furthermore, the hydrophilic appearance after coating was estimated by measuring the contact angle. The results from the ma-terial characterization reveal a hydrophilic coating with a minimally rough surface which preserved its mechanical properties after the coating procedure. The chemical analysis revealed that only Ca, P, C and O were present at the surface of HA-PEEK with a proportion as that of human bone. In study I and IV, PEEK implants were implanted in the rabbit tibia and femur and retrieved after 3, 12 and 20 weeks of submerged heal-ing and subjected to biomechanical analysis using a removal torque device. The removal torque required to unscrew the implants was significantly higher for HA-PEEK after the 3 and 12 week retrieval time points. However, the absolute torque values were lower at 12 weeks compared to earlier time points, presumably caused by absence of primary stability and dissolution of the HA-coating. After 20 weeks of healing the absolute values were even lower than for the implants recovered at 3 and 12 weeks. However, the retention was still significantly increased for the HA-PEEK implants. In study II, III and IV, the osseointegration was histologically evaluated with respect to boneimplant contact (BIC) and bone area (BA) after the same healing time points as aforementioned. The performance of the HA-coating was most significant 3 weeks after implantation. However, after 12 and 20 weeks, the BIC turned out to be comparable between the groups. Furthermore, the implants implanted in femur were designed with an apical perforation to evalu-ate the osteoconductivity in terms of area of bone. After 3 and 12 weeks the results revealed a significant improvement on the HA-PEEK. However, after an extended healing period of 20 weeks, the unmodified implants were presenting comparable results as the HA-PEEK group. A more comprehensive description of the osseointegration can be achieved using computed microtomography. Three different diameters around the implant and inside the apical perforation were evaluated with respect to bone density and trabecular properties. However, there were no detectable differences between the PEEK and HA-PEEK. The outcome was limited to the resolution of X-rays. There was a minor contrast between resin and PEEK. The implant surface, particularly the thread edges are subjected to mechanical forces during implant placement and removal. The stability of the coating was evaluated in study II. The coating was wellpreserved in deformities of the surface, but on the flat edges of the threads there were signs of deformation and absence of HA crystals. This thesis demonstrated that a nanosized HA-coating can be pro-cessed using a spin-coating technique with nanostructures and suffi-cient adhesion to the substrate. Furthermore, the performance of the HA-coating was found to improve the surface osteoconductivity by increasing the level and speed of osseointegration. However, the effect was most prominent in the early stages of healing whereas the implants from the extended time points showed osteoconductive properties comparable to unmodified PEEK. In addition, the ability of HA-coating to improve bone fusion inside a perforation was the most clinical relevant outcome. Unmodified PEEK implants are today widely used in spine surgery and the present surface modifications may improve the clinical outcomes where a rapid bone formation is essential.
14.
  • Kotte, Elaine (författare)
  • Inkluderande undervisning : lärares uppfattningar om lektionsplanering och lektionsarbete utifrån ett elevinkluderande perspektiv
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The notion of inclusion is not a simple matter to define. It will mean different things to different people at different occasions. In school, inclusive education, may relate to a democratic view, meaning that all students should have the same opportunities and rights to participate in the mainstream educational schooling, on equal terms. In the current school political debate, the term “inclusive education” has gained a significant position and can relate to students’ grades in school subjects. The awareness of inclusion partly comes from critical reflections about how schools are handling the diversity amongst students. This thesis is part of a national research and school improvement program dealing with inclusive learning environments for students in the compulsory school. The aim of the study is to contribute with knowledge concerning teachers’ conceptions about lesson planning and teaching from a student inclusive perspective. Focus is on teachers’ perceptions of the multifaceted teaching in heterogeneous classes where the diverse qualifications of the students bring different challenges. The study contains two empirical investigations. The first one has a quantitative methodological approach, using a web-based questionnaire directed to all teachers, whose schools take part in the national program. The second study has a qualitative research design and the empirical data contains a case study with informants from three schools that also participated in the program. The theoretical analysis, based in a pragmatic understanding, is performed through Biesta’s dimensions of the aim of education; Uljens’ model for analyzing didactic action, Hedegaard-Sørensen’s approach on situated professionalism and Tomlinson’s perspective on differentiation of teaching as a basic pedagogical principle. The results show that teachers hold a positive attitude to the idea of inclusion. Mediating knowledge, in an inclusive teaching context, is regarded as an important but also as a difficult task to carry through during lessons. The teachers experience a dilemma when teaching-balance is requested between single students’ needs and the interest of the class as a whole. Differentiated teaching, taking into consideration the students’ diverse ways of learning, is conceived as an important aspect from a student inclusive perspective. The results also show that collegial collaboration, before as a well as during and after completed lessons, is regarded as a valuable aspect for the inclusive didactic lesson planning and lesson work to be successful.
15.
  • Leden, Lotta (författare)
  • Black & white or shades of grey : teachers perspectives on the role of nature of science in compulsory school science teaching
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Avhandlingen utforskar lärares perspektiv och förhandlingar gällande vilken roll “naturvetenskapens karaktär” (engelska ”nature of science”, NOS) kan spela i grundskolans NO-undervisning. Tidigare forskning har visat att NO-undervisning ofta har ett starkt fokus på naturvetenskapliga begrepp och strukturerade laborationer med ett implicit fokus på ”korrekta svar”. I den sortens undervisning ges sällan en bild av de människor och kontexter som är av betydelse för naturvetenskaplig kunskapsproduktion. I avhandlingen diskuteras den här beskrivningen av naturvetenskap och NO-undervisning som “svart-vit”. Inom ramen för forskning om naturvetenskapernas didaktik har förslag lagts fram som handlar om att bredda bilden av naturvetenskap. En sådan breddning skulle kunna medföra att fler elever kan identifiera sig med naturvetenskap och att mål som handlar om naturvetenskaplig literacitet (scientific literacy) lättare skulle kunna nås. I linje med dessa mål, har forskningen föreslagit att NOS inkluderas i NO-undervisningen. Att inkludera NOS i NO-undervisningen innebär att det skapas spänningar i förhållande till rådande undervisningstraditioner. Här blir lärare en viktig faktor eftersom de befinner sig i gränslandet mellan naturvetenskap och undervisning om densamma. I detta gränsland får policy, styrdokument och traditioner betydelse för vilken undervisningspraktik som blir möjlig. Avhandlingens metoder för att utforska lärarnas perspektiv är: enkäter, intervjuer och fokusgruppdiskussioner. Fokusgruppdiskussionerna, som var återkommande under tre år, är särskilt viktiga för att belysa olika perspektiv och spänningar. Ett teoretiskt ramverk som består av fem övergripande NOS-teman utvecklades och användes som en guide för fokusgrupperna och delar av analysen. Avhandlingen inkluderar fyra artiklar, med egna syften och specifika forskningsfrågor. Huvudresultaten från dessa artiklar sammanfattas och diskuteras i relation till policy och traditioner som omger NO-undervisning. Resultaten visar att den NOS-praktik som konstrueras genom lärarnas förhandlingar: a) syftar till en bred snarare än djup NOS-förståelse (d.v.s. inkluderar många NOS-områden, men undviker filosofiskt djup), b) är kontextualiserad och integrerad i laborations- eller kommunikationspraktiker, och c) syftar till att utveckla elevers intresse och engagemang samt att nå kunskapsmål som går utöver lärandet av naturvetenskapliga begrepp. Den här konstruktionen av NOS-praktik resulterar i starka spänningar i relation till traditionell NO-undervisning (t.ex. undervisning av begrepp och modeller), vilket i sin tur innebär att lärar- och elevroller utmanas. Däremot, blir NOS ett medel i arbetet med att utvidga laborationspraktiken och en katalysator i formandet av en kommunikationspraktik (t.ex. att reflektera kring naturvetenskap och dess relation till samhället både från ett inom- och utomvetenskapligt perspektiv). Motståndet mellan undervisningen av NOS och naturvetenskapliga begrepp medför att dessa inte integreras utan blir delar i formandet av parallella praktiker. Som En följd av denna uppdelning får eleverna möta olika bilder av naturvetenskap som sällan jämförs eller förhandlas. Ett förslag för framtida forskning och lärarutbildning är att skapa strukturer för att sammanfoga parallella praktiker som ett led i att minska spänningar och utvidga den begrepps-fokuserade traditionen.
16.
  • Melkersson, Mattias (författare)
  • Identities and images in football : a case study of brands and the organisational settings in the development of Scandinavian women’s club football.
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Women’s football has developed significantly throughout recent years. Not only in regards to the increased amount of participants or on-field achievements, but furthermore in regards to recognition, professionalism and organisation. The aim of this doctoral dissertation is to describe and investigate contextual and organisational conditions, characterized by heterogeneity, for a contemporary football development in Scandinavian women’s football. The Scandinavian setting is particularly interesting to investigate as the Scandinavian countries have been seen as forerunners with early official recognition and development for women’s football. Furthermore, governing football associations in the Scandinavian countries have also implemented club-licensing systems for elevating and developing women’s club football further. The dissertation investigates and analyses four Scandinavian women’s football clubs (Stabæk Football, Fortuna Hjørring, Linköpings FC and LdB FC Malmö) and the contextual conditions that influence their organisations. The study adopts a multi-theoretical approach by using a general theoretical approach (Brand Management) and specific theoretical approaches (gender relations, civic pride and social capital, the creative class, and the presentation of self). This means that each club is analysed and interpreted through both Brand Management theoretical concepts and a specific theoretical approach. The methodological approach for the dissertation take a point of departure in case study research. Each investigated club forms a case that attempts to describe and analyse contextual conditions by studying its participants, stakeholders, and environment. Empirical findings have been obtained through semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, document analysis and observations. The results highlight that various conditions have an impact on the investigated clubs. Gender structures within football affect clubs in a negative way by making distinctions between women and men based on traditions and stereotypical gender perceptions. This condition forces clubs to either adopt to, or challenge a male hegemonic norm. The geographical setting is also a significant condition that emphasize local association for clubs. The club cases highlight that implementing and communicating a strong local association assist clubs in gaining recognition and visibility. Here is also networking with local stakeholders seen as an important condition, which results in obtaining and nurturing sponsorships, player employments and local awareness.
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17.
  • Nilsson, Eva-Lotta (författare)
  • Parental socialization and adolescent offending
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overarching aim of this thesis is to extend the existing knowledge on how different aspects of parenting are associated with adolescent problem-related behaviors, such as offending. This relationship is illustrated in the four studies included in this thesis and has been conducted each with its own specific objective. The first study examine gender differences in several dimensions of family-related variables in the explanation of adolescent offending. The findings in the study show that there are clear gendered differences in both levels of the family variables and in the associations between the different family var-iables and offending. The results in this study are not only indicative of real and important differences in the dynamics in patterns of family attachment among boys and girls, they also point to the importance of conducting more nuanced and detailed studies of the different elements of family attach-ments in order to be able to capture the gendered differences that exist. The second study employ a longitudinal design and explore both time-variant and long-term associations of parenting, deviant peer affiliations and substance use among a sample of adolescents aged 12-17, and their par-ents. The main findings in this study show that parents knowing where their children are, what they are doing, and whom they are with, is beneficial in providing protection against involvement with deviant peers, which in turn appear to be important to the development of substance use. These results apply to both time-variant and long-term associations. The results also indi-cate that adolescents vary in susceptibility to social influences by age, and that parenting in early adolescence shape the landscape for involvement with deviant peers and substance use in later adolescence. In addition to more common between-group comparisons, analyses of with-in-person changes was also conducted in the third paper, with the aim to study different aspects of parental monitoring and young people’s moral values in the explanation of why some adolescents are more exposed to criminogenic settings than others. The results showed that adolescents ex-periencing less monitoring and adolescents with poor moral values tend to be more exposed to criminogenic settings. The findings also indicate that a decrease in monitoring over time can explain some of the increase in crimi-nogenic exposure over time. Parental monitoring also showed to be im-portant regardless of the level of a young person’s moral values. Overall, this thus indicate that it is important for parents to maintain high levels of monitoring during adolescence. In the fourth paper, parental knowledge is not only examined as a predictor, but also as an outcome variable in order to increase knowledge of how con-textual factors might shape parenting strategies. The aim of the study is to examine whether there are differences in parental knowledge in relation to level of collective efficacy and disorder in the neighbourhood. Additionally, we will examine how parental knowledge interact with collective efficacy and disorder in the explanation of adolescent offending. Two sources of data were employed to measure the contextual variables – adolescent percep-tions, as well as an independent, aggregated measure. Only the adolescent perceptions of the contextual variables were significantly associated with parental knowledge and offending. The main findings indicate that the per-ceived neighbourhood characteristics are associated with different levels of parental knowledge. Parental knowledge is more important in predicting of-fending than neighbourhood characteristics, however, the existence of an interaction between parental knowledge and perceived collective efficacy was found, indicating that collective efficacy has a different effect on of-fending for adolescents with different levels of parental knowledge. In conclusion, the results presented in the thesis show that parents is a ro-bust predictor of adolescent problem behaviors throughout adolescence, however the parent-child interaction does not seem to be universal. The findings also indicate that it is important to examine multidimensional measures to be able to identify variations and to capture the complexity comprised in the parent-child interaction in general, and in some concepts in particular.
18.
  • Nordgren, Johan (författare)
  • Making drugs ethnic : Khat and minority drug use in Sweden
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this dissertation is to study how discourses and problem representations have made some drugs and some forms of drug use into “ethnic problems” in Sweden and in Scandinavia. The primary example of such a process discussed in the dissertation concerns the use of the psychoactive and criminalized plant khat. The activity of associating a drug with ethnic minorities is defined in the dissertation as “making drugs ethnic”. By making drugs ethnic, Scandinavian welfare state institutions treat certain psychoactive substances and their users as primarily ethnic rather than as social or medical problems. Processes of making drugs ethnic thus have implications for social work practice, since understandings and proposed solutions to “drug abuse among immigrants” have been based largely on notions of ethnic or cultural difference. It has frequently been proposed that problematic khat use can be solved by increased use of “cultural competence” within social work and drug treatment institutions. This development is discussed in the dissertation as an over-emphasis of ethnicity and culture, and notions underlying this development are problematized. The dissertation contains four articles. The first analyzes discourses about khat use in Swedish daily newspapers during the period between 1986 and 2012. The article focuses on people who spoke out against khat use in the media, an activity which is described as moral entrepreneurship. Khat use was described as a “Somali” problem and as a serious threat to the Somali immigrant “community” in Sweden. The second article analyzes khat use discourses as presented in official reports evaluating projects against khat use in the Scandinavian countries. In these reports, khat use was described as causing unemployment, lack of integration and relationship problems among Somali immigrants, and the main proposed solution to the “problem” of khat use was cultural competence. The “Somali community” was positioned as in part responsible for reducing khat use, and there was a tendency to over-emphasize cultural explanations for problematic khat use. Article three takes a broader view of the notion of “drug abuse among immigrants”, a phenomenon that emerged in Sweden during the late 1980s and was in focus during the 1990s in drug treatment, social work and government contexts. There was an attempt to make the “drug-abusing immigrant” into a specific kind of client or patient in knowledge production initiatives. “Immigrants” were seen as introducing new drugs and ways of using them, creating an intermingling of drug use patterns, and being extraordinarily vulnerable. The fourth article analyzes discourses about khat expressed by persons who were active in Somali ethno-national civil society organizations in Sweden, interviewed during fieldwork carried out between 2014 and 2016. The impetus for this study was to analyze how those representatives viewed the dis-cursive association between the ethnic group they represent, and khat use. The interviewees both talked through and “talked back” to dominant discourses about khat use. Khat use was described as a problem, but khat was also seen as a drug that could be both used and “abused”. The interviewees used discourses more related to use of drugs in general, rather than about ethnicity and culture. They were aware of khat having been made ethnic, and rejected this association.
19.
  • Prgomet, Zdenka (författare)
  • The role of WNT5A in oral squamous cell carcinoma
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and further research into the cancer biology is required to improve treatment and survival. Cancer can start in all sites of the body and is characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and capability of invading surrounding tissue and spreading to other sites of the body. The most common type of cancer occurring in the oral cavity is oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Tobacco, including the betel quid and other types of smokeless tobacco, is the main risk factor for development of OSCC. Even though therapeutic treatment of OSCC has been improved, the prognosis is still poor, and the 5-year survival remains around 50%. The ongoing research have shown that proteins involved in signaling pathways play an important role in the progression of cancer, however, no reliable biomarkers have yet been identified as predictors of OSCC progression. Over the past years, a protein named WNT5A, has been shown to be involved in different types of cancer, either by promoting or suppressing cancer progression. However, its role in OSCC is still ambiguous. This thesis aimed to provide an insight into the role of WNT5A signaling in OSCC. We started by investigating the functional role of WNT5A in OSCC cells. Due to the lack of the endogenous WNT5A expression, we treated the cells with recombinant WNT5A (rWNT5A) and observed activation of the non-canonical WNT/Ca2+/PKC signaling in OSCC cells. This rWNT5A-induced signaling enhanced migration and invasion of OSCC cells, which was ascertained by different WNT5A inhibitors. These inhibitors eliminated the rWNT5A-induced WNT/Ca2+/PKC signaling and migration of OSCC cells indicating a promoting role of WNT5A in OSCC cells. Before investigating the expression of WNT5A in human OSCC tissues, we evaluated four commercially available WNT5A antibodies for use in immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blot analysis (WB). Cytoplasmic WNT5A immunostaining pattern was observed with all four antibodies but only the polyclonal AF645 antibody was able to detect WNT5A protein in WNT5A-positive cell lysates. Preabsorption tests revealed that the polyclonal AF645 antibody is the best antibody for detection of WNT5A by WB while the monoclonal 3A4 antibody is the most suitable for use in IHC. Using the monoclonal 3A4 antibody, we investigated the expression of WNT5A in human OSCC tissues. No expression of WNT5A was observed in normal oral epithelium or in mild grade of dysplasia. However, cytoplasmic WNT5A immunostaining was found in 38% of dysplastic tissues and in 81% of the OSCCs. We also noticed that WNT5A was more expressed in advanced OSCCs than in early invasive OSCCs. Furthermore, we did not observe any correlation between expression of WNT5A and two adhesion-proteins, β-catenin and E-cadherin, either in OSCC tissues or in OSCC cells. These findings suggest that WNT5A does not affect the canonical WNT/ β-catenin pathway or downregulation of E-cadherin in OSCC. At last, we investigated if the rWNT5A-induced WNT/Ca2+/PKC signaling affected secretion and activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in OSCC cells. We found that rWNT5A-induced activation of MMP2 is not dependent on activation of either β-catenin, ERK1/2, or p38-MAPK, but could instead be induced by WNT5A/Ca2+/PKC pathway. In conclusion, these findings suggest that WNT5A acts as a cancer promoter in OSCC by facilitating cell migration and invasion via the WNT5A/Ca2+/PKC signaling and activation of MMP2.
20.
  • Segerby, Cecilia (författare)
  • Supporting mathematical reasoning through reading and writing in mathematics : : making the implicit explicit
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In school mathematics, mathematical reasoning with an emphasis on language is considered an important competence. A student’s competence to reason in mathematics requires specific reading and writing skills, but suitable activities to support these skills are difficult to find. In this thesis, an Educational Design Research study has been conducted to support Grade 4 students’ reasoning competence when reading and writing texts in school mathematics. During a 15-week period, the reading comprehension strategies of prediction, clarification, questioning and summarization found in Palinscar and Brown’s Reciprocal Teaching model were implemented. To analyse what unfolded in the classroom and what comprised the everyday teaching and learning activities as well as what needed to change, a conceptual framework of coordinating theories and concepts from the Reciprocal Teaching model and Systematic Functional Linguistics was applied. The results from the intervention show that all four reading comprehension strategies in the Reciprocal Teaching model were essential, and the combination of them facilitated a change in the students’ mathematical reasoning. However, the strategies needed to be modified for school mathematics, and the teacher’s method of scaffolding became essential for further developing the students’ reasoning competence.
21.
  • Senneby, Anna (författare)
  • Re-evaluation of methods to identify individuals with increased risk of caries
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate methods used to identify individuals with increased risk of coronal caries lesion development. The specific aims were to: • evaluate the accuracy of different methods used to identify individuals with increased risk of developing dental coronal caries lesions (study I) • design and pilot a novel classification system for the assessment of caries lesion progression in bitewing radiography and to report rater agreement of the system (study II) • assess intra-individual differences in biofilm acid-tolerance between different tooth surfaces and inter-individual variation as well as stability of acid tolerance over time (study III) • assess diagnostic accuracy of two established methods and a candidate method to identify adolescents with increased risk of dental coronal caries lesion development (study IV). Study I comprised a systematic review of caries risk assessment methods, following methods were included for final analysis: previous caries experience, tests using microbiota, buffering capacity, salivary flow rate, dental plaque, dietary habits and sociodemographic variables. Assessment of risk of bias with the aid of Quadas-2 resulted in identification of methodological limitations concerning study design, test technology and reporting. Evidence for methods using previous caries experience and salivary mutans streptococci was low and evidence regarding other methods was lacking. The overall evidence on the validity of analysed methods used for caries risk assessment is limited. As methodological quality was low, there is a need to improve study design. In study II a classification system with drawings and text was designed to assess caries lesion progression in bitewing radiographs. Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies, GRRAS were used to design and report the study. Pairs of posterior bitewing radiographs (baseline and 1-year follow-up) with different status concerning caries lesion progression were selected and 10 raters assessed the radiographs with the aid of the classification system. Seven raters repeated their assessments. Kappa for the interrater agreement of 10 raters assessing progression was 0.61, indicating substantial agreement. Corresponding intrarater agreement was substantial (kappa 0.66–0.82). This system can provide a common framework for clinical decision-making on caries interventional methods and patient visiting intervals. Scientifically, the system allows for a comparative analysis of different methods of prevention and treatment of caries as well as of different caries risk assessment methods. In study III dental biofilms were collected from supragingival approximal surfaces of canines and first premolars, second premolar and first molars, and between the central incisors of both jaws in adolescents at baseline, day 3, after 1 month as well as after 6- and 12 months for the approximal surfaces of second molars and first molars. After exposure to pH 3.5 for 2 hours, biofilm cells were visualized using LiveDead® BacLightTM staining and each sample was examined using an inverted confocal scanning laser microscope. Live bacteria (acid-tolerant) appeared green while dead (non acid-tolerant) bacteria appeared red. Images of the biofilm were compared with a scale (score 1-5) to assess the proportion acid-tolerant bacteria in each sample. A majority of the adolescents were assessed with low scores of biofilm acid tolerance. In 14 of 20 individuals, no differences were seen between the three dental sites. At 51 of total 60 sites, assessed score of acid tolerance at baseline was unchanged after one month. However, scores for acid tolerance changed over a 1-year period in 50% of the individuals. Results should be interpreted with caution because of the limitation in sample size. Acid tolerance of dental biofilm is a candidate method that may be implement in caries risk assessment methods. It needs to be scientifically evaluated in clinical prospective studies as a biomarker for caries development. For the purpose of study IV, the STARD-statement “Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy” was implemented for design and reporting of the study. Adolescents, aged 12, visiting two public dental clinics were examined by visual/tactile examination and bitewing radiography of posterior teeth at baseline and after 1 year. Two established methods (previous caries experience and dentists’ risk assessment) and one candidate method (acid tolerance in dental biofilm) were applied with pre-specified thresholds. The reference standard comprised coronal caries lesion development after 1 year. Caries lesion progression occurred in 29% of the adolescents, mainly approximal lesions within enamel. Diagnostic test accuracy varies with thresholds of the index tests, reference standard and with different caries status and caries lesion progression. Most positive likelihood ratios for the methods were <5 indicating small increases in the post-test probabilities.
22.
  • Smolicki, Jacek (författare)
  • Para-Archives : : Rethinking Personal Archiving Practices in the Times of Capture Culture
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This study explores possibilities for alternate modes of personal archiving in the context of contemporary techno-culture and dominant practices of personal data capture. An intensified proliferation of various capturing technologies concerned with collecting, storing and analyzing personal data allows to problematize personal archiving as one of the most prevalent everyday media practices that people engage in today, both voluntarily and involuntarily. The main point of departure for this thesis is a recognition of a certain polarization of perspectives and debates prompted by this new techno-cultural condition defined in this research as capture culture. If on hand we are presented with an enthusiastic scenario of a certain infallibility of digital memory and possibility to fully control the way one construct's his/her digital archive, the opposite view confronts us with a pessimistic vision of a full penetrability of our digital repositories (and hence everyday lives), ever more tightly dependent on the imperceptible dynamics of network technologies. In this thesis I investigate a possibility to move beyond these ramifications and seek for alternate techniques for personal archiving by engaging in a practice-based research and media archaeological inquiry into (archival) media histories. The practice-based case study unfolds as an auto-ethnography of the author’s personal recording techniques over the last decade. It traces the trajectory from a paper notebook, through a series of digital recording techniques excerpting various subsets of the surrounding world, to the post-digital, archival cabinet organizing analog and digital traces from these practices. As a result, this thesis puts forward a concept of para-archiving, a creative media practice presenting alternate ways of configuring a subjective position in capture culture, a departure from the dominant motivations for engaging with it. As part of an experimental methodological assemblage defined as media practice approach, the author also uses his practice as a vehicle enabling a critical reflection on the implications of today's pervasive technologies on, for example, material, performative and agential aspects of personal memory and archiving. While located within the field of media and communications the thesis borrows from such fields and debates as philosophy of technology, media archaeology, cultural studies and (media) arts.
23.
  • Snodgrass, Eric (författare)
  • Executions Power and Expression in Networked and Computational Media
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This research looks at questions of power and expression as they are composed in various ways within networked and computationally-informed situations of the present. Drawing from the term as it is originally invoked in practices of computing, the research puts forward execution as a central conceptual framework for its investigations. In a computer program, a program becomes executable when it is able to execute a set of procedures within a designated set of relations and affordances. Similarly, the concept of execution developed here looks at the ongoing negotiations of various formative relations and affordances (technical, cultural, material, political) in practices of execution, describing certain notable techniques applied towards the task of making things executable.The examples looked at include several dominant media and technology practices of the present, as well as several alternative practices that point to other possible modes of execution. In doing so, the research highlights certain politically-orientated issues involved in questions of execution, working to further develop specific approaches aimed at describing, questioning and intervening into practices of execution as they occur in the world.
24.
  • Thavenius, Marie (författare)
  • Liv i texten : : om litteraturläsningen i en svensklärarutbildning
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The overall aim of this doctoral thesis is to widen and deepen the understanding of reading practices and the functions of literature in a Swedish teacher education programme. The aim is also to contextualize the reading of literature in this education programme by discussing literary studies and teaching more generally. The theoretical framework incorporates theories within literary theory, reception study, New Literacy Studies, and discourse analysis that share the view that texts and practices are socially situated. In this thesis reading practice is the overarching term within which other terms or concepts, such as reading act, reading event, and form of reading, but also discourse and ideology, are seen as embedded. The research design is inspired by ethnography and the data consist of audio recordings from teaching activities, questionnaires, interviews, and guidance documents. In guidance documents, questionnaires and interviews, there are numerous discursive elements, which are combined in different ways, but it appears that there are two principal discourses that exist in parallel. One discourse emphasizes the literary text, analysis, interpretation, aesthetic tools and the overall understanding of text-internal aspects. The second discourse emphasizes readers, students, teaching situations and understanding of both text-internal aspects and phenomena outside the text. These two prominent discourses can create a contradiction between emphasis on text on the one hand and on students and teaching on the other hand, but they can also work together. Three recurring core issues are identified in research on literature education in the last decade in Sweden. The first one has to do with the intrinsic value of literature as opposed to the uses of literature. Most scholars nowadays emphasize reading literature in its own right, and claim that literature has a value in itself. Most of them oppose the use of literature, when there is a predetermined purpose such as the students using literature to examine ethical, existential, social and historical issues. The second issue is that of the relationship between literature and reality. There are often claims that students read literature as true stories or even as a collection of facts and not as fiction, and that is considered a problem. The third issue has to do with understanding. Understanding is an every-day word but when it has to do with literature reading and education it can have different meanings. It could refer to the understanding of content and plot, or narrative structure and metaphorical language, but also to the understanding of the world outside the fictional world. Most of the literature education scholars in Sweden today most highly value the understanding of narrative structure, metaphorical language and the meaning of the text. In research and debate it seems as if many people take for granted that students read literature as factual and use it as a means for achieving something else and that this is seen as something negative. This view seems to lead to an attempt to isolate literature and literature reading from the surrounding world. But this study shows that the reading practices are considerably more complex, and there are several examples where the students combine different forms of reading such as symbolic, analytical and personal. Aesthetic aspects, narrative technique as well as ethical, existential, and social issues are present in the reading practices. All these aspects – and others – are not present all the time, but there are examples in practice of how they are combined and interact.
25.
  • Wahlin, Åsa (författare)
  • Periodontal health and disease in two adult populations in Sweden
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis deals with epidemiological data regarding periodontal disease from two different Swedish populations (Jönköping and Skåne). Background The studies focus on periodontal disease, a disease affecting a large part of the adult population. Periodontitis is a complex inflammatory disease, often chronic, which affects the tissues supporting the teeth – the periodontium. The biofilm that adheres to the hard surfaces of the teeth initiate an inflammation in the supporting tissues. In susceptible individuals, the inflammation may cause the destruction of the periodontium (periodontitis). Individuals with severe periodontitis – between 5-15% in different populations – show a range of clinical signs and symptoms, such as bleeding gums, mobile and drifting teeth, the loss of interdental papillae, and eventually the loss of teeth. This may affect the function of the dentition and the aesthetic appearance of the individual. Despite this, the disease is often considered to be silent. Aims The overall aim was to study periodontitis prevalence and severity in two Swedish adult populations, and to describe the changes over time. Further aims were to examine the effect of an individual’s sense of coherence on periodontitis and to analyse the impact of periodontitis on oral health-related quality of life. In order to examine this, a series of four different studies were performed with the following specific aims: I) to investigate the prevalence, severity, extent of marginal bone loss and subject characteristics in the adult population in the county of Skåne, Sweden; II) to assess trends over 40 years regarding the prevalence and severity of periodontitis in an adult Swedish population; III) to investigate the impact of periodontal disease experience on quality of life, in an adult Swedish population, using the OHIP-14 questionnaire; and finally IV). To investigate how an individual’s level of sense of coherence correlates with their periodontitis experience, in two different random samples, ten years apart. Methods One cross-sectional clinical study in Skåne and five cross-sectional clinical studies in Jönköping, repeated every ten years, were performed with random samples of the adult populations. Both study protocols included questionnaires regarding demographic as well as health and oral health-related factors, as well as patient-related outcome measures, such as oral health related quality of life and sense of coherence. Results The prevalence of severe periodontitis experience was eleven percent across the two study populations. There was no difference in periodontitis prevalence according to gender. It was also shown that subjects with severe periodontitis suffered from worse quality of life compared to subjects without periodontitis. Regarding the sense of coherence, no difference could be observed between the different degrees of periodontitis experience. Conclusion The main findings over time were the increase of periodontally healthy individuals and the retention of more teeth among subjects with severe periodontal disease. Also, individuals with advanced periodontitis experience worse quality of life compared to periodontally healthy individuals.
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