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Sökning: swepub > Malmö universitet > Engelska > Göteborgs universitet > (2005-2009) > (2008)

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  • Andersson, Bodil T., et al. (författare)
  • Radiographers' areas of professional competence related to good nursing care
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. - 0283-9318. ; 22:3, s. 401-409
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Radiographers' ability and competence is a matter of vital importance for patients. Nursing care is an integral part of the radiographer's work. The demand for high competence in clinical activities has increased in diagnostic radiology and has had an impact on the development of the profession.AIM: The aim was to describe the radiographer's areas of professional competence in relation to good nursing care based on critical incidents that occur in the course of radiological examinations and interventions.METHOD: A descriptive design with a qualitative approach, using the Critical Incident Technique was employed. Interviews were conducted with a strategic sample of registered radiographers (n = 14), based at different hospitals in Sweden.ETHICAL ISSUES: The appropriate ethical principles were followed. All the participants provided informed consent, and formal approval for conducting the research was obtained according to national and local directives.RESULTS: The data analysis resulted in two main areas; direct and indirect patient-related areas of competence, which describe the radiographers' skills that either facilitate or hinder good nursing care. In the direct patient-related area of competence, four categories emerged, which illustrate good nursing care in the patient's immediate surroundings. In the indirect patient-related area of competence, four categories illuminated good nursing care that is provided without direct contact with the patient.CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the different areas of the radiographer's unique professional competence. The findings provide insight into the radiographer's profession, on one hand as a carer and on the other as a medical technologist as well as highlighting the importance of each role. The radiographer's work encompasses a variety of components--from caring for the patient to handling and checking the technical equipment.
  • Campbell, Ann-mari, et al. (författare)
  • Night duty as an opportunity for learning
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Advanced Nursing. - Blackwell Publishing. - 0309-2402. ; 62:3, s. 346-353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim. This paper is a report of a study to examine what opportunities night nurses have to learn in terms of being able to distinguish variations in the patients' conditions.Background. Night nurses often lack access to the formalized in-service training offered to day nurses. As every clinical experience can be seen as an opportunity for learning, learning takes place even at night. However, the learning of night nurses has not been studied previously.Method. This study is based on interviews with a convenience sample of 10 night nurses at a medium-sized Swedish hospital in 2001. These interviews were reanalysed in 2006 concerning learning situations. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded and examined using latent content analysis.Findings. There are certain opportunities for learning during the night shift, and three learning situations come to the fore: (1) the report situation, (2) the personal assessment round, where the nurses form their own picture of the patient, (3) in assessment prior to contact with the doctor on duty. Nurses learn from variations in patients' conditions and when they have to report their experience verbally. Learning does take place at night and gestalt psychology is a helpful tool for understanding how former knowledge and experience affect night nurses' learning.Conclusion. Knowledge developed during the night shift is a neglected field. There is a need for further investigations of what night nurses learn, and this knowledge ought to be integrated in the body of nursing knowledge.
  • Johansson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in four reported symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders in a cohort of 50-year-old subjects followed up after 10 years
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6357. ; 66:1, s. 50-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To assess possible changes in the prevalence of four temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms reported by subjects at age 50 and again 10 years later. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Identical questionnaires were sent out in 1992 and in 2002 to all subjects born in 1942 and living in two Swedish counties. Of those who answered the four questions on TMD symptoms in 1992, 74% responded in 2002 (n=4639). The response alternatives were dichotomized into two groups: 1) No problems and 2) some, rather severe and severe problems. RESULTS: The mean prevalence of TMD-related symptoms reflected small and mainly non-significant changes, whereas the prevalence of reported bruxism was significantly greater at age 60 than at age 50. Among those with no TMD symptoms at age 50, 5-7% of the men and 8-9% of the women reported symptoms at age 60. Of those reporting one or more TMD symptoms at age 50, 47-65% of the men and 40-48% of the women had no symptoms 10 years later. There was a significant and markedly increased risk of reporting TMD symptoms and bruxism (OR>10) at age 60 among those who had symptoms at age 50. CONCLUSIONS: The mean prevalence of reported TMD symptoms was relatively consistent from age 50 to age 60. The group reporting symptoms at the first examination were highly likely still to have the symptoms 10 years later. However, approximately half of the subjects with TMD symptoms at age 50 reported no symptoms at age 60.
  • Johansson, Maria Eiman, et al. (författare)
  • Registered Nurses´Adherence to Clinical Guidelines Regarding Peripheral Venous Catheters : A Structured Observational Study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing. - Blackwell. - 1545-102X. ; 5:3, s. 148-159
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Perifer venkateter är vanligt bland en stor del patienter idag. Användandet av perifer venkateter (PVK) kan leda till komplikationer som t ex tromboflebit och sepsis och kliniska riktlinjer har utarbetats för att stödja sjuksköterskor som handhar PVK. Det finns flera orsaker till varför kliniskt verksamma inte följer kliniska riktlinjer även om detta skulle minska komplikationsfrekvensen. Den här artikeln beskriver sjuksköterskors följsamhet till nationella och lokala kliniska riktlinjer vad gäller PVK och fokuserar på tid in situ, placering och dokumentaion vid förbandet. Ett ytterligare asyfte är att beskriva förekomsten av tromboflebiter i anslutning till PVK in situ, Metoden är strukturerade observationer av patienter med PVK. Data som analyserades gäller 343 PVK och är insamlat mellan december 2004 till juni 2005. Resultatet visar att sjuksköterskorna delvis följer riktlinjerna vad gäller storlek och placering. det var låg följsamhet vad gäller dokumentationen. icke följsamheten vad gäller tid in situ varierade mellan 5-26,3%, skillnader visade för storlek, placering och dokumentation. Mild tromboflebit (grad 1 och 2) observerades i 7% av fallen. Slutsatserna är att sjuksköterskors följsamhet till kliniska riktlinjer varierar men att sjuksköterskorna verkar byta leer ta bort PVK innan det uppstår alvarliga komplikationer. Återkoppling och diskussioner om följsamhet eller om komplikationer kan ha ett inflytande på sjuksköterskors kliniska beslutsfattande . Nyckelord: kliniskt beslutsfattande, följsamhet till riktlinjer, perifer venkateter, strukturerade observationer
  • Sabel, Nina, et al. (författare)
  • Neonatal lines in the enamel of primary teeth--a morphological and scanning electron microscopic investigation.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Archives of oral biology. - 1879-1506. ; 53:10, s. 954-63
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Department of Pedodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Public Dental Service, Göteborg, Sweden. OBJECTIVE: The neonatal line (NNL) is in principle found in all primary teeth and the line represents the time of birth. Earlier findings of the appearance of the NNL in light microscope and in microradiographs have shown not only changes in the prism direction of the enamel, but that the NNL has a hypomineralized character. METHODS: The neonatal line was analyzed in un-decalcified sections of primary lower and central incisors, collected from individuals of different ages utilizing polarized light microscopy, microradiography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray analysis (XRMA). RESULTS: In polarized light the NNL appeared to have a more porous structure than the enamel in general. The appearance of the NNL as a dark line in microradiographs is interpreted as the NNL being less mineralized than neighbouring enamel. Analysis with ImageJ visualized the reduction of the amount of grey value, indicating that the NNL is less mineralized. Analysis of the NNL in SEM showed a reduction of the diameter of enamel prisms, the more narrow diameters continued through the postnatal enamel. A change of the growth direction of the prisms was also observed at the NNL. In a three-dimensional image the NNL appeared as a grove, however, in non-etched enamel no grove was seen. The elemental analyses with XRMA showed no marked changes in the content of C, Ca, P, N, O or S in the area around the NNL. CONCLUSIONS: The NNL is an optical phenomenon due to alterations in height, and degree of mineralization of the enamel prisms. PMID: 18589400 [PubMed - in process]
  • Franke Stenport, Victoria, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Precipitation of calcium phosphate in the presence of albumin on titanium implants with four different possibly bioactive surface preparations. An in vitro study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. - 0957-4530. ; 19:12, s. 3497-3505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to compare the nucleating behaviour on four types of bioactive surfaces by using the simulated body fluid (SBF) model with the presence albumin. Titanium discs were blasted (B) and then prepared by alkali and heat treatment (AH), anodic oxidation (AO), fluoridation (F), or hydroxyapatite coating (HA). The discs were immersed in SBF with 4.5 mg/ml albumin for 3 days, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks and analysed with scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Topographic surface characterisation was performed with a contact stylus profilometer. The results demonstrated that the bioactive surfaces initiated an enhanced calcium phosphate (CaP) formation and a more rapid increase of protein content was present on the bioactive surfaces compared to the blasted control surface. The observation was present on all bioactive surfaces. The fact that there was a difference between the bioactive surfaces and the blasted control surface with respect to precipitation of CaP and protein content on the surfaces support the fact that there may be biochemical advantages in vivo by using a bioactive surface.
  • Meirelles, Luiz, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Bone reaction to nano hydroxyapatite modified titanium implants placed in a gap-healing model
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal Biomedical MAterials Research - A. - 1549-3296. ; 87:3, s. 624-631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nanohydroxyapatite materials show similar chemistry to the bone apatite and depending on the underlying topography and the method of preparation, the nanohydroxyapatite may simulate the specific arrangement of the crystals in bone. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and other CaP materials have been indicated in cases in which the optimal surgical fit is not achievable during surgery, and the HA surface properties may enhance bone filling of the defect area. In this study, very smooth electropolished titanium implants were used as substrata for nano-HA surface modification and as control. One of each implant (control and nano HA) was placed in the rabbit tibia in a surgical site 0.7 mm wider than the implant diameter, resulting in a gap of 0.35 mm on each implant side. Implant stability was ensured by a fixating plate fastened with two side screws. Topographical evaluation performed with an optical interferometer revealed the absence of microstructures on both implants and higher resolution evaluation with AFM showed similar nanoroughness parameters. Surface pores detected on the AFM measurements had similar diameter, depth, and surface porosity (%). Histological evaluation demonstrated similar bone formation for the nano HA and electropolished implants after 4 weeks of healing. These results do not support that nano-HA chemistry and nanotopography will enhance bone formation when placed in a gap-healing model. The very smooth surface may have prevented optimal activity of the material and future studies may evaluate the synergic effects of the surface chemistry, micro, and nanotopography, establishing the optimal parameters for each of them.
  • Meirelles, Luiz, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of hydroxyapatite and titania nanostructures on early in vivo bone response
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research. - 1708-8208. ; 10:4, s. 245-254
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Hydroxyapatite (HA) or titania nanostructures were applied on smooth titanium implant cylinders. The aim was to investigate whether nano-HA may result in enhanced osseointegration compared to nano-titania structures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surface topography evaluation included detailed characterization of nano-size structures present at the implant surface combined with surface roughness parameters at the micro- and nanometer level of resolution. Microstructures were removed from the surface to ensure that bone response observed was dependent only on the nanotopography and/or chemistry of the surface. Early in vivo histological analyses of the bone response (4 weeks) were investigated in a rabbit model. RESULTS: In the present study, nano-titania-coated implants showed an increased coverage area and feature density, forming a homogenous layer compared to nano-HA implants. Bone contact values of the nano-titania implants showed a tendency to have a higher percentage as compared to the nano-HA implants (p = .1). CONCLUSION: Thus, no evidence of enhanced bone formation to nano-HA-modified implants was observed compared to nano-titania-modified implants. The presence of specific nanostructures dependent on the surface modification exhibiting different size and distribution did modulate in vivo bone response.
  • Meirelles, Luiz, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Nano hydroxyapatite structures influence early bone formation
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal Biomedical Materials Research - A. - 1549-3296. ; 87:2, s. 299-307
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a study model that aims to evaluate the effect of nanotopography on bone formation, micrometer structures known to alter bone formation, should be removed. Electropolished titanium implants were prepared to obtain a surface topography in the absence of micro structures, thereafter the implants were divided in two groups. The test group was modified with nanosize hydroxyapatite particles; the other group was left uncoated and served as control for the experiment. Topographical evaluation demonstrated increased nanoroughness parameters for the nano-HA implant and higher surface porosity compared to the control implant. The detected features had increased size and diameter equivalent to the nano-HA crystals present in the solution and the relative frequency of the feature size and diameter was very similar. Furthermore, feature density per microm(2) showed a decrease of 13.5% on the nano-HA implant. Chemical characterization revealed calcium and phosphorous ions on the modified implants, whereas the control implants consisted of pure titanium oxide. Histological evaluation demonstrated significantly increased bone formation to the coated (p < 0.05) compared to uncoated implants after 4 weeks of healing. These findings indicate for the first time that early bone formation is dependent on the nanosize hydroxyapatite features, but we are unaware if we see an isolated effect of the chemistry or of the nanotopography or a combination of both.
  • Nordgren, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of life in oral carcinoma: a 5-year prospective study.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Head & neck. - 1043-3074. ; 30:4, s. 461-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND.: We conducted this prospective longitudinal multicenter study to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with oral carcinoma at diagnosis, and after 1 and 5 years in relation to tumour location and treatment modality. METHODS.: One hundred twenty-two patients (mean age, 61; 62% males) with oral carcinoma were evaluated with standardized HRQL questionnaires, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the EORTC Head and Neck Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-H&N35). RESULTS.: Problems with teeth, dry mouth, and sticky saliva got worse between diagnosis and 5 years after diagnosis. Problems with dry mouth remained a problem between 1 and 5 years after diagnosis, except for the patients treated with surgery only. This group had fewer problems over time compared with patients receiving other treatment regimes. Survivors reported better HRQL than the nonsurvivors at diagnosis and at the 1-year follow-up. HRQL at diagnosis was associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS.: HRQL at diagnosis for patients with oral carcinoma seems to be an important factor for the prognosis of both HRQL over time and survival. Treatment of oral carcinoma often results in long-term side effects such as dry mouth, problems with teeth, and sticky saliva. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2008.
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