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Sökning: swepub > Umeå universitet > Tidskriftsartikel > (1995-1999) > (1998)

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  • Ahlm, Clas, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of antibodies specific to Puumala virus among farmers in Sweden
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health. - 0355-3140. ; 24:2, s. 104-108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Serological evidence confirmed that the exposure of humans to Puumala virus is firmly restricted to the northern and central parts of Sweden. In addition the evidence indicated that, in this region, farming is associated with an increased risk of contracting hantavirus infection.
  • Hellström, Olle, et al. (författare)
  • Doctors' attitudes to fibromyalgia : a phenomenological study
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine. - Taylor & Francis. - 0300-8037. ; 26:3, s. 232-237
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Besides specific technical skills, successful encounters with patients require an understanding of the many ways in which patients may express themselves. This qualitative study reports on the clinical experiences of doctors when meeting patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Ten strategically chosen rheumatologists and 10 GPs in central Sweden were interviewed. The interviews were taped, transcribed and analysed in accordance with the empirical, phenomenological, psychological method. The analyses indicate that doctors try to comply with the wishes and demands of patients, and at the same time avoid perceptions of personal frustration. They are inclined to be objective and to act instrumentally, apparently in order to keep in touch with what gave biomedical meaning to an otherwise incomprehensible phenomenon. The meaning structures revealed by doctors' descriptions of FM and of relating to FM patients were characterized mainly by the way in which the doctors were (i) managing their clinical uncertainty, (ii) adhering to the biomedical paradigm, (iii) prioritizing diagnostics, (iv) establishing an instrumental relationship, and (v) avoiding recognizing FM as a possible biomedical anomaly.
  • Sandman, Per-Olof, et al. (författare)
  • From optimism to pessimism : A case study of a psychiatric patient
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing. - 0962-1067. ; 7:4, s. 360-370
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article focuses on the results of a single case study which illuminates an understanding of phases in nursing care for a patient in a psychiatric setting in Sweden. The focus of this study is a fifty year old man who showed progressive deterioration from increased motor activity to oral, sexual, destructive and aggressive actions. The data collection using five methods occurred during a 21 months period. Results of the content analyses processes identified four distinct but indiscreet phases of the patient’s complex condition. The medical and nursing care was categorised in three approaches: optimistic, strategic and resigned. The results raise the question whether there is action that is without any meaning as an expression of the patient´s wishes, thoughts and feelings. It seems clear that the patient in this study felt really angry and in despair. However, during moments of lucidity, he also indicated that he felt this was not an authentic expression of his "real" self. His experience was that of a splintered world.
  • Ilver, D, et al. (författare)
  • Helicobacter pylori adhesin binding fucosylated histo-blood group antigens revealed by retagging
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Science Magazine. - American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075. ; 279:5349, s. 373-377
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent for peptic ulcer disease. Bacterial adherence to the human gastric epithelial lining is mediated by the fucosylated Lewis b (Leb) histo-blood group antigen. The Leb-binding adhesin, BabA, was purified by receptor activity-directed affinity tagging. The bacterial Leb-binding phenotype was associated with the presence of the cag pathogenicity island among clinical isolates of H. pylori. A vaccine strategy based on the BabA adhesin might serve as a means to target the virulent type I strains of H. pylori.
  • Gustafsson, Jörgen, et al. (författare)
  • The influence of hyperfine structure and isotope shift on the detection of Rb by 2f-wavelength modulation diode laser absorption spectrometry : experimental verification of simulations
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Spectrochimica Acta Part B - Atomic Spectroscopy. - Elsevier. - 0584-8547. ; 52:14, s. 1895-1905
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This work presents an experimental verification of a previously developed methodology for simulation of the 2f-wavelength modulation diode laser absorption spectrometry technique (2f-WM-DLAS) when the influence of hyperfine structure, isotope shift and collisional broadening and shift of an atomic transition is taken into account [J. Gustafsson, D. Rojas and O. Axner, Spectrochim. Acta, 52B, 1937-1953 (1997)]. The pilot element in the simulations was Rb, detected at the 780 nm 5s S-2(1/2) - 5p P-2(3/2) transition, in low-pressure cells and atmospheric-pressure reservoirs (e.g. graphite furnaces). This experimental investigation verifies that the simulations are able to predict, with good accuracy, experimental 2f-WM signals from Rb atoms under both low-pressure, room-temperature conditions and atmospheric-pressure, high-temperature conditions. This implies that the previously published simulation methodology can be used for predicting and optimizing 2f-WM signal strengths and shapes from Rb atoms (and thereby presumably also from other atoms) under a variety of pressure and temperature conditions.
  • Juto, P, et al. (författare)
  • A minority of seropositive wild bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) show evidence of current Puumala virus infection
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Epidemiology and infection. - 0950-2688. ; 121:2, s. 419-425
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) serve as the reservoir for Puumala (PUU) virus, the aetiologic agent of nephropathia epidemica. The animals are believed to be persistently infected and the occurrence of serum antibodies is usually taken as an evidence of active infection. We found serum antibodies to PUU virus in 42 of 299 wild bank voles captured in a PUU virus endemic area. PUU virus RNA was demonstrated in lung specimens of 11 of these 42 animals and in 2 of them antigen was also found. Thus in the lungs of 31 of 42 seropositive animals neither PUU virus RNA nor antigen was detected. In 2 of 257 seronegative animals, lung specimens showed presence of PUU virus antigen and RNA. Isolation of PUU virus from lung tissue was successful in all 4 antigen-positive bank voles but in none of 16 tested antigen-negative animals. In conclusion, only a minority of bank voles with serum antibodies to PUU virus showed evidence of current infection.
  • Levi, R, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of life and traumatic spinal cord injury
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. - 0003-9993. ; 79:11, s. 1433-1439
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between major outcome variables after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and quality of life (QL).SUBJECTS: Of a total population of 353 SCI patients, 320 participated, 261 men and 59 women living in the greater Stockholm area: 124 were tetraplegic, 176 were paraplegic, and 20 had no classified level. Mean age was 42 years (range, 17 to 78).METHOD: The Swedish SF-36 Health Survey was used to assess QL. The SF-36 is a self-administered questionnaire containing 36 items, divided into 8 multi-item dimensions, covering physical function, physical and emotional role function, social function, bodily pain, mental health, vitality and overall evaluation of health. Neurologic, general medical, and psychosocial variables were obtained from the Stockholm Spinal Cord Injury Study (SSCIS) data base. QL indices were analyzed for the SCI group as a whole, as well as for subgroups. Descriptors for subgroups were demographic variables, presence or absence of common medical problems, and subjective evaluation of the degree of impact of the medical problem on well-being/daily activities.RESULTS: QL in individuals with SCI was significantly lower in all subscales as compared with a normative population. No difference in QL was seen in subgroups according to extent of lesion, with the exception of physical functioning. Several medical complications such as neurogenic pain, spasticity, and neurogenic bladder and bowel problems were associated with lower QL scores.SUMMARY: QL, as defined by SF-36, is better in persons injured many years ago, as compared with those recently injured, suggesting an adaptive process operating over a long period. The presence of complicating medical problems, such as severe pain, problematic spasticity, and incontinence, seem to have more negative effects on QL than the extent of SCI as such.
  • Mills, KH, et al. (författare)
  • Distinct T-cell subtypes induced with whole cell and acellular pertussis vaccines in children
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Immunology. - 0019-2805. ; 93:1, s. 1-10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that new generation acellular pertussis vaccines can confer protection against whooping cough. However, the mechanism of protective immunity against Bordetella pertussis infection induced by vaccination remains to be defined. We have examined cellular immune responses in children immunized with a range of acellular and whole cell pertussis vaccines. Immunization of children with a potent whole-cell vaccine induced B. pertussis-specific T cells that secreted interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but not interleukin-5 (IL-5). In contrast, T cells from children immunized with acellular pertussis vaccines secreted IFN-gamma and/or IL-5 following stimulation with B. pertussis antigens in vitro. These observations suggest that protective immunity conferred by whole-cell vaccines, like natural immunity, is mediated by type 1 T cells, whereas the mechanism of immune protection generated with acellular vaccines may be more heterogeneous, involving T cells that secreted type 1 and type 2 cytokines.
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