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  • Dahlin, MK, et al. (författare)
  • Mentally disordered criminal offenders : Legal and criminological perspectives
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - 0160-2527. ; 32:6, s. 377-382
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Legal research in Sweden has traditionally focused on a systematization of the legal rules and their practical application, while the task of studying the effects of the application of the laws has been handed over to other branches of the social sciences. In contrast, new legal theories focusing on proactive and therapeutic dimensions in law have gained increasing attention in the international arena. These approaches may be better suited for evaluating legislation governing compulsory psychiatric care. Theoretical discussions and studies of causal mechanisms underlying criminal behaviour, as well as the implementation and value of instruments for predicting behaviour, are relevant to contemporary criminological research. Criminal behaviour varies across different groups of perpetrators, and the causes can be sought in the interplay between the individual and social factors. Multi-disciplinary efforts, integrating research from forensic psychiatry, psychology, sociology, and criminology, would be beneficial in leading to a better understanding of the causes underlying criminal behaviour. 
  • Andersson, Bodil T., et al. (författare)
  • Radiographers' areas of professional competence related to good nursing care
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. - 0283-9318. ; 22:3, s. 401-409
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Radiographers' ability and competence is a matter of vital importance for patients. Nursing care is an integral part of the radiographer's work. The demand for high competence in clinical activities has increased in diagnostic radiology and has had an impact on the development of the profession.AIM: The aim was to describe the radiographer's areas of professional competence in relation to good nursing care based on critical incidents that occur in the course of radiological examinations and interventions.METHOD: A descriptive design with a qualitative approach, using the Critical Incident Technique was employed. Interviews were conducted with a strategic sample of registered radiographers (n = 14), based at different hospitals in Sweden.ETHICAL ISSUES: The appropriate ethical principles were followed. All the participants provided informed consent, and formal approval for conducting the research was obtained according to national and local directives.RESULTS: The data analysis resulted in two main areas; direct and indirect patient-related areas of competence, which describe the radiographers' skills that either facilitate or hinder good nursing care. In the direct patient-related area of competence, four categories emerged, which illustrate good nursing care in the patient's immediate surroundings. In the indirect patient-related area of competence, four categories illuminated good nursing care that is provided without direct contact with the patient.CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the different areas of the radiographer's unique professional competence. The findings provide insight into the radiographer's profession, on one hand as a carer and on the other as a medical technologist as well as highlighting the importance of each role. The radiographer's work encompasses a variety of components--from caring for the patient to handling and checking the technical equipment.
  • Hoglund, P, et al. (författare)
  • Accountability and psychiatric disorders: How do forensic psychiatric professionals think?
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. - Elsevier. - 0160-2527. ; 32, s. 355-361
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Swedish penal law does not exculpate on the grounds of diminished accountability; persons judged to suffer from severe mental disorder are sentenced to forensic psychiatric care instead of prison. Re-introduction of accountability as a condition for legal responsibility has been advocated, not least by forensic psychiatric professionals. To investigate how professionals in forensic psychiatry would assess degree of accountability based on psychiatric diagnoses and case vignettes, 30 psychiatrists, 30 psychologists, 45 nurses, and 45 ward attendants from five forensic psychiatric clinics were interviewed. They were asked (i) to judge to which degree (on a dimensional scale from 1 to 5) each of 12 psychiatric diagnoses might affect accountability, (ii) to assess accountability from five case vignettes, and (iii) to list further factors they regarded as relevant for their assessment of accountability. All informants accepted to provide a dimensional assessment of accountability on this basis and consistently found most types of mental disorders to reduce accountability, especially psychotic disorders and dementia. Other factors thought to be relevant were substance abuse, social network, personality traits, social stress, and level of education.
  • Klingberg, G, et al. (författare)
  • Aspects on dental hard tissues in primary teeth from patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International journal of paediatric dentistry / the British Paedodontic Society [and] the International Association of Dentistry for Children. - 1365-263X. ; 19:4, s. 282-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a rare hereditary condition affecting connective tissues and dental hard tissues. HYPOTHESES: Primary enamel and dentine from EDS patients were expected to differ from those of healthy subjects regarding morphology and chemical composition. DESIGN: Forty-seven exfoliated primary teeth from 25 patients with EDS were investigated. Morphology was studied using a polarized light microscope, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray microanalysis. Comparisons were made with 36 primary teeth from 36 healthy patients. RESULTS: Morphological analysis of enamel in EDS teeth showed a high frequency of postnatally hypomineralized enamel and postnatally located incremental lines, whereas dentine was normal in all patients. Chemical analysis could not reveal any differences between EDS and control patients except for lower content of C and a higher Ca/P ratio in the enamel in the EDS teeth, indicating porous enamel. Regarding dentine, EDS teeth had a lower content of C, and a higher content of Ca, P, and O. Ratios for Ca/C and Ca/O were also higher compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: There are several aberrations of booth enamel and dentine in primary teeth from patients with EDS. These could explain the occurrence of both more dental caries and tooth fractures in patients with EDS.
  • Campbell, Ann-mari, et al. (författare)
  • Night duty as an opportunity for learning
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Advanced Nursing. - Blackwell Publishing. - 0309-2402. ; 62:3, s. 346-353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim. This paper is a report of a study to examine what opportunities night nurses have to learn in terms of being able to distinguish variations in the patients' conditions.Background. Night nurses often lack access to the formalized in-service training offered to day nurses. As every clinical experience can be seen as an opportunity for learning, learning takes place even at night. However, the learning of night nurses has not been studied previously.Method. This study is based on interviews with a convenience sample of 10 night nurses at a medium-sized Swedish hospital in 2001. These interviews were reanalysed in 2006 concerning learning situations. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded and examined using latent content analysis.Findings. There are certain opportunities for learning during the night shift, and three learning situations come to the fore: (1) the report situation, (2) the personal assessment round, where the nurses form their own picture of the patient, (3) in assessment prior to contact with the doctor on duty. Nurses learn from variations in patients' conditions and when they have to report their experience verbally. Learning does take place at night and gestalt psychology is a helpful tool for understanding how former knowledge and experience affect night nurses' learning.Conclusion. Knowledge developed during the night shift is a neglected field. There is a need for further investigations of what night nurses learn, and this knowledge ought to be integrated in the body of nursing knowledge.
  • Johansson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in four reported symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders in a cohort of 50-year-old subjects followed up after 10 years
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6357. ; 66:1, s. 50-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To assess possible changes in the prevalence of four temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms reported by subjects at age 50 and again 10 years later. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Identical questionnaires were sent out in 1992 and in 2002 to all subjects born in 1942 and living in two Swedish counties. Of those who answered the four questions on TMD symptoms in 1992, 74% responded in 2002 (n=4639). The response alternatives were dichotomized into two groups: 1) No problems and 2) some, rather severe and severe problems. RESULTS: The mean prevalence of TMD-related symptoms reflected small and mainly non-significant changes, whereas the prevalence of reported bruxism was significantly greater at age 60 than at age 50. Among those with no TMD symptoms at age 50, 5-7% of the men and 8-9% of the women reported symptoms at age 60. Of those reporting one or more TMD symptoms at age 50, 47-65% of the men and 40-48% of the women had no symptoms 10 years later. There was a significant and markedly increased risk of reporting TMD symptoms and bruxism (OR>10) at age 60 among those who had symptoms at age 50. CONCLUSIONS: The mean prevalence of reported TMD symptoms was relatively consistent from age 50 to age 60. The group reporting symptoms at the first examination were highly likely still to have the symptoms 10 years later. However, approximately half of the subjects with TMD symptoms at age 50 reported no symptoms at age 60.
  • Johansson, Maria Eiman, et al. (författare)
  • Registered Nurses´Adherence to Clinical Guidelines Regarding Peripheral Venous Catheters : A Structured Observational Study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing. - Blackwell. - 1545-102X. ; 5:3, s. 148-159
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Perifer venkateter är vanligt bland en stor del patienter idag. Användandet av perifer venkateter (PVK) kan leda till komplikationer som t ex tromboflebit och sepsis och kliniska riktlinjer har utarbetats för att stödja sjuksköterskor som handhar PVK. Det finns flera orsaker till varför kliniskt verksamma inte följer kliniska riktlinjer även om detta skulle minska komplikationsfrekvensen. Den här artikeln beskriver sjuksköterskors följsamhet till nationella och lokala kliniska riktlinjer vad gäller PVK och fokuserar på tid in situ, placering och dokumentaion vid förbandet. Ett ytterligare asyfte är att beskriva förekomsten av tromboflebiter i anslutning till PVK in situ, Metoden är strukturerade observationer av patienter med PVK. Data som analyserades gäller 343 PVK och är insamlat mellan december 2004 till juni 2005. Resultatet visar att sjuksköterskorna delvis följer riktlinjerna vad gäller storlek och placering. det var låg följsamhet vad gäller dokumentationen. icke följsamheten vad gäller tid in situ varierade mellan 5-26,3%, skillnader visade för storlek, placering och dokumentation. Mild tromboflebit (grad 1 och 2) observerades i 7% av fallen. Slutsatserna är att sjuksköterskors följsamhet till kliniska riktlinjer varierar men att sjuksköterskorna verkar byta leer ta bort PVK innan det uppstår alvarliga komplikationer. Återkoppling och diskussioner om följsamhet eller om komplikationer kan ha ett inflytande på sjuksköterskors kliniska beslutsfattande . Nyckelord: kliniskt beslutsfattande, följsamhet till riktlinjer, perifer venkateter, strukturerade observationer
  • Johansson, Maria Eiman, et al. (författare)
  • Nurses' clinical reasoning concerning management of peripheral venous cannulae
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING. - 0962-1067. ; 18:23, s. 3366-3375
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Studien syftar till att beskriva sjuksköterskors kliniska resonemang vid skötsel av perifer venkateter. varje dag fattar sjuksköterskor en mängd beslut, bland annat om skötsel av PVK. En vanlig komplikation till PVK är tromboflebit, även om det också kan förekomma allvarligare komplikationer. Det finns kliniska riktlinjer om skötsel av PVK men dessa följs inte alltid. Tidigare studier om skötsel av PVK har inte genomförts i naturlig miljö. Därför designades en studie med kvalitativ metos som kombinerar observationer med intervjuer. Deltagande observation underlättade efterföljande öppna intervjuer om observationen, liksom de semistrukturerade intervjuerna om skötsel av PVK. texten analyserades med innehållsanalys. resultatet redovisas i tre huvudkategorier och ett tema. Temat visar att sjuksköterskorna balanserar mellan att minimera obehag för patienten och förebygga komplikationer från PVKn. Patientens välbefinnande övervägdes varje gång, även om det skedde med olika utgångspunkter t ex i form av den individuella patientsituationen, egen arbetsbelastning och egna erfarenheter av PVKskötsel. Denna typ av kunskap kan vara värdefull vid implementering av kliniska riktlinjer och också vid utbildning av sjuksköterskor.
  • Laine, Marja L, et al. (författare)
  • IL-1RN gene polymorphism is associated with peri-implantitis
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: CLINICAL ORAL IMPLANTS RESEARCH. - 0905-7161. ; 17:4, s. 380-385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta and their natural specific inhibitor IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) play a key role in the regulation of the inflammatory response in periodontal tissues. Polymorphisms in the IL-1 gene cluster have been associated with severe adult periodontitis. We aimed to investigate the IL-1 gene cluster polymorphisms in patients with peri-implantitis.MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 120 North Caucasian individuals. A total of 71 patients (mean age 68 years, 76% smokers) demonstrating peri-implantitis at one or more implants as evidenced by bleeding and/or pus on probing and bone loss amounting to >3 threads on Brånemark implants and 49 controls (mean age 66 years, 45% smokers) with clinical healthy mucosa and no bone loss around the implants were recruited for the study. The titanium implants, ad modum Brånemark, had been in function for at least 2 years. Mouthwash samples were collected and used for genotyping of the bi-allelic polymorphisms IL-1A(-889), IL-1B(+3953), IL-1B(-511) and a variable number of tandem repeat IL-1RN gene polymorphisms using PCR technique.RESULTS: Significant differences were found in the carriage rate of allele 2 in the IL-1RN gene between peri-implantitis patients and controls (56.5% vs. 33.3%, respectively; odds ratios (OR) 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.6; P=0.015). Logistic regression analysis taking smoking, gender and age into account confirmed the association between the IL-1RN allele 2 carriers and peri-implantitis (OR 3; 95% CI 1.2-7.6; P=0.02).CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that IL-1RN gene polymorphism is associated with peri-implantitis and may represent a risk factor for this disease.
  • Mohlin, B, et al. (författare)
  • TMD in relation to malocclusion and orthodontic treatment.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The Angle orthodontist. - 0003-3219. ; 77:3, s. 542-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic literature review was to evaluate associations between different malocclusions, orthodontic treatment, and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review was part of a project at the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care focusing on malocclusion and orthodontic treatment from a health perspective. As a first step, the literature was searched in the Medline and Cochrane Library databases from 1966 to May 2003. A later update was made in January 2005. Human studies in English or in Scandinavian languages were included. RESULTS: Associations between certain malocclusions and TMD were found in some studies, whereas the majority of the reviewed articles failed to identify significant and clinically important associations. TMD could not be correlated to any specific type of malocclusion, and there was no support for the belief that orthodontic treatment may cause TMD. Obvious individual variations in signs and symptoms of TMD over time according to some longitudinal studies further emphasized the difficulty in establishing malocclusion as a significant risk factor for TMD. A considerable reduction in signs and symptoms of TMD between the teenage period and young adulthood has been shown in some recent longitudinal studies. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between specific types of malocclusions and development of significant signs and symptoms of TMD could not be verified. There is still a need for longitudinal studies.
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