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Sökning: swepub > Övrigt vetenskapligt > Umeå universitet > (1980-1989)

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  • Alm, Håkan, 1948- (författare)
  • Learning of probabilistic inference tasks effects of uncertainty and function form
  • 1982
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is concerned with the problem of how people learn to use uncer­tain information for making judgments. The general framework for the thesis is Social Judgment Theory (SJT). First the S3T paradigm, and some research conducted within the paradigm, is briefly described, and a series of four empirical studies is summarized. The studies are concerned with two factors that have been found to have great effect on subjects achievement in cue probability learning (CPL) tasks: task predictability, and the form of the function relating cue and criterion. The effects of these two factors were studied in experiments employing cue-probability learning tasks. The studies concerned with task predictability addressed the following questions (a) Do subjects understand the probabilistic nature of CPL-tasks? (b) Are subjects able to detect that a random task is, in fact, random, a study undertaken to test an aspect of Seligmans "theory of helplessness". This was also an attempt to bring emotional factors more in foeus.(c) Do subjects use data from the task only to test hypotheses, or do they use data also to construct hypotheses?The results showed that (a) subjects do not seem to be able to cope with probabilistic tasks in an optimal statistical manner. Instead they seem to use a deterministic approach to the tasks, because they do not understand the probabilistic nature of the task, (b) Task predictability affecs subjects mood, but not in the way predicted by Seligman, (c) Subjects seem to use data frorn the task only to test their hypotheses. The results thus supported the hypo­theses sampling model for the learning of CPL-tasks.As for the factor of function form, the following questions were addressed, (a) What hypotheses about relations between variables do subjects have? (b) Is the difficulties subjects have in learning complex rules in CPL-tasks due to a low availability of hypotheses about complex rules? The results showed that, (a) the hypothesis hierarchy as revealed in the present experiments was in general agreement with earlier results. However, few nonlinear hypotheses were observed, and other rules than functional rules were observed, (b) The difficulties subjects have to learn complex rules in CPL-tasks do not seem to be caused by low availability of rules.Finally, some suggestions are given for how the SJT-paradigm should be deve­loped. Specifically, it is suggested that the effects of emotional factors should be given more attention, and that the paradigm should be turned into a more general hypothesis testing model
  • Axelsson, Karin (författare)
  • Eating problems and nutritional status after stroke
  • 1988
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Eating problems and nutritional status were studied in a consecutive series of 104 stroke patients admitted to emergency hospital care. During their stay in hospital eating problems were observed in 46 patients. Certain common types of eating problems were identified: aberrant eating behaviour as regards chewing,lokalization or swallowing, eating small amounts, hoarding of food in the mouth, leakage of food from the mouth and unawareness of eating problems. Poor nutritional status occurred in 16 % of the patients on admission and in 22 % on discharge from the stroke unit.A subgroup of 32 patients hospitalized for 21 days or longer was studied for three weeks. On at least one occasion during these three weeks a poor nutritional status was observed in 18 patients, of whom 17 had eating problems.All subjects who had eating problems during their hospital stay, plus those patients without eating problems but with neurological deficits and those living in a nursing home one year after the stroke (n=36) were selected for a longitudinal study 18 months after the onset of stroke. Eating problems were identified in 23 of these patients during their hospital stay while 21 had such problems when they were followed up.Two patients who could not eat due to severe dysphagia (after a stroke) for three years and 18 months respectively, were successfully trained to eat normally. One patient exhibited impaired oral and hypopharyngeal function and the other impaired hypo- pharyngeal function and a spastic crico-pharyngeal muscle. In both patients training in swallowing was the main remedical measure and one of them also had a myotomy of the spastic muscle.
  • Edlund, Ann-Catrine, 1959- (författare)
  • Sjökatt och svarttjäder : Studier över säljägares noaord för säl inom det bottniska området och Östersjöområdet.
  • 1989
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This essay is a study of seal-hunters' terms for the seal in the area around the Gulf of Bothnia and around the Baltic Sea. The purpose is to investigate whether there are noa words present among the seal-hunters' many words for the seal. The basic material consists of approximately 200 different terms for seal, collected from the Swedish-speaking areas around the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia, areas where the seal has been hunted well into the 20th century. These terms have been collected partly from archives and partly from published litterature. From this basic material some twenty or so words have been extracted, which regarding meaning or origin, contain features that are characteristic for noa words in general. Only a few of the terms can with any certainty be said to be noa words. But there are tendencies in the material which point to the existence of linguistic taboos in the world of the seal-hunters. The background to the presence of linguistic taboos, which is very complex, is also discussed here. First and foremost these taboos are based on a faith in the power of the language and the word. There is a fixed relationship between the words and the object/s that they represent and consequently the language acquires the power of invocation. Tabooing should also be seen as one precautionary measure among the many which the seal-hunters were fored to take during the dangerous hunt. Furthermore, the seal-hunters had two different occupations in two completely separate physical environments: they were farmers on land and seal-hunters at sea. The purpose of linguistic tabooing then became to separate the two different environments from each other, to mark the invisible border between the living conditions on land and at sea, with the help of language. Finally, the taboos are part of a religious, supernatural context. In folk belief seals have been seen as drowned people. I have here described a legend which is connected with this belief. The legend says that the seals are the soldiers of Pharaoh, who were turned into seals when they drowned in the Red Sea, after pursuing Moses and the children of Israel out of Egypt. A further example of the fact that the seal ha been placed in a supernatural context is that the head of the seal has been seen as carrier of magical power.  
  • Gärling, Anita (författare)
  • Parents' perceptions of children's accident risk
  • 1988
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of the present thesis was, first, to study how parents and other adults percieve or judge children’s accident risk, and, secondly, to relate such judgements to the subjects’ preferences for and satisfaction with different residential conditions.A theoretical framework is proposed which assumes that judgements of children’s accident risk are based on beliefs about what causes accidents to children. Such beliefs are furthermore assumed to be acquired more often from indirect sources than from own direct experiences. Nevertheless, because of parents’ higher motivation to protect their children, they are assumed to differ from other adults who are not parents with respect to their causal models and, as a consequence, their risk perceptions.To test some implications of the theoretical framework, three empirical studies were carried out in which parents and nonparents were requested to judge the risk children run of having accidents under different circumstances and to judge the strengths of five causes of such accidents, the parent, the child, the environment, other people, and chance. In two of the studies the subjects were also requested to express their preferences for different residential neighborhoods varying in traffic conditions, or satisfaction with their own residential conditions either as it is or if changed in different ways.Support for the implications of the theoretical framework was obtained in that causal explanations of accidents were shown to play a decisive role for judgements of accident risk. However, very slight differences were found between parents’ and nonparents’ causal models and risk perceptions. The results furthermore indicated that accident risk was of importance for parents’ satisfaction with their residential conditions if changes with perceived accident consequences were implemented. In this respect parents differed from nonparents. For the latter other things than children’s accident risk tended to be more important.
  • Hansson, Pär, 1957- (författare)
  • Intra-industry trade: measurements, determinants and growth a study of Swedish foreign trade
  • 1989
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The conclusions are that a traditional factor proportions model seems neither theoretically nor empirically to explaing IIT. However, a relaxation of the assumption of homogeneous products in an industry gives rise to several implications for IIT. Industry characteristics such as an industry’s factor intensity and the degree of product differentiation play important roles. The more extreme an industry is with regard to factor intensity, i.e., if an industry is very capital or very labor intensive, the smaller IIT is in that industry. The more differentiated the products, the less the elasticity of substitution in demand between different products in an industry, the larger the IIT. In order to test the latter, a new measure of product differentiation closely related to the concept in the theoretical model is developed. Furthermore, similarity in relative factor endowments in the trading countries and transaction costs - tariffs and transport costs - influence IIT. The more similar the relative factor endowments, the larger the IIT. The less the transaction costs, the greater the IIT.
  • Henriksson, Widar, 1943- (författare)
  • Uppgiftsformat, partiell kunskap och säkerhet på ett kvantitativt-numeriskt prov en studie med kända uppgiftskarakteristika
  • 1981
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I föreliggande studie var syftet att pröva en logiskt uppbyggd och sekvensiell probleml ösningsstrategi för ett kvantitativt-numeriskt prov (NOG). Detta prov ingår som ett av total t sexdel p r ov i det s k högskoleprovet . Den logiskt uppbyggda pr obl emlösni ngsst rat egi n t ogs som u t gångspunkt för ut formandet a v et texperiment e l l t uppgi f t s f o rmat (NOG**) och st udi ens upp läggn ingbaser ades på en j ämf ö r e l s e a v samma pr ov i två versi oner : enkonvent ionel l (NOG) och en exper iment e l l (NOGx x ) . Indi kat i onerpå at t exper iment - och kont rol lgrupp var ini t iai t j ämf ör bar ai pr e s tat ionsavseende erhöl l s ut i f rån et t verbal t f ö rprov (ORD) .I st udi e n ingick 264 el ever f rån samt l i g a f em l injer i gymnas i e t sår skur s 3. St udi ens ut fal l bl e v at t det int e förel å g någon ski l l nadi poängmede l vä rde, baser a t på ant ingen konvent ionel l el lerdi f ferent iel l poäng , mel lan den g rupp som erhål l i t det exper imentell a (NOGx x ) och den g rupp som e rhål l i t det konvent ionel l a(NOG) uppgi f tsf o rmat e t . Det t a i ndi ker ade at t den sekvensi e l l apr obl eml ösni ngsst rat egi n int e hade någon di rekt påvi sbar ef fektel ler indi rekt at t det konvent ionel l a NOG-f o rmat e t int e varkompl ext . Om a nal ysen baser ades på C el ler E som kor rekt al ter nati v bl e v dessutom det exper iment e l l a uppgi f t s f o rmat e t komplexar e än det konvent ionel l a (NOG). Konsekvense r a v det er hållna ut fal let di skut e ras.
  • Höglund, Lars, 1946-, et al. (författare)
  • Information och kunskap informationsförsörjning - forskning och policyfrågor
  • 1985
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Under århundraden har det mänskliga vetandet dokumenterats och samlats. Idag sker det i större omfattning än någonsin och sysselsätter allt fler. Forskningsresultat, dagsaktuella uppgifter, analyser och översikter pro-duceras som aldrig förr. Fortfarande är denna information i hög grad en allmän resurs. Den är i princip tillgänglig för de flesta. Den är relativt billig — ofta gratis. Den kan återanvändas och delas av många utan att förstöras.
  • Höglund, Lars, 1946- (författare)
  • Om informationsutnyttjande i forsknings- och utvecklingsarbete
  • 1980
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Stadier av vad, hur,varför och till vilken nyttavetenskaplig och teknisk information används kanmotiveras bade som praktiska och teoretiska problem.De kan ocksa stimuleras från båda dessa håll.I denna skrift behandlas informationsutnyttjarndei forsknings- och utvecklingsverksamhet med tonvikt på användningen av facklitteratur och olika hjälpmedel för litteratursökning. Mot bakgrund av endiskussion om forskning, information och tidigare studier analyseras informationsvanorna med hjälpav två fallstudier.
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