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  • Nowroozalizadeh, Salma, et al. (författare)
  • Studies on toll-like receptor stimuli responsiveness in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Cytokine. - : Academic Press. - 1096-0023. ; 46:3, s. 325-331
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: HIV-1 and HIV-2 are two related viruses with distinct clinical outcomes, where HIV-1 is more pathogenic and transmissible than HIV-2. The pathogenesis of both infections is influenced by the dysregulation and deterioration of the adaptive immune system. However, their effects on the responsiveness of innate immunity are less well known. Here, we report on toll-like receptor (TLR) stimuli responsiveness in HIV-1 or HIV-2 infections. Methods: Whole blood from 235 individuals living in Guinea-Bissau who were uninfected, infected with HIV-1, infected with HIV-2, and/or infected with HTLV-1, was stimulated with TLR7/8 and TLR9 agonists, R-848 and unmethylated CpG DNA. After TLR7/8 and TLR9 stimuli, the expression levels of IL-12 and IFN-alpha were related to gender, age, infection status, CD4(+) T cell counts. and plasma viral load. Results: Defective TLR9 responsiveness was observed in the advanced disease stage, along with CD4(+) T cell loss in both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. Moreover, TLR7/8 responsiveness was reduced in HIV-1 infected individuals compared with uninfected controls. Conclusions: Innate immunity responsiveness can be monitored by whole blood stimulation. Both advanced HIVA and HIV-2 infections may cause innate immunity dysregulation. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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