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Sökning: swepub > Övrigt vetenskapligt > Göteborgs universitet > Högskolan i Borås > Fritt online

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  • Johannesson, Krister, 1970- (författare)
  • I främsta rummet
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The purpose of the thesis is to investigate planning processes for academic library buildings and the outcomes of such processes. This is accomplished through a case study utilising discourse analysis. The main question is: How is a vision of an academic library implemented in and through a building? The case study is retrospective and focused on the building of a new library at Kalmar University, Sweden, at the end of the 1990s. During this period, technological and educational developments and general societal change transformed the context of library planning and made way for renegotiations of the librarian profession. A critical realist approach characterises the study of visions, processes and the analysis of the various functions of the building. Results reveal the proactive nature of the activities of the library director in Kalmar. Early in the process he formulated a vision in which he presents the library as an information resource, a meeting place between different user groups and a workplace intended to promote learning and knowledge. From a professional point of view, the vision implied a dehierarchisation of relations both within the library staff and between library staff and visitors. The vision was based on an interpretation of Swedish national educational policy, and architecturally manifested by an ambition to reduce the physical and psychological boundaries between library staff and visitors. The early formulation of the vision together with the clients’ use of architectural expertise facilitated the choice of architects. However during the process a need arose to anchor the decision in the library field. Efforts were made to address library expertise and to collect user comments from a broader academic field. Discourses concerning the university library as a workplace and a meeting place were especially evident in the strategies of the leading agents. The discourses uncovered in the study correspond to more general discourses which became prominent in society and higher education during the period in question. The library itself has met growing appreciation by users both from within and outside the university. The proactive leadership demonstrated by the library director in Kalmar was based on hegemony rather than coercion. This corresponds to contemporary tendencies. Hegemonic consent may persist even after changes in leadership. In Kalmar however, architectural solutions with insufficient support from the library staff have been reconstructed after changes in leadership. Future research on architectural planning processes may pay further attention to different discursive resources, social fields and the positions within them.
  • Ahlgren, Per (författare)
  • The effects of indexing strategy-query term combination on retrieval effectiveness in a Swedish full text database
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis deals with Swedish full text retrieval and the problem of morphological variation of query terms in thedocument database. The study is an information retrieval experiment with a test collection. While no Swedish testcollection was available, such a collection was constructed. It consists of a document database containing 161,336news articles, and 52 topics with four-graded (0, 1, 2, 3) relevance assessments.The effects of indexing strategy-query term combination on retrieval effectiveness were studied. Three of five testedmethods involved indexing strategies that used conflation, in the form of normalization. Further, two of these threecombinations used indexing strategies that employed compound splitting. Normalization and compound splittingwere performed by SWETWOL, a morphological analyzer for the Swedish language. A fourth combinationattempted to group related terms by right hand truncation of query terms. A search expert performed the truncation.The four combinations were compared to each other and to a baseline combination, where no attempt was made tocounteract the problem of morphological variation of query terms in the document database.Two situations were examined in the evaluation: the binary relevance situation and the multiple degree relevancesituation. With regard to the binary relevance situation, where the three (positive) relevance degrees (1, 2, 3) weremerged into one, and where precision was used as evaluation measure, the four alternative combinationsoutperformed the baseline. The best performing combination was the combination that used truncation. Thiscombination performed better than or equal to a median precision value for 41 of the 52 topics. One reason for therelatively good performance of the truncation combination was the capacity of its queries to retrieve different partsof speech.In the multiple degree relevance situation, where the three (positive) relevance degrees were retained, retrievaleffectiveness was taken to be the accumulated gain the user receives by examining the retrieval result up to givenpositions. The evaluation measure used was nDCG (normalized cumulated gain with discount). This measurecredits retrieval methods that (1) rank highly relevant documents higher than less relevant ones, and (2) rankrelevant (of any degree) documents high. With respect to (2), nDCG involves a discount component: a discount withregard to the relevance score of a relevant (of any degree) document is performed, and this discount is greater andgreater, the higher position the document has in the ranked list of retrieved documents.In the multiple degree relevance situation, the five combinations were evaluated under four different user scenarios,where each scenario simulated a certain user type. Again, the four alternative combinations outperformed thebaseline, for each user scenario. The truncation combination had the best performance under each user scenario.This outcome agreed with the performance result in the binary relevance situation. However, there were alsodifferences between the two relevance situations. For 25 percent of the topics and with regard to one of the four userscenarios, the set of best performing combinations in the binary relevance situation was disjunct from the set of bestperforming combinations in the multiple degree relevance situation. The user scenario in question was such thatalmost all importance was placed on highly relevant documents, and the discount was sharp.The main conclusion of the thesis is that normalization and right hand truncation (performed by a search expert)enhanced retrieval effectiveness in comparison to the baseline, irrespective of which of the two relevance situationswe consider. Further, the three indexing strategy-query term combinations based on normalization were almost asgood as the combination that involves truncation. This holds for both relevance situations.
  • Björk Brämberg, Elisabeth, 1971- (författare)
  • Att vara invandrare och patient i Sverige
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis focuses on immigrants in Sweden. What experiences from the meeting with Swedish society do immigrants have and what meaning does the immigrant background have when they have been patients within the Swedish health and medical service? Former research about patients with an immigrant background can be divided into two perspectives. One which illuminates ethnically demarcated immigrant groups and specific needs. The other perspective has an individually adopted approach independently of the patients’ ethnical background. Here it is mainly the communication problems that are stressed, since these make it hard to understand the individual’s needs.The two empirical studies of the thesis start from an individualised perspective, a life world perspective. Research data have been collected through open interviews.The overall purpose was to develop a deepened understanding of what it means to live as an immigrant in Sweden and receive care. The aim of the pre-study was to examine immigrants’ experiences of participation in municipal home care. In the main study the overall purpose was used and two research questions were asked: What do persons with an immigrant background have to tell us about their situation in Swedish society? How does the situation as an immigrant in Sweden influence the experience of being a patient in Swedish health and medical care?The pre-study shows that participation means making demands and meeting caregivers who view the patient as an actor with the right to make his or her own decisions. One important postulate seems to be access to a good interpreter. To refrain from participation seems to be about adopting a passive attitude as a patient. It seems as if it is the caregivers who are the active ones and the ones setting the standards for the contents of the care. To experience not being invited to participation mainly seems to originate from the fact that the interviewees could neither understand nor make themselves understood. One consequence is that patients are just looked upon as carriers of a symptom.The main study shows that the interviewees’ existential existence as patients involves the whole life situation. Different forms of unsurmountable difficulties might reinforce each other. The ambition to establish oneself in a new home country might therefore be passivised. For patients with immigrant background earlier experiences from exposed situations seem to influence how the patients feel about their treatment. The additional knowledge is that problems seem to reinforce each other. Patients with an immigrant background must be treated as individuals. Every individual’s story has to be made visible.The thesis shows that caregivers ought to endeavour to understand the individual. To encourage dialogue, despite language problems, is of importance for the patient to be able to express his or her needs. The use of an interpreter may have a positive influence on these patients’ possibilities to exert an influence. This means that caregivers who consult an interpreter should build up their competence to communicate through an interpreter.
  • Dellve, Lotta, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Ledarskap i vården:
  • 2014
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Mote med media ar alltmer vanligt for chefer i varden och en viktig del av arbetet. Motet med media har idag ocksa fatt betydelse for chefens psykosociala arbetsmiljo och hallbarhet da personfokuserat, negativt och kritiskt fokus i media kan vara utmanande och fa vidare konsekvenser. Medvetenhet om mojligheter och risker vid mediakommunikation samt proaktiva forberedelser hos individen och organisationen kan ha avgorande betydelse for att understodja mer saklig och korrekt beskrivning i media samt for att undvika personfokuserade drev. Genom en utvecklad forstaelse och handlingsberedskap samt stod i ledningsgrupper till den som moter media kan negativa konsekvenser minska.
  • Jansson, Bertil (författare)
  • Bibliotekarien
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is about librarians and librarianship. Questions asked in the thesis are how the librarianship developed between 1475 and 1780 and what the core and the main tasks of the profession were. There is also the question whether the profession is built on a common basis to rely on and if it is characterized by unique knowledge. The history of the librarian is divided in three parallel ongoing parts, the practical, the visionary and finally the personal, the librarians own attitudes. The practical area is characterized by the practical work, as cataloguing, classification, care of books, shelving and protecting the documents in different ways from several possible threats. The work is dictated by the employer. The visionary part complements and develops the methods of library work being established in the practical area, the librarians themselves formulate their thoughts of libraries and librarianship, defines the roles of libraries in society, in education and research. The librarians think about the content of the work and the future of libraries. These two areas done, another dimension is born. That is the ethics of the librarianship, how to behave and how to act towards library users and this dimension puts the librarian in the centre. There have been signs of this before but the completion is done in 1780 by Cotton des Houssayes. His speech opens the future for the librarians to come. The time period covers 305 years from 1475 until 1780. Starting point for this research about the librarian is 1475 because in that year pope Sixtus IV appointed Bartolomeus Platina as librarian of the Vatican library. The bull of 1475 is an official document that describes the librarian as a librarian and that he is told what to do, where to do it, how to do it and why. Jean-Baptiste Cotton des Houssayes, appointed in 1780, sets an end to this period with his speech to the General Assembly of the Sorbonne university in Paris. His speech completes the creation of the librarian. It is also the starting point of something new in librarianship. The common tasks of the librarians investigated, reveal what can be regarded as the essence of librarianship. From the practical area, the employers gave the librarians their tasks, executed at different places in different kinds of libraries. From the area of visions, the librarians built their visions as a continuum of the experiences from the practical work. New areas like the role of the librarian, the goals for the library itself and the librarians as the executors and pathfinders for the future. More of theory became a natural part of the librarianship. The last area of the development of the librarian is to adopt ethical aspects of their profession. This dimension is a self-reflecting attitude important to the librarians themselves.
  • Lundberg, Christine (författare)
  • Challenges in Delivering Services:
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Significant challenges are faced by front-line hospitality and tourism employees interacting with customers on a daily basis. These challenges and the ways they are dealt with form the focus of this thesis. As they interact, a range of incidents may arise from highly satisfactory encounters to service failures. It has been argued that in order to achieve satisfactory service encounters, employees need to feel in control, satisfied and motivated as well as being given appropriate assistance, information and training. Front-line employees in hospitality and tourism are focused on here due to the complex nature of the industry. It is commonly agreed that it is characterised by poor working conditions such as anti-social working hours, part-time and/or seasonal work, minimal on-the-job training and low levels of pay. These are all factors which may affect employee work satisfaction and motivation as well as recruitment and retention.The thesis is comprised of four studies. In Study I, hospitality and tourism employee work motivation is analysed. Study II examines front-line hotel restaurant employees’ experiences of service encounters. How the skills utilised by employees during these service encounters are acquired and developed is then explored in Study III. Study IV concludes by examining employee informal information sharing activities, which offer one way of developing these skills.The thesis’ findings paint a more positive picture of work and workers in hospitality and tourism than suggested in some of the earlier published research. This could be explained by the fact that the thesis utilises an employee perspective in its truest sense. The findings of the thesis show that employees are motivated (to large extent by factors that have been pointed out in earlier published work motivation research) and that they are active in the pursuit of developing skills necessary to create satisfactory service encounters. Another conclusion of the thesis’ findings is that the interaction between workers and guests in the service encounter provides an important opportunity for workers to feel satisfied at work.
  • Pejlare, Johanna (författare)
  • On axioms and images in the history of Mathematics
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation deals with aspects of axiomatization, intuition and visualization in the history of mathematics. Particular focus is put on the end of the 19th century, before David Hilbert's (1862–1943) work on the axiomatization of Euclidean geometry. The thesis consists of three papers. In the first paper the Swedish mathematician Torsten Brodén (1857–1931) and his work on the foundations of Euclidean geometry from 1890 and 1912, is studied. A thorough analysis of his foundational work is made as well as an investigation into his general view on science and mathematics. Furthermore, his thoughts on geometry and its nature and what consequences his view has for how he proceeds in developing the axiomatic system, is studied. In the second paper different aspects of visualizations in mathematics are investigated. In particular, it is argued that the meaning of a visualization is not revealed by the visualization and that a visualization can be problematic to a person if this person, due to a limited knowledge or limited experience, has a simplified view of what the picture represents. A historical study considers the discussion on the role of intuition in mathematics which followed in the wake of Karl Weierstrass' (1815–1897) construction of a nowhere differentiable function in 1872. In the third paper certain aspects of the thinking of the two scientists Felix Klein (1849–1925) and Heinrich Hertz (1857–1894) are studied. It is investigated how Klein and Hertz related to the idea of naïve images and visual thinking shortly before the development of modern axiomatics. Klein in several of his writings emphasized his belief that intuition plays an important part in mathematics. Hertz argued that we form images in our mind when we experience the world, but these images may contain elements that do not exist in nature.
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