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  • Böttcher, Malin, et al. (författare)
  • Microflora-associated characteristics in faeces from allergic and nonallergic infants
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy. - 0954-7894. ; 30:11, s. 1590-1596
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased particularly over the past 30-40 years. A reduced microbial stimulation during infancy may result in a development of a disturbed balance between Th1- and Th2-like immunity. The gut flora is, quantitatively, the most important source for such stimulation. Objective The aim of the study was to compare the gut microbial flora in 25 allergic and 47 nonallergic 13-month-old infants (range 11-18), through analysing microflora-associated biochemical markers in faeces. Methods Microflora associated characteristics (MACs) were assessed by determining the concentrations of eight different short chain fatty acids and the conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol by gas chromatography. Faecal tryptic activity was analysed spectrophotometrically. Results The allergic infants had lower levels of propionic, i-butyric, butyric, i-valeric and valeric acid. In contrast, they had higher levels of the rarely detected i-caproic acid, which has been associated with the presence of Clostridium difficile. Furthermore, the allergic infants had higher relative distribution of acetic and i-caproic acid. None of the other parameters differed between the groups. Conclusion The results demonstrate differences in the MACs between allergic and nonallergic infants, indicating differences in the composition of the gut flora. that may disturb the development of a normal Th1-/Th2-balance in allergic children.
  • Lindstrom, A, et al. (författare)
  • Correlations between serum progesterone and smoking, and the growth fraction of cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Anticancer Research. - 0250-7005. ; 20, s. 3637-3640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Possible correlations between growth fraction of squamous cervical carcinomas and serum progesterone (se-P) concentrations, smoking habits and DNA ploidy were studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The DNA S-phase fraction (SPF), measured by flow cytometry was used as a marker of tumour growth in 103 cases of squamous cervical cancer stage IB-IV. DNA-ploidy (peridiploidy vs. aneuploidy), Se-P, se-Estradiol, smoking habits, parity, menopausal status, clinical stage and histopathological grading were compared to SPF < 14% vs. SPF > or = 14%. RESULTS: Aneuploidy, (odds ratio (OR) 10.0), se-P > or = 2.6 nmol/l (OR 7.5) and smoking (OR 3.0) were significantly associated with SPF > or = 14%, after adjustments for all factors included in the study. The association with se-P and smoking was attributed to an increased risk for the premenopausal women in the study. DISCUSSION: In this study an increased tumour growth was associated with increased leves of se-P, smoking and aneuploidy in women with invasive squamous cervical carcinoma. This study seems to experimentally confirm epidemiological studies, where smoking and long-term use of oral contraceptives have been linked to cervical neoplasms.
  • Aarts, Clara, et al. (författare)
  • How exclusive is exclusive breastfeeding? A comparison of data since birth with current status data :  
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - 0300-5771. ; 29:6, s. 1041-1046
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:There is no accepted and widely used indicator for exclusive breastfeeding since birth. Indeed, the difference between 'current status' data on exclusive breastfeeding and data on 'exclusive breastfeeding since birth' is rarely recognized. We used data from a longitudinal study to examine this issue.METHODS:A descriptive longitudinal, prospective study design was used in which 506 mother-infant pairs were included. The mothers completed daily recordings on infant feeding during the first nine months after birth. A research assistant conducted fortnightly home visits with structured interviews. The resulting data on breastfeeding patterns are presented in two different ways: analysis of 'current status' data based on a single 24-hour recording of infant feeding at 2, 4 and 6 months of age, and analysis of data 'since birth', i.e. data on infant feeding for every day, starting from birth until the ages of 2, 4 and 6 months.RESULTS:A wide discrepancy between the results obtained from the two analyses was found. The difference in the exclusive breastfeeding rate was over 40 percentage points at both 2 and 4 months of age (92% versus 51% at 2 months and 73% versus 30% at 4 months) and 9 percentage points at 6 months (11% versus 1.8%).CONCLUSIONS:Current status indicators based on a 24-hour period may be inadequate and even misleading for many purposes. We propose that in many studies an indicator called 'exclusive breastfeeding since birth' could be added.
  • Ahlm, Clas, 1956-, et al. (författare)
  • Brain abscess caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases. - 0036-5548. ; 32:5, s. 562-563
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A Swedish tourist was admitted to a Cuban hospital due to epileptic seizures caused by brain tumors. Upon return to Sweden and admission to our hospital, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated. He was later considered to be free of MRSA but then developed a brain abscess from which MRSA was isolated.
  • Artursson, Tom, et al. (författare)
  • Drift correction for gas sensors using multivariate methods
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of Chemometrics. - 0886-9383. ; 14:5-6, s. 711-723
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Drift is one of the most serious impairments afflicting gas sensors. It can be seen as a gradual change in the sensor response over a long period of time when the external conditions an constant. This paper presents a new simple drift counteraction method based on PCA and PLS. The basic idea is to remove the drift direction component from the measurements. The direction of the drift, p, is calculated from measurements for a reference gas. Projecting the sample gas measurements on this vector gives the score vector t. The drift component tp(T) can then he removed from the sample gas data, which we call component correction (CC). The method is tested on a data set based on a reduced factorial design with four gases and a concentration gradient of hydrogen. It is found that the method works efficiently for both cases. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Bochatay, Laurence, et al. (författare)
  • Metal Ion Coordination at the Water–Manganite (γ-MnOOH) Interface : I. An EXAFS Study of Cadmium(II)
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. ; 229:12, s. 584-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The local structure of Cd(II) surface complexes adsorbed onto manganite (γ-MnOOH) has been investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Adsorption experiments were carried out within the pH range 7.4–9.8 and with surface coverage from 2.2 to 8.9 μmol/m2. Quantitative analysis of the EXAFS spectra shows little difference in the local coordination environment of Cd regardless of the coverage. Analysis of the first shell required a third cumulant in an asymmetric distribution model (i.e., non-Gaussian distribution), indicating distorted CdO6 octahedra with an average Cd–O distance of 2.31 Å. A single second shell of Mn neighbors at a constant distance of 3.33 Å was detected. This comparatively short distance shows that inner-sphere complexes are formed. No Cd neighbor was found which means that cadmium hydroxide precipitation or cluster formation does not occur at the surface at the experimental conditions probed in this study. We assign the Cd–Mn distance to edge sharing between CdO6 and MnO6 octahedra, with a geometry similar to that in the mixed solid Cd2Mn3O8. This adsorption mode is possible on the {110} and {010} cleavage planes of manganite.
  • Fa, M, et al. (författare)
  • Conformational studies of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 by fluorescence spectroscopy. Analysis of the reactive centre of inhibitory and substrate forms, and of their respective reactive-centre cleaved forms.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Biochemistry. - 0014-2956. ; 267:12, s. 3729-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The inhibitors that belong to the serpin family are suicide inhibitors that control the major proteolytic cascades in eucaryotes. Recent data suggest that serpin inhibition involves reactive centre cleavage followed by loop insertion, whereby the covalently linked protease is translocated away from the initial docking site. However under certain circumstances, serpins can also be cleaved like a substrate by target proteases. In this report we have studied the conformation of the reactive centre of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) mutants with inhibitory and substrate properties. The polarized steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence anisotropies were determined for BODIPY(R) probes attached to the P1' and P3 positions of the substrate and active forms of PAI-1. The fluorescence data suggest an extended orientational freedom of the probe in the reactive centre of the substrate form as compared to the active form, revealing that the conformation of the reactive centres differ. The intramolecular distance between the P1' and P3 residues in reactive centre cleaved inhibitory and substrate mutants of PAI-1, were determined by using the donor-donor energy migration (DDEM) method. The distances found were 57+/-4 A and 63+/-3 A, respectively, which is comparable to the distance obtained between the same residues when PAI-1 is in complex with urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Following reactive centre cleavage, our data suggest that the core of the inhibitory and substrate forms possesses an inherited ability of fully inserting the reactive centre loop into beta-sheet A. In the inhibitory forms of PAI-1 forming serpin-protease complexes, this ability leads to a translocation of the cognate protease from one pole of the inhibitor to the opposite one.
  • Francis, Matthew, et al. (författare)
  • A study of the YopD-LcrH interaction from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis reveals a role for hydrophobic residues within the amphipathic domain of YopD
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Molecular Microbiology. - Blackwell Publishing. - 0950-382X. ; 38:1, s. 85-102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a model system used to study the molecular mechanisms by which Gram-negative pathogens translocate effector proteins into target eukaryotic cells by a common type III secretion machine. Of the numerous proteins produced by Y. pseudotuberculosis that act in concert to establish an infection, YopD (Yersiniaouter protein D) is a crucial component essential for yop regulation and Yop effector translocation. In this study, we describe the mechanisms by which YopD functions to control these processes. With the aid of the yeast two-hybrid system, we investigated the interaction between YopD and the cognate chaperone LcrH. We confirmed that non-secreted LcrH is necessary for YopD stabilization before secretion, presumably by forming a complex with YopD in the bacterial cytoplasm. At least in yeast, this complex depends upon the N-terminal domain and a C-terminal amphipathic α-helical domain of YopD. Introduction of amino acid substitutions within the hydrophobic side of the amphipathic α-helix abolished the YopD–LcrH interaction, indicating that hydrophobic, as opposed to electrostatic, forces of attraction are important for this process. Suppressor mutations isolated within LcrH could compensate for defects in the amphipathic domain of YopD to restore binding. Isolation of LcrH mutants unable to interact with wild-type YopD revealed no single domain responsible for YopD binding. The YopD and LcrH mutants generated in this study will be relevant tools for understanding YopD function during a Yersinia infection.
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