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Sökning: swepub > Umeå universitet > Refereegranskat > (2000-2004) > (2002)

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  • Pundziute-Lyckå, A, et al. (författare)
  • The incidence of Type I diabetes has not increased but shifted to a younger age at diagnosis in the 0-34 years group in Sweden 1983 to 1998
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - Springer Verlag. - 1432-0428. ; 45:6, s. 91-783
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To analyse the incidence of Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in the 0-34 years age group in Sweden 1983-1998. METHODS: Incidence and cumulative incidence per 100 000 and Poisson regression analysis of age-period effects was carried out using 11 751 cases from two nation-wide prospective registers. RESULTS: Incidence (95%-CI) was 21.4 (20.8-21.9) in men and 17.1 (16.6-17.5) in women between 0 and 34 years of age. In boys aged 0-14 and girls aged 0-12 years the incidence increased over time, but it tended to decrease at older age groups, especially in men. Average cumulative incidence at 35 years was 748 in men and 598 in women. Cumulative incidence in men was rather stable during four 4-year periods (736, 732, 762, 756), while in women it varied more (592, 542, 617, 631). In males aged 0-34 years, the incidence did not vary between the 4-year periods ( p=0.63), but time changes among the 3-year age groups differed ( p<0.001). In females the incidence between the periods varied ( p<0.001), being lower in 1987-1990 compared to 1983-1986, but time changes in the age groups did not differ ( p=0.08). For both sexes median age at diagnosis was higher in 1983-1986 than in 1995-1998 ( p<0.001) (15.0 and 12.5 years in males; 11.9 and 10.4 in females, respectively). CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: During a 16-year period the incidence of Type I diabetes did not increase in the 0-34 years age group in Sweden, while median age at diagnosis decreased. A shift to younger age at diagnosis seems to explain the increasing incidence of childhood Type I diabetes.
  • Schubert, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Proteome map of the chloroplast lumen of Arabidopsis thaliana
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - 0021-9258. ; 277:10, s. 8354-8365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast is the center of oxygenic photosynthesis. To better understand the function of the luminal compartment within the thylakoid network, we have carried out a systematic characterization of the luminal thylakoid proteins from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Our data show that the thylakoid lumen has its own specific proteome, of which 36 proteins were identified. Besides a large group of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases and pro. teases, a family of novel PsbP domain proteins was found. An analysis of the luminal signal peptides showed that 19 of 36 luminal precursors were marked by a twin-arginine motif for import via the Tat pathway. To compare the model organism Arabidopsis with another typical higher plant, we investigated the proteome from the thylakoid lumen of spinach and found that the luminal proteins from both plants corresponded well. As a complement to our experimental investigation, we made a theoretical prediction of the luminal proteins from the whole Arabidopsis genome and estimated that the thylakoid lumen of the chloroplast contains similar to80 proteins.
  • Svensson, Michael B, et al. (författare)
  • Adaptive stress response of glutathione and uric acid metabolism in man following controlled exercise and diet.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiol Scand. - 0001-6772. ; 176:1, s. 43-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ergometer cycling performance as well as acute exercise-induced changes in the metabolism of energy-intermediates and glutathione (GSH) were investigated in skeletal muscle (SM) of 15 healthy young male subjects (VO(2max) approximately 54.7 mL kg(-1) min(-1), age approximately 25 years), before and after 3 days of controlled 'ìoverload-training' in combination with either high (62% of energy intake) or low (26% of energy intake) dietary intake of carbohydrates. The intake of a carbohydrate-rich diet clearly reduced the depletion of SM glycogen following the short-term training period, paralleled with a positive effect on the endurance performance, but not on high-intensity work-performance. An 'delayed over-reaching effect', defined as impaired work-performance, was observed after 2.5 days of recovery from the short-term training period, irrespective of the carbohydrate content of the diet and basal glycogen level in SM. Taken together, the main and novel findings of present investigation are: (1) an acute decrease of reduced GSH content and altered thiol-redox homeostasis in SM induced by strenuous high-intensity exercise; (2) an adaptive elevation of basal GSH level following the short-term training period; (3) an adaptive decrease of basal GSH level following 2.5 days recovery from training; (4) evidence of a relationship between the SM fibre type, physical performance capacity and GSH turnover during acute bouts of exercise; and (5) no evident effect of the level of carbohydrate intake on metabolism of GSH or energy intermediates. Furthermore, the induction of acute oxidative stress in exercising human SM and the adaptive responses to training are suggested to provide a protective antioxidant phenotype to the exercising SM during periods with repeated intense intermittent training.
  • Toma-Dasu, I, et al. (författare)
  • Theoretical simulation of oxygen tension measurement in the tissue using a microelectrode: : II. Simulated measurements in tissues
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Radiotherapy and Oncology. - 0167-8140. ; 64:1, s. 109-118
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to make a computer simulation of tissues with different vascular structures and to simulate measurements of oxygen tension using an Eppendorf-like electrode in these tissues and to compare the response to radiation of the tissues with the real oxygen distributions (called input distribution) with the response to radiation of the tissues in which the oxygen distribution is given by the results of the simulated measurements (called output distribution).MATERIALS AND METHODS: The structure of various tissues and the measurements of oxygen tension using a microelectrode were simulated using a computer program. The mathematical model used combines the description of a gradient of tissue oxygenation and the electrode absorption process.RESULTS: We have compared the oxygen distributions resulting from diffusion (input) with those obtained from a simulation of measurements (output) for various tissues in the same points. Because the electrode measurement is an averaging process, the calculated oxygen distributions are different from the expected ones and the extreme high and low values are not detected. We have then calculated the survival curves describing the response to radiation if there is a small fraction of truly hypoxic cells (expected values) or a large fraction of cells at intermediate values (observed results) in order to determine the differences between them.CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study show that oxygen electrode measurements do not give the true distribution of pO(2) values in the tissue. However, our results do not contradict the numerous empirical correlations between the Eppendorf measurements of tumour oxygenation and the outcome of treatments. Measurement results will be misleading for modelling purposes since they do not reflect the actual distributions of oxygen tensions in the measured tissue. Decisions based on such modelling could be very dangerous, especially with respect to the clinical response of tumours to new treatments.
  • Ullenhag, Gustav, et al. (författare)
  • Induction of IgG subclass responses in colorectal carcinoma patients vaccinated with recombinant carcinoembryonic antigen.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - 0008-5472. ; 62:5, s. 1364-1369
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is scanty information on the IgG subclass response after vaccination against cancer antigens. The induction and development of the IgG subclass responses in 18 colorectal carcinoma patients vaccinated s.c. seven times with recombinant human carcinoembryonic antigen (rhCEA) over a 12-month period were analyzed by ELISA. The patients were followed for 3 years. Four rhCEA doses were used, and half of the patients also received granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an adjuvant. Anti-rhCEA-specific IgG1 and IgG4 responses and, to a lesser degree, IgG2 responses were markedly enhanced by concomitant GM-CSF administration, whereas the antigen dose was of minor importance. Almost no IgG3 response was observed. A significant antibody response was noted within the first weeks for IgG1 and IgG2 but noted several months later for IgG4. The responses gradually increased by repeated immunizations and peaked around 12 months for IgG1 and a few months later for IgG2 and IgG4. A sustained but reduced response was noted for these three subclasses at 24 and 36 months. Interestingly, there was a gradual shift from a predominant IgG1 response at 6 months to an IgG4 response at 15 months. No significant change in total concentrations of the four IgG subclasses was observed comparing prevaccination concentrations with concentrations at 12 months, indicating an antigen-specific effect of GM-CSF administration on the anti-rhCEA response. The clinical significance of the individual IgG subclass antibodies for tumor response is not clear and requires additional studies.
  • Forslund, O, et al. (författare)
  • Population-based type-specific prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in middle-aged Swedish Women.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Virology. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1096-9071. ; 66:4, s. 535-541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing can be used to identify women at risk of the development of cervical cancer. The cost-effectiveness of HPV screening is dependent on the type-specific HPV prevalence in the general population. The present study describes the prevalence and spectrum of high-risk HPV types found in a large real-life population-based HPV screening trial undertaken entirely within the cervical screening program offered to middle-aged Swedish women. Cervical brush samples from 6,123 women aged 32-38 years were analyzed using a general HPV primer (GP5(+)/6(+)) polymerase chain reaction-enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA) combined with reverse dot-blot hybridization for confirmation and HPV typing by a single assay. In this study, 6.8% (95% CI 6.2-7.5) (417/6,123) were confirmed as high-risk HPV positive. Infections with 13 different high-risk HPV types were detected, of which HPV 16 was the most prevalent type (2.1%; 128/6,123), followed by HPV 31 (1.1%; 67/6,123). Any one of the HPV types 18, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, or 66 was detected in 3.6% (223/6,123) of the women. Infection with two, three, and five types simultaneously was identified in 32, 5, and 1 women, respectively. The combination of PCR-EIA as a screening test and reverse dot-blot hybridization as a confirmatory test, was found to be readily applicable to a real-life population-based cervical screening. The type-specific HPV prevalence found support in previous modeling studies suggesting that HPV screening may be a favorable cervical screening strategy.
  • Drakare, S., et al. (författare)
  • Primary production and phytoplankton composition in relation to DOC input and bacterioplankton production in humic Lake Örträsket
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Freshwater Biology. - 0046-5070. ; 47:1, s. 41-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. The biomass and production of picophytoplankton, large phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterioplankton were measured in humic Lake Örträsket, northern Sweden during four consecutive summers. 2. High flow episodes, carrying fresh dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the lake, always stimulated heterotrophic bacterial production at the expense of primary production. Primary production never exceeded bacterial production for approximately 20 days after such an episode had replenished epilimnial DOC. We suggest that allochthonous DOC is an energy source that stimulates bacterioplankton that, because of their efficient uptake of inorganic nutrients, are then able to outcompete phytoplankton. After the exhaustion of readily available DOC, phytoplankton were able to dominate epilimnion production in Lake Örträsket. 3. Biomass production was higher when dominated by phytoplankton than by bacterioplankton, despite a similar utilization of nutrients in the epilimnion throughout the summer. We propose that different C : N : P ratios of bacterioplankton and phytoplankton permit the latter to produce more carbon (C) biomass per unit of available inorganic nutrients than bacterioplankton.
  • Mahdavi, J, et al. (författare)
  • Helicobacter pylori SabA adhesin in persistent infection and chronic inflammation
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Science. - The American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 1095-9203. ; 297:5581, s. 573-578
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Helicobacter pylori adherence in the human gastric mucosa involves specific bacterial adhesins and cognate host receptors. Here, we identify sialyl-dimeric-Lewis x glycosphingolipid as a receptor for H. pylori and show that H. pylori infection induced formation of sialyl-Lewis x antigens in gastric epithelium in humans and in a Rhesus monkey. The corresponding sialic acid-binding adhesin (SabA) was isolated with the "retagging" method, and the underlying sabA gene (JHP662/HP0725) was identified. The ability of many H. pylori strains to adhere to sialylated glycoconjugates expressed during chronic inflammation might thus contribute to virulence and the extraordinary chronicity of H. pylori infection.
  • Aberg, P., et al. (författare)
  • Variation of skin properties within human forearms demonstrated by non-invasive detection and multi-way analysis
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Skin research and technology. - 0909-752X. ; 8:3, s. 194-201
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It is known that the properties of human skin vary locally. The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of human volar forearms even further using advanced non-invasive techniques and numerical methods. Methods: The skin properties of human volar forearms were investigated using measurements of trans epidermal water loss and multifrequency electrical impedance. Eight sites on the forearms of 27 healthy volunteers were measured. The sites were oriented as squares, four sites on both left and right forearm, approximately 40-50 mm apart. Results: Analysis of variance showed significant differences for epidermal water loss (P < 0.01) and the skin impedance (P < 0.001) between the inner and outer sides of the arms. Additionally, parallel factor analysis of the full skin impedance spectra also showed that there are systematic differences between right and left arm (P < 0.01). Conclusions: It is crucial to design skin studies carefully in order to minimise the effects of the local skin properties of human skin.
  • Cotgreave, IA, et al. (författare)
  • Differentiation-specific alterations to glutathione synthesis in and hormonally stimulated release from human skeletal muscle cells.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: The FASEB Journal. - 0892-6638. ; 16:3, s. 435-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Muscle atrophy and cachexia are associated with many human diseases. These catabolic states are often associated with the loss of glutathione (GSH), which is thought to contribute to the induction of oxidative stress within the muscle. Glutathione synthesis and secretary characteristics were studied in human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotube-like cells derived from the myoblasts by growth factor restriction. Differentiation was associated with a shift in the sulfur amino acid precursor specificity for synthesis of GSH from cystine to cysteine, as well as loss in ability to use extracellular glutathione and activation of methionine use. The thiol drug N-acetylcysteine was also shown to be an effective precursor irrespective of the state of differentiation. Additionally, myoblasts and myotube cultures were shown to secrete GSH continually, but only the differentiated cells responded to stress hormones such as glucagon, vasopressin, and phenylephrine, by increased secretion of the tripeptide. The data suggest that the skeletal muscle cells may provide an important hormonally regulated extra-hepatic source of systemic GSH and also shed light on the mechanisms of accelerated turnover of GSH operating during strenuous muscle activity and trauma. The data may also provide biochemical rationales for the nutritional and/or pharmacological manipulation of GSH with sulfur amino acid precursors during the treatment of muscle-specific oxidative stress and atrophy.
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