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Sökning: swepub > Umeå universitet > (2000-2004) > Tidskriftsartikel > (2000)

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  • Berggren, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Control aversion and the search for external financing in Swedish SMEs
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Small Business Economics. - 0921-898X. ; 15:3, s. 233-242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The discussion on growth (see Storey, 1997) and control aversion (Cressy, 1995; Chittenden et al., 1996; Cressy and Olofsson, 1996) in small and medium sized firms has been attracting an increasing amount of attention. Our purpose in this article is to identify under what circumstances small and medium sized firms are prepared to accept outside control in the business firm in order to grow. In the article it is argued that technology development, financial strength, size and perceived need to grow, change firms attitudes towards external financiers. The change in attitude towards more openness eventually leads to an actual behaviour where the principals choose to apply for external finance in the form of bank loans. A linear structural equation modelling program, LISREL, is used to analyse a sample of 281 Swedish firms. The firms all have less than 200 employees, and the sample includes both manufacturing and service firms.
  • Böttcher, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Microflora-associated characteristics in faeces from allergic and nonallergic infants
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - 0954-7894. ; 30:11, s. 1590-1596
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased particularly over the past 30-40 years. A reduced microbial stimulation during infancy may result in a development of a disturbed balance between Th1- and Th2-like immunity. The gut flora is, quantitatively, the most important source for such stimulation. Objective The aim of the study was to compare the gut microbial flora in 25 allergic and 47 nonallergic 13-month-old infants (range 11-18), through analysing microflora-associated biochemical markers in faeces. Methods Microflora associated characteristics (MACs) were assessed by determining the concentrations of eight different short chain fatty acids and the conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol by gas chromatography. Faecal tryptic activity was analysed spectrophotometrically. Results The allergic infants had lower levels of propionic, i-butyric, butyric, i-valeric and valeric acid. In contrast, they had higher levels of the rarely detected i-caproic acid, which has been associated with the presence of Clostridium difficile. Furthermore, the allergic infants had higher relative distribution of acetic and i-caproic acid. None of the other parameters differed between the groups. Conclusion The results demonstrate differences in the MACs between allergic and nonallergic infants, indicating differences in the composition of the gut flora. that may disturb the development of a normal Th1-/Th2-balance in allergic children.
  • Lindstrom, A, et al. (författare)
  • Correlations between serum progesterone and smoking, and the growth fraction of cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Anticancer Research. - 0250-7005. ; 20, s. 3637-3640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Possible correlations between growth fraction of squamous cervical carcinomas and serum progesterone (se-P) concentrations, smoking habits and DNA ploidy were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The DNA S-phase fraction (SPF), measured by flow cytometry was used as a marker of tumour growth in 103 cases of squamous cervical cancer stage IB-IV. DNA-ploidy (peridiploidy vs. aneuploidy), Se-P, se-Estradiol, smoking habits, parity, menopausal status, clinical stage and histopathological grading were compared to SPF < 14% vs. SPF > or = 14%. RESULTS: Aneuploidy, (odds ratio (OR) 10.0), se-P > or = 2.6 nmol/l (OR 7.5) and smoking (OR 3.0) were significantly associated with SPF > or = 14%, after adjustments for all factors included in the study. The association with se-P and smoking was attributed to an increased risk for the premenopausal women in the study. DISCUSSION: In this study an increased tumour growth was associated with increased leves of se-P, smoking and aneuploidy in women with invasive squamous cervical carcinoma. This study seems to experimentally confirm epidemiological studies, where smoking and long-term use of oral contraceptives have been linked to cervical neoplasms.
  • Sundin, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Suffering from care as expressed in the narratives of former patients in somatic wards
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. - 0283-9318. ; 14:1, s. 16-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To illuminate patients' experiences of suffering from care, ten former patients in somatic wards narrated a desirable care episode (n = 39) and an undesirable care episode (n = 51). The interviews were analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutic method inspired by Ricoeur's philosophy. Four themes were found: having a good rest, suffering through, searching for autonomy and being cared for by attentive and committed staff. The findings were interpreted in light of Eriksson's description of suffering, which describes three kinds of suffering: 'suffering of life', 'suffering of illness' and 'suffering of caring'. Although not mentioned explicitly, it was evident that cases of suffering from care were indicated in the patients' narratives. The themes were related to the patients' states of health, their experience of the care situation and their descriptions of themselves, and could be understood as related to the acts of the 'drama of suffering' described by Eriksson. The study highlights the need for the patient to find a co-actor in the drama of suffering in order to prevent suffering from care, i.e. prevent hindrance to the patient in her/his struggle against the 'suffering of illness' and the 'suffering of life'. The patients must be seen as the directors of their own dramas of suffering.
  • Aarts, Clara, et al. (författare)
  • How exclusive is exclusive breastfeeding? A comparison of data since birth with current status data :  
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771. ; 29:6, s. 1041-1046
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:There is no accepted and widely used indicator for exclusive breastfeeding since birth. Indeed, the difference between 'current status' data on exclusive breastfeeding and data on 'exclusive breastfeeding since birth' is rarely recognized. We used data from a longitudinal study to examine this issue.METHODS:A descriptive longitudinal, prospective study design was used in which 506 mother-infant pairs were included. The mothers completed daily recordings on infant feeding during the first nine months after birth. A research assistant conducted fortnightly home visits with structured interviews. The resulting data on breastfeeding patterns are presented in two different ways: analysis of 'current status' data based on a single 24-hour recording of infant feeding at 2, 4 and 6 months of age, and analysis of data 'since birth', i.e. data on infant feeding for every day, starting from birth until the ages of 2, 4 and 6 months.RESULTS:A wide discrepancy between the results obtained from the two analyses was found. The difference in the exclusive breastfeeding rate was over 40 percentage points at both 2 and 4 months of age (92% versus 51% at 2 months and 73% versus 30% at 4 months) and 9 percentage points at 6 months (11% versus 1.8%).CONCLUSIONS:Current status indicators based on a 24-hour period may be inadequate and even misleading for many purposes. We propose that in many studies an indicator called 'exclusive breastfeeding since birth' could be added.
  • Ahlm, Clas, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Brain abscess caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. - 0036-5548. ; 32:5, s. 562-563
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A Swedish tourist was admitted to a Cuban hospital due to epileptic seizures caused by brain tumors. Upon return to Sweden and admission to our hospital, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated. He was later considered to be free of MRSA but then developed a brain abscess from which MRSA was isolated.
  • Andersson, Patrik, et al. (författare)
  • Multivariate modeling of polychlorinated biphenyl-induced CYP1A activity in hepatocytes from three different species : ranking scales and species differences
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. - 0730-7268. ; 19:5, s. 1454-1463
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cytochrome P4501A–induced activity of 20 selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was evaluated by measuring ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and methoxyresorufin-O-demethylase activities induced in the hepatocytes of cynomolgus monkeys, male castrated pigs, and chicken embryos. Quantitative structure-activity relationships have been established, including 52 physi-cochemical parameters and different measures of the dose-response curves. Relative effect potencies are predicted for the 154 tetra-to hepta-PCBs and reported for the most potent congeners according to both EC50 and maximal response values. Important physicochemical parameters of the PCBs as related to the modeled activity are parts of their ultraviolet absorption spectra, the Henry's law constant, the ionization potential, and the octanol-water partition coefficient. Interspecies differences were found in terms of varied sensitivity to different structural subgroups of the compounds. The chicken hepatocyte assay showed the most specific structure-activity relationship, with high activity for the non-ortho PCBs, whereas the pig hepatocytes responded even for some di- to tetra-ortho PCBs. An interspecies response, the principal induction potency, is presented for the 41 most potent PCBs. These responses showed strong correlation with the toxic equivalency factors and are likely to be useful in risk assessment of the compounds.
  • Artursson, Tom, et al. (författare)
  • Drift correction for gas sensors using multivariate methods
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of Chemometrics. - 0886-9383. ; 14:5-6, s. 711-723
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Drift is one of the most serious impairments afflicting gas sensors. It can be seen as a gradual change in the sensor response over a long period of time when the external conditions an constant. This paper presents a new simple drift counteraction method based on PCA and PLS. The basic idea is to remove the drift direction component from the measurements. The direction of the drift, p, is calculated from measurements for a reference gas. Projecting the sample gas measurements on this vector gives the score vector t. The drift component tp(T) can then he removed from the sample gas data, which we call component correction (CC). The method is tested on a data set based on a reduced factorial design with four gases and a concentration gradient of hydrogen. It is found that the method works efficiently for both cases. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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