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  • Ahlm, Clas, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of antibodies specific to Puumala virus among farmers in Sweden
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health. - 0355-3140. ; 24:2, s. 104-108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Serological evidence confirmed that the exposure of humans to Puumala virus is firmly restricted to the northern and central parts of Sweden. In addition the evidence indicated that, in this region, farming is associated with an increased risk of contracting hantavirus infection.
  • Sandman, Per-Olof, et al. (författare)
  • From optimism to pessimism : A case study of a psychiatric patient
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing. - 0962-1067. ; 7:4, s. 360-370
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article focuses on the results of a single case study which illuminates an understanding of phases in nursing care for a patient in a psychiatric setting in Sweden. The focus of this study is a fifty year old man who showed progressive deterioration from increased motor activity to oral, sexual, destructive and aggressive actions. The data collection using five methods occurred during a 21 months period. Results of the content analyses processes identified four distinct but indiscreet phases of the patient’s complex condition. The medical and nursing care was categorised in three approaches: optimistic, strategic and resigned. The results raise the question whether there is action that is without any meaning as an expression of the patient´s wishes, thoughts and feelings. It seems clear that the patient in this study felt really angry and in despair. However, during moments of lucidity, he also indicated that he felt this was not an authentic expression of his "real" self. His experience was that of a splintered world.
  • Ilver, D, et al. (författare)
  • Helicobacter pylori adhesin binding fucosylated histo-blood group antigens revealed by retagging
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Science Magazine. - American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075. ; 279:5349, s. 373-377
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent for peptic ulcer disease. Bacterial adherence to the human gastric epithelial lining is mediated by the fucosylated Lewis b (Leb) histo-blood group antigen. The Leb-binding adhesin, BabA, was purified by receptor activity-directed affinity tagging. The bacterial Leb-binding phenotype was associated with the presence of the cag pathogenicity island among clinical isolates of H. pylori. A vaccine strategy based on the BabA adhesin might serve as a means to target the virulent type I strains of H. pylori.
  • Juto, P, et al. (författare)
  • A minority of seropositive wild bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) show evidence of current Puumala virus infection
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Epidemiology and infection. - 0950-2688. ; 121:2, s. 419-425
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) serve as the reservoir for Puumala (PUU) virus, the aetiologic agent of nephropathia epidemica. The animals are believed to be persistently infected and the occurrence of serum antibodies is usually taken as an evidence of active infection. We found serum antibodies to PUU virus in 42 of 299 wild bank voles captured in a PUU virus endemic area. PUU virus RNA was demonstrated in lung specimens of 11 of these 42 animals and in 2 of them antigen was also found. Thus in the lungs of 31 of 42 seropositive animals neither PUU virus RNA nor antigen was detected. In 2 of 257 seronegative animals, lung specimens showed presence of PUU virus antigen and RNA. Isolation of PUU virus from lung tissue was successful in all 4 antigen-positive bank voles but in none of 16 tested antigen-negative animals. In conclusion, only a minority of bank voles with serum antibodies to PUU virus showed evidence of current infection.
  • Levi, R, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of life and traumatic spinal cord injury
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. - 0003-9993. ; 79:11, s. 1433-1439
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between major outcome variables after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and quality of life (QL).SUBJECTS: Of a total population of 353 SCI patients, 320 participated, 261 men and 59 women living in the greater Stockholm area: 124 were tetraplegic, 176 were paraplegic, and 20 had no classified level. Mean age was 42 years (range, 17 to 78).METHOD: The Swedish SF-36 Health Survey was used to assess QL. The SF-36 is a self-administered questionnaire containing 36 items, divided into 8 multi-item dimensions, covering physical function, physical and emotional role function, social function, bodily pain, mental health, vitality and overall evaluation of health. Neurologic, general medical, and psychosocial variables were obtained from the Stockholm Spinal Cord Injury Study (SSCIS) data base. QL indices were analyzed for the SCI group as a whole, as well as for subgroups. Descriptors for subgroups were demographic variables, presence or absence of common medical problems, and subjective evaluation of the degree of impact of the medical problem on well-being/daily activities.RESULTS: QL in individuals with SCI was significantly lower in all subscales as compared with a normative population. No difference in QL was seen in subgroups according to extent of lesion, with the exception of physical functioning. Several medical complications such as neurogenic pain, spasticity, and neurogenic bladder and bowel problems were associated with lower QL scores.SUMMARY: QL, as defined by SF-36, is better in persons injured many years ago, as compared with those recently injured, suggesting an adaptive process operating over a long period. The presence of complicating medical problems, such as severe pain, problematic spasticity, and incontinence, seem to have more negative effects on QL than the extent of SCI as such.
  • Mills, KH, et al. (författare)
  • Distinct T-cell subtypes induced with whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines in children
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Immunology. - 0019-2805. ; 93:1, s. 1-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that new generation acellular pertussis vaccines can confer protection against whooping cough. However, the mechanism of protective immunity against Bordetella pertussis infection induced by vaccination remains to be defined. We have examined cellular immune responses in children immunized with a range of acellular and whole cell pertussis vaccines. Immunization of children with a potent whole-cell vaccine induced B. pertussis-specific T cells that secreted interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but not interleukin-5 (IL-5). In contrast, T cells from children immunized with acellular pertussis vaccines secreted IFN-gamma and/or IL-5 following stimulation with B. pertussis antigens in vitro. These observations suggest that protective immunity conferred by whole-cell vaccines, like natural immunity, is mediated by type 1 T cells, whereas the mechanism of immune protection generated with acellular vaccines may be more heterogeneous, involving T cells that secreted type 1 and type 2 cytokines.
  • Ahlm, Clas, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Central nervous system and ophthalmic involvement in nephropathia epidemica (European type of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome)
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infection. - 0163-4453. ; 36:2, s. 149-155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Central nervous system (CNS) - related symptoms occur in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). To study the CNS and ophthalmic involvement in nephropathia epidemica (NE), the European type of HFRS, we included 26 patients in a prospective study. Most common CNS-related symptoms were headache (96%), insomnia (83%), vertigo (79%), nausea (79%), and vomiting (71%). Ophthalmic symptoms were reported by 82% of patients; 41% had photophobia and 50% had impaired vision. A transient loss of vision was recorded in one patient, who also had a generalized seizure. Minor white matter lesions were found in about half of the patients investigated with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Electroencephalography (EEG) showed severe alterations in only one patient, and slight and reversible patterns in another two patients. Neopterin, interleukin-6 and interferon-gamma levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were elevated, which may indicate immune activation. However, we found no evidence of intrathecal NE virus replication. We conclude that CNS-related symptoms are common in NE, and transient ophthalmic involvement can be demonstrated in about half of the patients.
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