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Sökning: swepub > Umeå universitet > (2000-2004) > Tidskriftsartikel > (2000)

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1.
  • Böttcher, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Microflora-associated characteristics in faeces from allergic and nonallergic infants
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - 0954-7894. ; 30:11, s. 1590-1596
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased particularly over the past 30-40 years. A reduced microbial stimulation during infancy may result in a development of a disturbed balance between Th1- and Th2-like immunity. The gut flora is, quantitatively, the most important source for such stimulation. Objective The aim of the study was to compare the gut microbial flora in 25 allergic and 47 nonallergic 13-month-old infants (range 11-18), through analysing microflora-associated biochemical markers in faeces. Methods Microflora associated characteristics (MACs) were assessed by determining the concentrations of eight different short chain fatty acids and the conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol by gas chromatography. Faecal tryptic activity was analysed spectrophotometrically. Results The allergic infants had lower levels of propionic, i-butyric, butyric, i-valeric and valeric acid. In contrast, they had higher levels of the rarely detected i-caproic acid, which has been associated with the presence of Clostridium difficile. Furthermore, the allergic infants had higher relative distribution of acetic and i-caproic acid. None of the other parameters differed between the groups. Conclusion The results demonstrate differences in the MACs between allergic and nonallergic infants, indicating differences in the composition of the gut flora. that may disturb the development of a normal Th1-/Th2-balance in allergic children.
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2.
  • Lindstrom, A, et al. (författare)
  • Correlations between serum progesterone and smoking, and the growth fraction of cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Anticancer Research. - 0250-7005. ; 20, s. 3637-3640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Possible correlations between growth fraction of squamous cervical carcinomas and serum progesterone (se-P) concentrations, smoking habits and DNA ploidy were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The DNA S-phase fraction (SPF), measured by flow cytometry was used as a marker of tumour growth in 103 cases of squamous cervical cancer stage IB-IV. DNA-ploidy (peridiploidy vs. aneuploidy), Se-P, se-Estradiol, smoking habits, parity, menopausal status, clinical stage and histopathological grading were compared to SPF < 14% vs. SPF > or = 14%. RESULTS: Aneuploidy, (odds ratio (OR) 10.0), se-P > or = 2.6 nmol/l (OR 7.5) and smoking (OR 3.0) were significantly associated with SPF > or = 14%, after adjustments for all factors included in the study. The association with se-P and smoking was attributed to an increased risk for the premenopausal women in the study. DISCUSSION: In this study an increased tumour growth was associated with increased leves of se-P, smoking and aneuploidy in women with invasive squamous cervical carcinoma. This study seems to experimentally confirm epidemiological studies, where smoking and long-term use of oral contraceptives have been linked to cervical neoplasms.
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3.
  • Sundin, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Suffering from care as expressed in the narratives of former patients in somatic wards
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. - 0283-9318. ; 14:1, s. 16-22
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To illuminate patients' experiences of suffering from care, ten former patients in somatic wards narrated a desirable care episode (n = 39) and an undesirable care episode (n = 51). The interviews were analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutic method inspired by Ricoeur's philosophy. Four themes were found: having a good rest, suffering through, searching for autonomy and being cared for by attentive and committed staff. The findings were interpreted in light of Eriksson's description of suffering, which describes three kinds of suffering: 'suffering of life', 'suffering of illness' and 'suffering of caring'. Although not mentioned explicitly, it was evident that cases of suffering from care were indicated in the patients' narratives. The themes were related to the patients' states of health, their experience of the care situation and their descriptions of themselves, and could be understood as related to the acts of the 'drama of suffering' described by Eriksson. The study highlights the need for the patient to find a co-actor in the drama of suffering in order to prevent suffering from care, i.e. prevent hindrance to the patient in her/his struggle against the 'suffering of illness' and the 'suffering of life'. The patients must be seen as the directors of their own dramas of suffering.
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4.
  • Frängsmyr, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Evolution of the carcinoembryonic antigen family. Structures of CGM9, CGM11 and pregnancy-specific glycoprotein promoters
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Tumor Biology. - 1010-4283. ; 21:2, s. 63-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Earlier studies have demonstrated that the genes of the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family can be divided into three subgroups, the CEA subgroup (n = 12), the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) subgroup (n = 11), and a third subgroup (n = 6). To further characterize the CEA gene family, we have determined the genomic structures of CGM9 and CGM11, analyzed the promoter regions of all eleven PSGs, studied the CGM15-PSG13 intergenic region and the evolutionary relationships between the CEA family genes. CGM9, a typical CEA subgroup member, was a pseudogene with the exon structure [5'UTR-L-L/N-TM-Cyt-3'UTR]. CGM11 contained a mixture of exons derived from CEA and PSG subgroup genes. The formula of the CGM11 pseudogene was [5'UTRL- L/N-C-3'UTR]. Thus both genes lacked the IgC2-like domains typically found in CEA subfamily members. The upstream promoter regions of all eleven PSGs were characterized. All PSG promoters lacked the classical TATA and CCAAT elements, but had putative PEA3 box(es), CACCC box(es), a RARE box, and poly (dG-dT) repeats of different lengths. Five PSGs also had an SP1 site. The complete 10-kb intergenic region between CGM15 and PSG13 was sequenced. Clusters of different types of repetitive sequences were seen. The time of divergence of the CEA and PSG subfamilies was estimated to be 107.7 ± 17.1 million years, or at about the time of human-rodent divergence. Models for the evolution of CEA and PSG and the third family subgroup genes are proposed.
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5.
  • Sahlin, Kent, et al. (författare)
  • Mitochondrial function and antioxidative defence in human muscle : effects of endurance training and oxidative stress.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of Physiology. - 0022-3751. ; 528 Pt 2, s. 379-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The influence of endurance training on oxidative phosphorylation and the susceptibility of mitochondrial oxidative function to reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated in skeletal muscle of four men and four women. Mitochondria were isolated from muscle biopsies taken before and after 6 weeks of endurance training. Mitochondrial respiration was measured before and after exposure of mitochondria to exogenous ROS (H2O2 + FeCl2). Endurance training increased peak pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2,peak) by 24 % and maximal ADP-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption (state 3) by 40% (P<0.05). Respiration in the absence of ADP (state 4), the respiratory control ratio (RCR = state 3/state 4) and the ratio between added ADP and consumed oxygen (P/O) remained unchanged by the training programme. Exposure to ROS reduced state 3 respiration but the effect was not significantly different between pre- and post-training samples. State 4 oxygen consumption increased after exposure to ROS both before (+189 %, P< 0.05) and after training (+243 %, P<0.05) and the effect was significantly higher after training (P<0.05, pre- vs. post-training). The augmented state 4 respiration could in part be attenuated by atractyloside, which indicates that ADP/ATP translocase was affected by ROS. The P/O ratio in ROS-treated mitochondria was significantly lower (P<0.05) compared to control conditions, both before (-18.6+/-2.2 %) and after training (-18.5+/-1.1%). Muscle activities of superoxide dismutase (mitochondrial and cytosolic), glutathione peroxidase and muscle glutathione status were unaffected by training. There was a positive correlation between muscle superoxide dismutase activity and age (r = 0.75; P<0.05; range of age 20-37 years), which may reflect an adaptation to increased generation of ROS in senescent muscle. The muscle glutathione pool was more reduced in subjects with high activity of glutathione peroxidase (r = 0.81; P<0.05). The influence of short-term training on mitochondrial oxygen consumption has for the first time been investigated in human skeletal muscle. The results showed that maximal mitochondrial oxidative power is increased after endurance training but that the efficiency of energy transfer (P/O ratio) remained unchanged. Antioxidative defence was unchanged after training when expressed relative to muscle weight. Although this corresponds to a reduced antioxidant protection per individual mitochondrion, the sensitivity of aerobic energy transfer to ROS was unchanged. However, the augmented ROS-induced non-coupled respiration after training indicates an increased susceptibility of mitochondrial membrane proton conductance to oxidative stress.
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6.
  • Warholm, Margareta, et al. (författare)
  • CYP1A1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms affect urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels after PAH exposure
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 21:4, s. 669-676
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Certain human biotransformation enzymes have been implicated in the formation and scavenging of the ultimate reactive metabolites, the diolepoxides, from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the present study, performed on aluminum smelter workers, we have analyzed airborne PAH, the pyrene metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in urine, and genotypes for biotransformation enzymes involved in PAH metabolism. The aim was to evaluate the correlation between external exposure and biomarkers of exposure and to investigate to what extent genetic polymorphism in metabolic enzymes can explain interindividual variation in urinary 1-OHP levels. DNA was prepared from blood samples from 98 potroom workers and 55 controls and altogether eight polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, mEH, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 genes were analyzed. The 1-OHP excretion was found to correlate significantly (P </= 0.005) to the exposure. The interindividual difference in excretion of 1-OHP was vast (>100-fold) and univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to find the variables that could determine differences in excretion. The variation could, to some degree, be explained by differences in exposure to airborne particulate-associated PAHs, the use of personal respiratory protection devices, smoking habits and genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 1A1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 enzymes. The part of the variance that could be explained by differences in biotransformation genotypes seemed to be of the same order of magnitude as the variance explained by differences in exposure. In the control group as well as in the occupationally exposed group, the highest 1-OHP levels were observed in individuals carrying the CYP1A1 Ile/Val genotype who were also of the GSTM1 null genotype. The results show that urinary 1-OHP is a sensitive indicator of recent human exposure to PAHs and that it may also to some extent reflect the interindividual variation in susceptibility to PAHs.
7.
  • Holmdahl, Rikard, et al. (författare)
  • Synthesis of a C-glycoside analogue of beta-D-galactosyl hydroxynorvaline and its use in immunological studies
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology. - Wiley. - 1439-4227. ; 1:4, s. 272-280
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A C-linked isostere of beta-D-galactosylated hydroxynorvaline has been prepared in eight steps from per-O-benzylated galactopyranolactone. Addition of a homoallylic Grignard reagent to the lactone, reduction of the resulting hemiacetal with triethylsilane, and a Wittig reaction with Garner's aldehyde were key steps in this synthesis. The C-linked building block was then incorporated at position 264 into the fragment CII(256--270) from typeII collagen by solid-phase synthesis using a combination of the tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) and 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) protective group strategies. Deprotection of the benzylated C-linked galactosyl moiety was achieved simultaneously with cleavage of the glycopeptide from the solid phase by using triethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate in TFA. Helper T-cell hybridomas obtained in a mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis responded to the C-linked glycopeptide when presented by classII MHC molecules. However, 10- to 20-fold higher concentrations were required as compared to when O-linked beta-D-galactosylated hydroxynorvaline or hydroxylysine (Hyl) were present at position 264 of CII(256--270). Thus, replacement of a single oxygen atom by a methylene group in the carbohydrate moiety of a glycopeptide antigen had a substantial influence on the T-cell response. This reveals that T cells are able to recognize the carbohydrate moiety of glycopeptide antigens with high specificity. Finally, the results suggest that structural modifications of beta-D-Gal-Hyl(264) in CII(256--270) may give altered peptide ligands that can be used for induction of tolerance in autoimmune rheumatoid arthritis.
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8.
  • Malmström, Vivianne, et al. (författare)
  • T cells that are naturally tolerant to cartilage-derived type II collagen are involved in the development of collagen-induced arthritis
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Arthritis research. - BioMed Central Ltd.. - 1465-9905. ; 2:4, s. 315-326
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The immunodominant T-cell epitope that is involved in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) is the glycosylated type II collagen (CII) peptide 256-270. In CII transgenic mice, which express the immunodominant CII 256-270 epitope in cartilage, the CII-specific T cells are characterized by a partially tolerant state with low proliferative activity in vitro, but with maintained effector functions, such as IFN-gamma secretion and ability to provide B cell help. These mice were still susceptible to CIA. The response was mainly directed to the glycosylated form of the CII 256-270 peptide, rather than to the nonglycosylated peptide. Tolerance induction was rapid; transferred T cells encountered CII within a few days. CII immunization several weeks after thymectomy of the mice did not change their susceptibility to arthritis or the induction of partial T-cell tolerance, excluding a role for recent thymic emigrants. Thus, partially tolerant CII autoreactive T cells are maintained and are crucial for the development of CIA.
9.
  • Andersson, T, et al. (författare)
  • Swedish maternal mortality in the 19th century by different definitions: previous stillbirths but not multiparity risk factor for maternal death
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6349. ; 79:8, s. 679-686
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In conclusion, this study shows that the mother's reproductive history was the most important risk factor measured for all definitions of maternal death. Grand multiparity did not increase the risk of maternal death. Maternal mortality ratio varied threefold in the study population, depending on the definition used. The high mortality ratios found in this study, only declining by the end of the century, should be interpreted as a general condition of the society since no significant differences could be perceived regarding social class, while unmarried women were more at risk.
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10.
  • Berggren, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Control aversion and the search for external financing in Swedish SMEs
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Small Business Economics. - 0921-898X. ; 15:3, s. 233-242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The discussion on growth (see Storey, 1997) and control aversion (Cressy, 1995; Chittenden et al., 1996; Cressy and Olofsson, 1996) in small and medium sized firms has been attracting an increasing amount of attention. Our purpose in this article is to identify under what circumstances small and medium sized firms are prepared to accept outside control in the business firm in order to grow. In the article it is argued that technology development, financial strength, size and perceived need to grow, change firms attitudes towards external financiers. The change in attitude towards more openness eventually leads to an actual behaviour where the principals choose to apply for external finance in the form of bank loans. A linear structural equation modelling program, LISREL, is used to analyse a sample of 281 Swedish firms. The firms all have less than 200 employees, and the sample includes both manufacturing and service firms.
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