- Wang, Min, et al.
Apolipoprotein M induces inhibition of inflammatory responses via the S1PR1 and DHCR24 pathways
Ingår i: Molecular Medicine Reports. - : Spandidos Publications Ltd. - 1791-2997. ; 19:2, s. 1272-1283
- © 2019 Spandidos Publications. All rights reserved. Apolipoprotein M (ApoM) is a type of apolipoprotein. It is well known that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) decreases inflammatory responses via the apoM-sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway. The present study further investigated the importance of ApoM in the inhibitory effects of HDL on inflammation. Mice with an apoM gene deficiency (apoM-/-) were employed to investigate the effects of ApoM on the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), S1P receptor-1 (S1PR1) and 3β-hydroxysterol Δ-24-reductase (DHCR24), as compared with in wild-type mice (apoM+/+). Furthermore, cell culture experiments were performed using a permanent human hybrid endothelial cell line (EA.hy926). Cells were cultured in the presence of recombinant human apoM (rec-apoM) or were induced to overexpress apoM (apoMTg); subsequently, cells were treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), in order to investigate the effects of ApoM on IL-1β and MCP-1. The results demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of IL-1β and MCP-1 were significantly higher in the liver following administration of lipopolysaccharide in apoM-/- mice compared with in apoM+/+ mice. In cell culture experiments, when cells were pre-cultured with rec-apoM or were engineered to overexpress apoM (apoMTg), they exhibited decreased expression levels of IL-1β and MCP-1 following TNF-α treatment compared with in normal apoM-expressing cells (apoMTgN). Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of IL-1β and MCP-1 were significantly elevated following addition of the S1PR1 inhibitor W146, but not by the scavenger receptor class B type I inhibitor, block lipid transport-1 (BLT-1), in apoMTg cells prior to TNF-α treatment. Conversely, there were no differences in these inflammatory biomarkers under the same conditions in apoMTgN cells. The mRNA expression levels of DHCR24 were significantly reduced by the addition of BLT-1 prior to TNF-α treatment in apoMTg cells; however, there was no difference in the expression of this inflammatory biomarker in apoMTgN cells. In conclusion, ApoM displayed inhibitory effects against the inflammatory response in vivo and in vitro; these effects may be induced via the S1PR1 and DHCR24 pathways.