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  • Pundziute-Lycka, A, et al. (författare)
  • The incidence of Type I diabetes has not increased but shifted to a younger age at diagnosis in the 0-34 years group in Sweden 1983 to 1998
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - 0012-186X. ; 45:6, s. 783-791
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis. To analyse the incidence of Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in the 0-34 years age group in Sweden 1983-1998. Methods. Incidence and cumulative incidence per 100 000 and Poisson regression analysis of age-period effects was carried out using 11 751 cases from two nation-wide prospective registers. Results. Incidence (95%-CI) was 21.4 (20.8-21.9) in men and 17.1 (16.6-17.5) in women between 0 and 34 years of age. In boys aged 0-14 and girls aged 0-12 years the incidence increased over time, but it tended to decrease at older age groups, especially in men. Average cumulative incidence at 35 years was 748 in men and 598 in women. Cumulative incidence in men was rather stable during four 4-year periods (736, 732, 762, 756), while in women it varied more (592, 542, 617, 631). In males aged 0-34 years, the incidence did not vary between the 4-year periods (p=0.63), but time changes among the 3-year age groups differed (p<0.001). In females the incidence between the periods varied (p<0.001), being lower in 1987-1990 compared to 1983-1986, but time changes in the age groups did not differ (p=0.08). For both sexes median age at diagnosis was higher in 1983-1986 than in 1995-1998 (p<0.001) (15.0 and 12.5 years in males, 11.9 and 10.4 in females, respectively). Conclusion/interpretation. During a 16-year period the incidence of Type I diabetes did not increase in the 0-34 years age group in Sweden, while median age at diagnosis decreased. A shift to younger age at diagnosis seems to explain the increasing incidence of childhood Type I diabetes.
  • Jansson, Per-Anders, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Endocrine abnormalities in healthy first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients--potential role of steroid hormones and leptin in the development of insulin resistance.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: European journal of clinical investigation. - 0014-2972. ; 32:3, s. 172-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: First-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients are at risk of developing diabetes and they display several metabolic and hormonal perturbations. The interplay between insulin resistance, steroid hormones and circulating leptin is, however, still not fully explored in this group.DESIGN: Thirty-three healthy first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients (relatives; M/F 19/14) were compared to 33 healthy subjects without a family history of diabetes (controls) and the groups were matched for gender, age and body mass index (BMI). We performed euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamps and blood was sampled for hormone analyses.RESULTS: Relatives exhibited decreased insulin sensitivity (index of metabolic clearance rate of glucose; MCRI) but when genders were analysed separately, this difference was significant only in males (11.3 +/- 1.3 vs. 15.0 +/- 1.5 units, means +/- SEM, P = 0.030). In male relatives morning cortisol and testosterone levels were lower, whereas leptin was higher than in male controls (P = 0.018, 0.008 and 0.063, respectively). In male relatives plasma testosterone levels were significantly associated with insulin sensitivity (r = 0.48, P = 0.040). Circulating leptin levels were inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in all subject groups (r-values -0.49 to -0.66; P &lt; 0.05, except in female control subjects P = 0.063). These associations were present also when age and BMI or waist:hip ratio were included in stepwise multiple regression analyses.CONCLUSION: Male subjects genetically predisposed for type 2 diabetes display several endocrine abnormalities including leptin, cortisol and testosterone levels. Dysregulation of these hormones may be important in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
  • Sun, J. G., et al. (författare)
  • Perturbation analysis of the periodic discrete-time algebraic Riccati equation
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Siam Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications. - 0895-4798 ; 24:2, s. 411-438
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper is devoted to the perturbation analysis for the periodic discrete-time algebraic Riccati equations (P-DAREs). Perturbation bounds and condition numbers of the Hermitian positive semidefinite solution set to the P-DAREs are obtained. The results are illustrated by numerical examples.
  • Svensson, M B, et al. (författare)
  • Adaptive stress response of glutathione and uric acid metabolism in man following controlled exercise and diet.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiol Scand. - 0001-6772. ; 176:1, s. 43-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ergometer cycling performance as well as acute exercise-induced changes in the metabolism of energy-intermediates and glutathione (GSH) were investigated in skeletal muscle (SM) of 15 healthy young male subjects (VO(2max) approximately 54.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1), age approximately 25 years), before and after 3 days of controlled 'ìoverload-training' in combination with either high (62% of energy intake) or low (26% of energy intake) dietary intake of carbohydrates. The intake of a carbohydrate-rich diet clearly reduced the depletion of SM glycogen following the short-term training period, paralleled with a positive effect on the endurance performance, but not on high-intensity work-performance. An 'delayed over-reaching effect', defined as impaired work-performance, was observed after 2.5 days of recovery from the short-term training period, irrespective of the carbohydrate content of the diet and basal glycogen level in SM. Taken together, the main and novel findings of present investigation are: (1) an acute decrease of reduced GSH content and altered thiol-redox homeostasis in SM induced by strenuous high-intensity exercise; (2) an adaptive elevation of basal GSH level following the short-term training period; (3) an adaptive decrease of basal GSH level following 2.5 days recovery from training; (4) evidence of a relationship between the SM fibre type, physical performance capacity and GSH turnover during acute bouts of exercise; and (5) no evident effect of the level of carbohydrate intake on metabolism of GSH or energy intermediates. Furthermore, the induction of acute oxidative stress in exercising human SM and the adaptive responses to training are suggested to provide a protective antioxidant phenotype to the exercising SM during periods with repeated intense intermittent training.
  • Adebahr, J, et al. (författare)
  • Ion and solvent dynamics in gel electrolytes based on ethylene oxide grafted acrylate polymers
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physical Chemistry B. - 1089-5647. ; 106:47, s. 12119-12123
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multinuclear pulsed field gradient NMR measurements and theological viscosity measurements were performed on three series of polymer gel electrolytes. The gels were based on a lithium salt electrolyte swollen into a copolymer matrix comprising an acrylate backbone and ethylene oxide side chains. In each series the side chains differed in length and number, but the acrylate-to-ethylene oxide ratio was kept constant. It was found that the self-diffusion coefficient of the cations was much lower than that of the anions, and that it decreased rapidly when the side chains got longer. In contrast, the self-diffusion coefficient of the anions was found to be independent of chain length. In the gel electrolytes, the diffusion coefficients of the solvent molecules are relatively constant despite an increased viscosity with increasing length of the side chains. However, in saltfree gels made for comparison, the diffusion coefficients of the solvent molecules decreased with, increasing length of the side chains, which is consistent with an increased viscosity.
  • Mahdavi, Jafar, et al. (författare)
  • Helicobacter pylori sabA adhesin in persistent infection and chronic inflammation
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 297:5581, s. 573-578
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Helicobacter pylori adherence in the human gastric mucosa involves specific bacterial adhesins and cognate host receptors. Here, we identify sialyl-dimeric-Lewis x glycosphingolipid as a receptor for H. pylori and show thatH. pylori infection induced formation of sialyl-Lewis x antigens in gastric epithelium in humans and in a Rhesus monkey. The corresponding sialic acid–binding adhesin (SabA) was isolated with the “retagging” method, and the underlyingsabA gene (JHP662/HP0725) was identified. The ability of many H. pylori strains to adhere to sialylated glycoconjugates expressed during chronic inflammation might thus contribute to virulence and the extraordinary chronicity of H. pylori infection.
  • Allard, P, et al. (författare)
  • Caudate nucleus dopamine D-2 receptors in vascular dementia
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders. - Karger. - 1420-8008. ; 14:1, s. 22-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Caudate nucleus dopamine (DA) D-2 receptors were studied in patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and in a control group using H-3raclopride as a radioligand. There was no significant difference in the number of DA D-2 receptors in the VaD group as compared with controls. The binding affinity was significantly lower in the VaD group. When the VaD group was subdivided into subjects with or without neuroleptic treatment, there were no differences in the numbers of receptors as compared with controls, and the significant differences in binding affinity remained for both VaD subgroups. The present results are. discussed with reference to the previous finding of a reduced density of caudate nucleus DA uptake sites in the same VaD group and to results from studies on DA D-2 receptors in Alzheimer&#39;s disease and Parkinson&#39;s disease. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • Forslund, Ola, et al. (författare)
  • Population-based type-specific prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in middle-aged Swedish Women.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: J Med Virol. - Wiley. - 0146-6615. ; 66:4, s. 535-541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing can be used to identify women at risk of the development of cervical cancer. The cost-effectiveness of HPV screening is dependent on the type-specific HPV prevalence in the general population. The present study describes the prevalence and spectrum of high-risk HPV types found in a large real-life population-based HPV screening trial undertaken entirely within the cervical screening program offered to middle-aged Swedish women. Cervical brush samples from 6,123 women aged 32-38 years were analyzed using a general HPV primer (GP5(+)/6(+)) polymerase chain reaction-enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA) combined with reverse dot-blot hybridization for confirmation and HPV typing by a single assay. In this study, 6.8% (95% CI 6.2-7.5) (417/6,123) were confirmed as high-risk HPV positive. Infections with 13 different high-risk HPV types were detected, of which HPV 16 was the most prevalent type (2.1%; 128/6,123), followed by HPV 31 (1.1%; 67/6,123). Any one of the HPV types 18, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, or 66 was detected in 3.6% (223/6,123) of the women. Infection with two, three, and five types simultaneously was identified in 32, 5, and 1 women, respectively. The combination of PCR-EIA as a screening test and reverse dot-blot hybridization as a confirmatory test, was found to be readily applicable to a real-life population-based cervical screening. The type-specific HPV prevalence found support in previous modeling studies suggesting that HPV screening may be a favorable cervical screening strategy.
  • Aberg, V., et al. (författare)
  • Synthesis and absolute configuration of methyl(-)-(3R)-8-(4-bromophenyl)-7-(naphthalen-1-yl-methyl)-5-oxo-2,3-dihydro-5H-thiazolo 3,2-a pyridine-3-carboxylate
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Acta Crystallographica Section E : Structure Reports Online. - 1600-5368. ; 58, s. o812-o814
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The title molecule, C26H20BrNO3S, contains a ring-fused 2-pyridinone framework substituted with a 4-bromo-phenyl-, a naphthalen-1-ylmethyl and a methoxycarbonyl substituent. The main goal of this work was to confirm the stereochemistry for the methoxycarbonyl substituent, which proved to be 3R. Moreover, the 4-bromophenyl substituent was shown to be rotated out of the plane of the 2-pyridinone ring, with a torsion angle of 61.2 (5)degrees. To allow the best packing arrangement, the naphthalen-1-ylmethyl substituent is positioned to mediate an intermolecular pi-pi interaction.
  • Bergström, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Dimers of Dipyrrometheneboron Difluoride (BODIPY) with Light Spectroscopic Applications in Chemistry and Biology
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Chemical Society. ; 124:2, s. 196-204
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A ground-state dimer (denoted DI) exhibiting a strong absorption maximum at 477 nm ( = 97 000 M-1cm-1) can form between adjacent BODIPY groups attached to mutant forms of the protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). No fluorescence from excited DI was detected. A locally high concentration of BODIPY groups was also achieved by doping lipid phases (micelles, vesicles) with BODIPY-labeled lipids. In addition to an absorption band located at about 480 nm, a new weak absorption band is also observed at ca. 570 nm. Both bands are ascribed to the formation of BODIPY dimers of different conformation (DI and DII). Contrary to DI in PAI-1, the DII aggregates absorbing at 570 nm are emitting light observed as a broad band centered at about 630 nm. The integrated absorption band of DI is about twice that of the monomer, which is compatible with exciton coupling within a dimer. The Förster radius of electronic energy transfer between a BODIPY excited monomer and the ground-state dimer (DI) is 57 ± 2 Å. A simple model of exciton coupling suggests that in DI two BODIPY groups are stacked on top of each other in a sandwich-like configuration with parallel electronic transition dipoles. For DII the model suggests that the S0 S1 transition dipoles are collinear. An explanation for the previously reported (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1994, 116, 7801) exceptional light spectroscopic properties of BODIPY is also presented. These are ascribed to the extraordinary electric properties of the BODIPY chromophore. First, changes of the permanent electric dipole moment ( -0.05 D) and polarizability (-26 × 10-40 C m2 V-1) between the ground and the first excited states are small. Second, the S0 S1 electronic transition dipole moments are perpendicular to .
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