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Sökning: swepub > Övrigt vetenskapligt > Göteborgs universitet > Högskolan i Borås > Fritt online

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  • Johannesson, Krister, 1970- (författare)
  • I främsta rummet planerandet av en högskolebiblioteksbyggnad med studenters arbete i fokus
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of the thesis is to investigate planning processes for academic library buildings and the outcomes of such processes. This is accomplished through a case study utilising discourse analysis. The main question is: How is a vision of an academic library implemented in and through a building? The case study is retrospective and focused on the building of a new library at Kalmar University, Sweden, at the end of the 1990s. During this period, technological and educational developments and general societal change transformed the context of library planning and made way for renegotiations of the librarian profession. A critical realist approach characterises the study of visions, processes and the analysis of the various functions of the building. Results reveal the proactive nature of the activities of the library director in Kalmar. Early in the process he formulated a vision in which he presents the library as an information resource, a meeting place between different user groups and a workplace intended to promote learning and knowledge. From a professional point of view, the vision implied a dehierarchisation of relations both within the library staff and between library staff and visitors. The vision was based on an interpretation of Swedish national educational policy, and architecturally manifested by an ambition to reduce the physical and psychological boundaries between library staff and visitors. The early formulation of the vision together with the clients’ use of architectural expertise facilitated the choice of architects. However during the process a need arose to anchor the decision in the library field. Efforts were made to address library expertise and to collect user comments from a broader academic field. Discourses concerning the university library as a workplace and a meeting place were especially evident in the strategies of the leading agents. The discourses uncovered in the study correspond to more general discourses which became prominent in society and higher education during the period in question. The library itself has met growing appreciation by users both from within and outside the university. The proactive leadership demonstrated by the library director in Kalmar was based on hegemony rather than coercion. This corresponds to contemporary tendencies. Hegemonic consent may persist even after changes in leadership. In Kalmar however, architectural solutions with insufficient support from the library staff have been reconstructed after changes in leadership. Future research on architectural planning processes may pay further attention to different discursive resources, social fields and the positions within them.
  • Pejlare, Johanna, 1976- (författare)
  • On axioms and images in the history of Mathematics
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation deals with aspects of axiomatization, intuition and visualization in the history of mathematics. Particular focus is put on the end of the 19th century, before David Hilbert's (1862–1943) work on the axiomatization of Euclidean geometry. The thesis consists of three papers. In the first paper the Swedish mathematician Torsten Brodén (1857–1931) and his work on the foundations of Euclidean geometry from 1890 and 1912, is studied. A thorough analysis of his foundational work is made as well as an investigation into his general view on science and mathematics. Furthermore, his thoughts on geometry and its nature and what consequences his view has for how he proceeds in developing the axiomatic system, is studied. In the second paper different aspects of visualizations in mathematics are investigated. In particular, it is argued that the meaning of a visualization is not revealed by the visualization and that a visualization can be problematic to a person if this person, due to a limited knowledge or limited experience, has a simplified view of what the picture represents. A historical study considers the discussion on the role of intuition in mathematics which followed in the wake of Karl Weierstrass' (1815–1897) construction of a nowhere differentiable function in 1872. In the third paper certain aspects of the thinking of the two scientists Felix Klein (1849–1925) and Heinrich Hertz (1857–1894) are studied. It is investigated how Klein and Hertz related to the idea of naïve images and visual thinking shortly before the development of modern axiomatics. Klein in several of his writings emphasized his belief that intuition plays an important part in mathematics. Hertz argued that we form images in our mind when we experience the world, but these images may contain elements that do not exist in nature.
  • Aldrin, Viktor, 1980- (författare)
  • Prayer in Peasant Communities Ideals and Practices of Prayer in the Late Medieval Ecclesiastical Province of Uppsala, Sweden
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this study has been to identify, explain and delineate praying among peasant communities in the ecclesiastical province of Uppsala, Sweden. Four aspects have been examined through the perspectives of ideals and practices, namely the standards of prayer, devotional prayer, prayer in times of need and prayer cultures. The standards of prayer considered the physical and mental behaviour of the praying peasant woman or man. The most ordinary way to act during prayer was to stand with hands together, palm against palm, and to pray in the vernacular often using mental themes to enhance the devotion. Devotional prayers were foremost the three ‘standard’ prayers Paternoster, Hail Mary and Apostolic Creed, and could be used separately or combined. Prayer in times of need was possibly considered a matter of praying to saints, something that cannot be proven to have been either practiced or recommended on other, ordinary occasions where God and the Virgin Mary were considered the proper recipients of prayer. A few authentic prayers exist that were possibly said by peasant women and men in connection with miracles and these show the ability to construct elaborate prayers and to propose businesslike agreements with saints. These three prayers were required knowledge for a peasant woman or man and were put to the test in order to become a godparent, and were therefore made available in the vernacular by the parish priests. Ways to maintain the prayer cultures were through mnemonic techniques, and indulgences stipulating and confirming prayers used or to be used in connection with certain churches, days and places within the churches. Name saints could also be used, since the person and the name saint were considered to have a special bond. Prayer could also be used as protection for the living; since a prayer was considered to generate either merits or favours from a celestial patron to his or her client. The prayer life of those belonging to peasant communities was both elaborate and full of nuances.
  • Aldrin, Viktor, 1980- (författare)
  • Kursguiden som instruktion och styrdokument: Konstruktioner och bruk av kursguider vid Göteborgs universitet
  • 2012
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Kursguider är en text som finns mellan kursplanens målformuleringar och själva genomförandet av en kurs. Den skrivs om för varje kurstillfälle för att anpassas till datum och specifika examinationsformer. Som undersökningsmaterial är kursguider därmed mycket praktiknära och ger mycket god insyn i hur undervisning är tänkt att ske. Trots detta har ingen tidigare forskning gjorts i Sverige kring detta material, och internationell forskning finns endast i begränsad omfattning kring denna typ av pra... merktiknära material. Denna rapport är en del i ett större projekt, Bättre kursguider, på Enheten för Pedagogisk utveckling och interaktivt lärande (PIL) vid Göteborgs universitet som bedrivits 2011–2012. Kursguidepraktikerna har emellertid lyfts ur den planerade översiktliga projektrapporten och återfinns istället i denna rapport. Detta har gjorts för att särskilt belysa det intressanta material som kursguider utgör och för att de resultat som framkommit ska bli mer tillgängliga för vidare studier.
  • Björk Brämberg, Elisabeth, 1971- (författare)
  • Att vara invandrare och patient i Sverige Ett individorienterat perspektiv
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis focuses on immigrants in Sweden. What experiences from the meeting with Swedish society do immigrants have and what meaning does the immigrant background have when they have been patients within the Swedish health and medical service? Former research about patients with an immigrant background can be divided into two perspectives. One which illuminates ethnically demarcated immigrant groups and specific needs. The other perspective has an individually adopted approach independently of the patients’ ethnical background. Here it is mainly the communication problems that are stressed, since these make it hard to understand the individual’s needs.The two empirical studies of the thesis start from an individualised perspective, a life world perspective. Research data have been collected through open interviews.The overall purpose was to develop a deepened understanding of what it means to live as an immigrant in Sweden and receive care. The aim of the pre-study was to examine immigrants’ experiences of participation in municipal home care. In the main study the overall purpose was used and two research questions were asked: What do persons with an immigrant background have to tell us about their situation in Swedish society? How does the situation as an immigrant in Sweden influence the experience of being a patient in Swedish health and medical care?The pre-study shows that participation means making demands and meeting caregivers who view the patient as an actor with the right to make his or her own decisions. One important postulate seems to be access to a good interpreter. To refrain from participation seems to be about adopting a passive attitude as a patient. It seems as if it is the caregivers who are the active ones and the ones setting the standards for the contents of the care. To experience not being invited to participation mainly seems to originate from the fact that the interviewees could neither understand nor make themselves understood. One consequence is that patients are just looked upon as carriers of a symptom.The main study shows that the interviewees’ existential existence as patients involves the whole life situation. Different forms of unsurmountable difficulties might reinforce each other. The ambition to establish oneself in a new home country might therefore be passivised. For patients with immigrant background earlier experiences from exposed situations seem to influence how the patients feel about their treatment. The additional knowledge is that problems seem to reinforce each other. Patients with an immigrant background must be treated as individuals. Every individual’s story has to be made visible.The thesis shows that caregivers ought to endeavour to understand the individual. To encourage dialogue, despite language problems, is of importance for the patient to be able to express his or her needs. The use of an interpreter may have a positive influence on these patients’ possibilities to exert an influence. This means that caregivers who consult an interpreter should build up their competence to communicate through an interpreter.
  • Dellve, Lotta, et al. (författare)
  • Hållbart ledarskap i vardag och förändring
  • 2016
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Rapporten sammanfattar aktuella studier om hållbar och hälsofrämjande arbetsmiljö och hur en sådan miljö kan skapas genom ledarskap. De mest betydelsefulla aspekter som rör hur chefer genom ledarskap och organisering av arbete och arbetsförhållanden kan ha en avgörande betydelse för medarbetares hälsa och hållbarhet i vardagsarbete och under utvecklingsarbeten tas upp. Rapporten inleds med en genomgång av allmänna teorier och forskning om välbefinnande och hälsosamt arbetsengagemang. Därefter beskrivs forskning om hur ledarskap och chefskap påverkar välbefinnande och engagemang. Förhållanden i chefers arbete som kan vara stödjande för att hantera utmaningar i ledarskapet lyfts också. Rapporten fokuserar därutöver förutsättningar i arbetet som visat samband med hälsa samt hur hälsa och hållbarhet kan stärkas genom medarbetarskap, socialt kapital och team. Aspekter på förändringsledning som visat samband med hållbarhet beskrivs också. Rapporten avslutas med att belysa basstrukturer som ger förutsättningar för delaktighet, kontroll, inflytande, handlingsutrymme och socialt stöd bland så många som möjligt vid arbetsplatsen.
  • Dellve, Lotta, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Ledarskap i vården att möta media och undvika personfokuserade drev
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Frågor om kvalitet, tillgänglighet och effektivitet i vården engagerar många ochdebatteras ofta i media. Att möta media är idag vanligt för chefer i vården och enviktig del av chefsarbetet. I media kan dock ett komplext problem komma att förenklastill att tillskrivas den ansvarige chefen snarare än t.ex. politiska, ekonomiskaoch organisatoriska förhållanden och överväganden. Mediebevakningen och debatten kan innehålla mer av en personfokusering än saklig debatt om viktiga frågor. Studier om orsak, förlopp och konsekvenser för en sådan personfokusering har varit få.Under 2011–2013 genomfördes en rad studier som syftade till att få djupare kunskapom hur chefer påverkas av att bli personligt fokuserade i media, vad som kan göras för att förebygga att negativa situationer uppstår och vilket stöd som krävs för att möta intensivt och kritiskt mediafokus. Projektet finansierades av afa försäkringoch ett syfte var också att ta fram ett kunskapsunderlag för beredskap och stöd inför, under och efter möte med media.Rapporten har författats av professor Lotta Dellve vid Högskolan i Borås och kth (projektledare), leg. psykolog och doktorand Maria Wramsten Wilmar vid Högskolan Borås, leg. psykolog Christian Jacobsson vid Psykologiska Institutionen Göteborgs Universitet och Gunnar Ahlborg jr, leg. överläkare och docent i arbetsmedicinsamt chef för Institutet för Stressmedicin, Västra Götalandsregionen.
  • Jansson, Bertil, 1949- (författare)
  • Bibliotekarien om yrkets tidiga innehåll och utveckling
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is about librarians and librarianship. Questions asked in the thesis are how the librarianship developed between 1475 and 1780 and what the core and the main tasks of the profession were. There is also the question whether the profession is built on a common basis to rely on and if it is characterized by unique knowledge. The history of the librarian is divided in three parallel ongoing parts, the practical, the visionary and finally the personal, the librarians own attitudes. The practical area is characterized by the practical work, as cataloguing, classification, care of books, shelving and protecting the documents in different ways from several possible threats. The work is dictated by the employer. The visionary part complements and develops the methods of library work being established in the practical area, the librarians themselves formulate their thoughts of libraries and librarianship, defines the roles of libraries in society, in education and research. The librarians think about the content of the work and the future of libraries. These two areas done, another dimension is born. That is the ethics of the librarianship, how to behave and how to act towards library users and this dimension puts the librarian in the centre. There have been signs of this before but the completion is done in 1780 by Cotton des Houssayes. His speech opens the future for the librarians to come. The time period covers 305 years from 1475 until 1780. Starting point for this research about the librarian is 1475 because in that year pope Sixtus IV appointed Bartolomeus Platina as librarian of the Vatican library. The bull of 1475 is an official document that describes the librarian as a librarian and that he is told what to do, where to do it, how to do it and why. Jean-Baptiste Cotton des Houssayes, appointed in 1780, sets an end to this period with his speech to the General Assembly of the Sorbonne university in Paris. His speech completes the creation of the librarian. It is also the starting point of something new in librarianship. The common tasks of the librarians investigated, reveal what can be regarded as the essence of librarianship. From the practical area, the employers gave the librarians their tasks, executed at different places in different kinds of libraries. From the area of visions, the librarians built their visions as a continuum of the experiences from the practical work. New areas like the role of the librarian, the goals for the library itself and the librarians as the executors and pathfinders for the future. More of theory became a natural part of the librarianship. The last area of the development of the librarian is to adopt ethical aspects of their profession. This dimension is a self-reflecting attitude important to the librarians themselves.
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