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1.
  • Pundziute-Lycka, A, et al. (författare)
  • The incidence of Type I diabetes has not increased but shifted to a younger age at diagnosis in the 0-34 years group in Sweden 1983 to 1998
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - 0012-186X. ; 45:6, s. 783-791
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis. To analyse the incidence of Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in the 0-34 years age group in Sweden 1983-1998. Methods. Incidence and cumulative incidence per 100 000 and Poisson regression analysis of age-period effects was carried out using 11 751 cases from two nation-wide prospective registers. Results. Incidence (95%-CI) was 21.4 (20.8-21.9) in men and 17.1 (16.6-17.5) in women between 0 and 34 years of age. In boys aged 0-14 and girls aged 0-12 years the incidence increased over time, but it tended to decrease at older age groups, especially in men. Average cumulative incidence at 35 years was 748 in men and 598 in women. Cumulative incidence in men was rather stable during four 4-year periods (736, 732, 762, 756), while in women it varied more (592, 542, 617, 631). In males aged 0-34 years, the incidence did not vary between the 4-year periods (p=0.63), but time changes among the 3-year age groups differed (p<0.001). In females the incidence between the periods varied (p<0.001), being lower in 1987-1990 compared to 1983-1986, but time changes in the age groups did not differ (p=0.08). For both sexes median age at diagnosis was higher in 1983-1986 than in 1995-1998 (p<0.001) (15.0 and 12.5 years in males, 11.9 and 10.4 in females, respectively). Conclusion/interpretation. During a 16-year period the incidence of Type I diabetes did not increase in the 0-34 years age group in Sweden, while median age at diagnosis decreased. A shift to younger age at diagnosis seems to explain the increasing incidence of childhood Type I diabetes.
2.
  • Dillner, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • Population-based type-specific prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in middle-aged Swedish Women.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: J Med Virol. - Wiley. - 0146-6615. ; 66:4, s. 535-541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing can be used to identify women at risk of the development of cervical cancer. The cost-effectiveness of HPV screening is dependent on the type-specific HPV prevalence in the general population. The present study describes the prevalence and spectrum of high-risk HPV types found in a large real-life population-based HPV screening trial undertaken entirely within the cervical screening program offered to middle-aged Swedish women. Cervical brush samples from 6,123 women aged 32-38 years were analyzed using a general HPV primer (GP5(+)/6(+)) polymerase chain reaction-enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA) combined with reverse dot-blot hybridization for confirmation and HPV typing by a single assay. In this study, 6.8% (95% CI 6.2-7.5) (417/6,123) were confirmed as high-risk HPV positive. Infections with 13 different high-risk HPV types were detected, of which HPV 16 was the most prevalent type (2.1%; 128/6,123), followed by HPV 31 (1.1%; 67/6,123). Any one of the HPV types 18, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, or 66 was detected in 3.6% (223/6,123) of the women. Infection with two, three, and five types simultaneously was identified in 32, 5, and 1 women, respectively. The combination of PCR-EIA as a screening test and reverse dot-blot hybridization as a confirmatory test, was found to be readily applicable to a real-life population-based cervical screening. The type-specific HPV prevalence found support in previous modeling studies suggesting that HPV screening may be a favorable cervical screening strategy.
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3.
  • Schubert, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Proteome map of the chloroplast lumen of Arabidopsis thaliana
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: The Journal of biological chemistry. - 0021-9258. ; 277:10, s. 8354-8365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast is the center of oxygenic photosynthesis. To better understand the function of the luminal compartment within the thylakoid network, we have carried out a systematic characterization of the luminal thylakoid proteins from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Our data show that the thylakoid lumen has its own specific proteome, of which 36 proteins were identified. Besides a large group of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases and pro. teases, a family of novel PsbP domain proteins was found. An analysis of the luminal signal peptides showed that 19 of 36 luminal precursors were marked by a twin-arginine motif for import via the Tat pathway. To compare the model organism Arabidopsis with another typical higher plant, we investigated the proteome from the thylakoid lumen of spinach and found that the luminal proteins from both plants corresponded well. As a complement to our experimental investigation, we made a theoretical prediction of the luminal proteins from the whole Arabidopsis genome and estimated that the thylakoid lumen of the chloroplast contains similar to80 proteins.
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4.
  • Ekblom, Orjan, et al. (författare)
  • Adaptive stress response of glutathione and uric acid metabolism in man following controlled exercise and diet.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiol Scand. - 0001-6772. ; 176:1, s. 43-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ergometer cycling performance as well as acute exercise-induced changes in the metabolism of energy-intermediates and glutathione (GSH) were investigated in skeletal muscle (SM) of 15 healthy young male subjects (VO(2max) approximately 54.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1), age approximately 25 years), before and after 3 days of controlled 'ìoverload-training' in combination with either high (62% of energy intake) or low (26% of energy intake) dietary intake of carbohydrates. The intake of a carbohydrate-rich diet clearly reduced the depletion of SM glycogen following the short-term training period, paralleled with a positive effect on the endurance performance, but not on high-intensity work-performance. An 'delayed over-reaching effect', defined as impaired work-performance, was observed after 2.5 days of recovery from the short-term training period, irrespective of the carbohydrate content of the diet and basal glycogen level in SM. Taken together, the main and novel findings of present investigation are: (1) an acute decrease of reduced GSH content and altered thiol-redox homeostasis in SM induced by strenuous high-intensity exercise; (2) an adaptive elevation of basal GSH level following the short-term training period; (3) an adaptive decrease of basal GSH level following 2.5 days recovery from training; (4) evidence of a relationship between the SM fibre type, physical performance capacity and GSH turnover during acute bouts of exercise; and (5) no evident effect of the level of carbohydrate intake on metabolism of GSH or energy intermediates. Furthermore, the induction of acute oxidative stress in exercising human SM and the adaptive responses to training are suggested to provide a protective antioxidant phenotype to the exercising SM during periods with repeated intense intermittent training.
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5.
  • Toma-Daşu, Iuliana, et al. (författare)
  • Theoretical simulation of oxygen tension measurement in the tissue using a microelectrode: : II. Simulated measurements in tissues
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Radiotherapy and Oncology. - 0167-8140. ; 64:1, s. 109-118
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to make a computer simulation of tissues with different vascular structures and to simulate measurements of oxygen tension using an Eppendorf-like electrode in these tissues and to compare the response to radiation of the tissues with the real oxygen distributions (called input distribution) with the response to radiation of the tissues in which the oxygen distribution is given by the results of the simulated measurements (called output distribution).MATERIALS AND METHODS: The structure of various tissues and the measurements of oxygen tension using a microelectrode were simulated using a computer program. The mathematical model used combines the description of a gradient of tissue oxygenation and the electrode absorption process.RESULTS: We have compared the oxygen distributions resulting from diffusion (input) with those obtained from a simulation of measurements (output) for various tissues in the same points. Because the electrode measurement is an averaging process, the calculated oxygen distributions are different from the expected ones and the extreme high and low values are not detected. We have then calculated the survival curves describing the response to radiation if there is a small fraction of truly hypoxic cells (expected values) or a large fraction of cells at intermediate values (observed results) in order to determine the differences between them.CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study show that oxygen electrode measurements do not give the true distribution of pO(2) values in the tissue. However, our results do not contradict the numerous empirical correlations between the Eppendorf measurements of tumour oxygenation and the outcome of treatments. Measurement results will be misleading for modelling purposes since they do not reflect the actual distributions of oxygen tensions in the measured tissue. Decisions based on such modelling could be very dangerous, especially with respect to the clinical response of tumours to new treatments.
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6.
  • Mahdavi, Jafar, et al. (författare)
  • Helicobacter pylori sabA adhesin in persistent infection and chronic inflammation
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 297:5581, s. 573-578
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Helicobacter pylori adherence in the human gastric mucosa involves specific bacterial adhesins and cognate host receptors. Here, we identify sialyl-dimeric-Lewis x glycosphingolipid as a receptor for H. pylori and show thatH. pylori infection induced formation of sialyl-Lewis x antigens in gastric epithelium in humans and in a Rhesus monkey. The corresponding sialic acid–binding adhesin (SabA) was isolated with the “retagging” method, and the underlyingsabA gene (JHP662/HP0725) was identified. The ability of many H. pylori strains to adhere to sialylated glycoconjugates expressed during chronic inflammation might thus contribute to virulence and the extraordinary chronicity of H. pylori infection.
7.
  • Cotgreave, Ian, et al. (författare)
  • Differentiation-specific alterations to glutathione synthesis in and hormonally stimulated release from human skeletal muscle cells
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. - 1530-6860. ; 16:1, s. 435-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Muscle atrophy and cachexia are associated with many human diseases. These catabolic states are often associated with the loss of glutathione (GSH), which is thought to contribute to the induction of oxidative stress within the muscle. Glutathione synthesis and secretary characteristics were studied in human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotube-like cells derived from the myoblasts by growth factor restriction. Differentiation was associated with a shift in the sulfur amino acid precursor specificity for synthesis of GSH from cystine to cysteine, as well as loss in ability to use extracellular glutathione and activation of methionine use. The thiol drug N-acetylcysteine was also shown to be an effective precursor irrespective of the state of differentiation. Additionally, myoblasts and myotube cultures were shown to secrete GSH continually, but only the differentiated cells responded to stress hormones such as glucagon, vasopressin, and phenylephrine, by increased secretion of the tripeptide. The data suggest that the skeletal muscle cells may provide an important hormonally regulated extra-hepatic source of systemic GSH and also shed light on the mechanisms of accelerated turnover of GSH operating during strenuous muscle activity and trauma. The data may also provide biochemical rationales for the nutritional and/or pharmacological manipulation of GSH with sulfur amino acid precursors during the treatment of muscle-specific oxidative stress and atrophy.
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8.
  • Jonsson, Isak, et al. (författare)
  • Recursive Blocked Algorithms for Solving Triangular Systems - Part I: : One-Sided and Coupled Sylvester-Type Matrix Equations
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software. - 0098-3500 ; 28:4, s. 392-415
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Triangular matrix equations appear naturally in estimating the condition numbers of matrix equations and different eigenspace computations, including block-diagonalization of matrices and matrix pairs and computation of functions of matrices. To solve a triangular matrix equation is also a major step in the classical Bartels-Stewart method for solving the standard continuous-time Sylvester equation (AX-XB=C). We present novel recursive blocked algorithms for solving one-sided triangular matrix equations, including the continuous-time Sylvester and Lyapunov equations, and a generalized coupled Sylvester equation. The main parts of the computations are performed as level-3 general matrix multiply and add (GEMM) operations. In contrast to explicit standard blocking techniques, our recursive approach leads to an automatic variable blocking that has the potential of matching the memory hierarchies of today's HPC systems. Different implementation issues are discussed, including when to terminate the recursion, the design of new optimized superscalar kernels for solving leaf-node triangular matrix equations efficiently, and how parallelism is utilized in our implementations. Uniprocessor and SMP parallel performance results of our recursive blocked algorithms and corresponding routines in the state-of-the-art libraries LAPACK and SLICOT are presented. The performance improvements of our recursive algorithms are remarkable, including 10-fold speedups compared to standard algorithms.
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9.
  • Thidholm, Ellinor, et al. (författare)
  • Novel approach reveals localisation and assembly pathway of the PsbS and PsbW proteins into the photosystem II dimer
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: FEBS letters. - 0014-5793. ; 513:2-3, s. 217-222
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A blue-native gel electrophoresis system was combined with an in organello import assay to specifically analyse the location and assembly of two nuclear-encoded photosystem 11 (PSII) subunits. With this method we were able to show that initially the low molecular mass PsbW protein is not associated with the monomeric form of PSII. Instead a proportion of newly imported PsbW is directly assembled in dimeric PSH super-complexes with very fast kinetics; its negatively charged N-terminal domain is essential for this process. The chlorophyll-binding PsbS protein, which is involved in energy dissipation, is first detected in the monomeric PSII subcomplexes, and only at later time points in the dimeric form of PSII. It seems to be bound tighter to the PSII core complex than to light harvesting complex II. These data point to radically different assembly pathways for different PSII subunits.
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10.
  • Aberg, P., et al. (författare)
  • Variation of skin properties within human forearms demonstrated by non-invasive detection and multi-way analysis
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Skin research and technology. - 0909-752X. ; 8:3, s. 194-201
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It is known that the properties of human skin vary locally. The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of human volar forearms even further using advanced non-invasive techniques and numerical methods. Methods: The skin properties of human volar forearms were investigated using measurements of trans epidermal water loss and multifrequency electrical impedance. Eight sites on the forearms of 27 healthy volunteers were measured. The sites were oriented as squares, four sites on both left and right forearm, approximately 40-50 mm apart. Results: Analysis of variance showed significant differences for epidermal water loss (P < 0.01) and the skin impedance (P < 0.001) between the inner and outer sides of the arms. Additionally, parallel factor analysis of the full skin impedance spectra also showed that there are systematic differences between right and left arm (P < 0.01). Conclusions: It is crucial to design skin studies carefully in order to minimise the effects of the local skin properties of human skin.
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