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Sökning: swepub > Övrigt vetenskapligt > Göteborgs universitet > Högskolan Väst

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1.
  • Bohlin, Margareta, 1970- (författare)
  • Music and risk in an existential and gendered world
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Adolescents in Western society often expose themselves to high levels of sound at gyms, rock concerts, discotheques etc. These behaviours are as threatening to young people’s health as more traditional risk behaviours. Testing boundaries and risk taking are fundamental aspects of young people’s lives and the processes of developing their identities. There is, however, a need to balance reasonable risk taking and risks that can damage health. The aim of Study I was to analyze the relationship between self-exposure to noise, risk behaviours and risk judgements among 310 Swedish adolescents aged 15-20 (167 men/143 women). The adolescents’ behaviour in different traditional risk situations correlated with behaviour in noisy environments, and judgements about traditional risks correlated with judgement regarding noise exposure. Another finding was that young women judge risk situations as generally more dangerous than young men, although they behave in the same way as the men. We suggest that this difference is a social and culture based phenomenon which underlines the importance of adopting a gender perspective in the analysis of risk factors. Adolescents reporting permanent tinnitus judged loud music as more risky than adolescents with no symptoms and they did not listen to loud music as often as those with occasional tinnitus. The aims of study II were to illuminate  the complexity of risk behaviour, the meaning and purpose of adolescent risk-taking in both a traditional sense (e.g. smoking and drug use) and in noisy environments (e.g. discotheques and rock concerts), in relation to norms and gender roles in contemporary society. In total, 16 adolescents (8 men/8 women, aged 15-19) were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviewees’ responses revealed social reproduction of gender and class. Main themes of the phenomena for both genders emerged: Social identity and Existential identity of risk taking. The descriptive sub themes, however, which together formed the general structure, were rather diverse for men and women. The incorporation of social and existential theories on gender as basic factors in the analysis of attitudes towards risk-taking behaviours is considered to be of utmost importance. Likewise, research on hearing prevention for young people needs to acknowledge and make use of theories on risk behaviour and similarly, the theories on risk behaviour should acknowledge noise as a risk factor.             Study III aims to increase the knowledge about young women’s and men’s risk judgement and behaviour by investigating patterns in adolescent risk activities among 310 adolescents aged 15-20 (143 women; 167 men). The Australian instrument ARQ, developed by Gullone et al, was used with additional questions on hearing risks [1] and a factor analysis was conducted. The main results showed that the factor structure in the judgement and behaviour scale for Swedish adolescents was rather different from the factor structure in the Australian sample. The factor structure was not similar to the Australian sample split on gender and there were differences in factor structures between genders among Swedish adolescents. The results are discussed from a gender and existential perspective on risk taking, and it is emphasized that research on risk behaviour needs to reconceptualize stereotypical ideas about gender and the existential period in adolescence. The aim of Study IV was to investigate possible gender differences regarding psychometric scales measuring risk perception in noisy situations, attitudes towards loud music, perceived susceptibility to noise, and individual norms and ideals related to activities where loud music is played. In addition, the purpose was to analyze whether these variables are associated with protective behaviour, e.g. the use of hearing protection. A questionnaire was administered to a Swedish sample including 543 adolescents aged 16 to 20. The result revealed significant gender differences for all the psychometric scales. Furthermore, all psychometric measures were associated with hearing protection use in musical settings. Contrary to previous studies, gender did not solely contribute to any explanation of protective behaviour in the analysis. One conclusion is that although gender does not contribute solely to the explanation of protective behaviour, gender may affect psychological variables such as risk perception, attitudes and perceived susceptibility and these variables may in turn be valuable for decision-making and protective behaviour in noisy situations. Although women tend to be more ’careful’ psychologically, they nevertheless tend to behave in the same way as men regarding actual noise-related risk-taking. 
2.
  • Ericsson, Claes, 1947-, et al. (författare)
  • En start för tänket, en bit på väg : Analys av ett utvecklingsprojekt kring kultur och estetik i skolan
  • 2007
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • En start för tänket, en bit på väg beskriver och analyserar ett utvecklingsprojekt kring kultur och estetiska lärprocesser. Några skolor i Värmland deltog under tre års tid i det så kallade pilotskoleprojektet, vars huvudsyfte var att ta fram modeller för hur en estetisk dimension skulle kunna genomsyra verksamheten i skolan. Boken har både ett teoretiskt och ett praktiskt anslag. Det teoretiska yttrar sig dels i en genomgång av forskningsläget i Sverige, dels i en diskussion av undersökningsdeltagarnas sätt att definiera en estetisk lärprocess och den kunskapsbildning som kommer till stånd i en sådan. Det praktiska yttrar sig i att de respektive skolornas konkreta arbete skildras. Förutom att boken kan betraktas som en utvärdering av arbetet och sålunda kan utgöra ett underlag för diskussion och reflektion vid de deltagande skolorna, kan den ses som en kunskapsbank för andra skolor som vill fördjupa arbetet med kultur och estetik. Den torde också med fördel kunna användas inom lärarutbildningar där dess dubbla fokus på teori och praktik svarar mot den målsättning som uttrycks i styrdokumenten. Författarna Claes Ericsson och Monica Lindgren har lång erfarenhet av såväl undervisning i estetiska uttrycksmedel i skola och lärarutbildning som av forskning kring kultur och estetik i skolan.
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4.
  • Molin, Martin, 1967-, et al. (författare)
  • Utvecklingsstörning, samhälle och välfärd
  • 2013
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • 1. Framväxten av en politik kring funktionshinder --2. Välfärdsarbetets organisatoriska villkor --3. Teoretiska perspektiv på utvecklingsstörning --4. Skola och utbildning --5. Arbetsliv och sysselsättning --6. Familjeliv och föräldraskap --7. Boende och fritid --8. Internet och sociala medier --9. Utvecklingsstörning och hälsa --10. Bemötandets etik i arbete med personer med utvecklingsstörning --11. Framtida utmaningar 
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6.
  • Johansson, Thomas, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Vardagslivets socialpsykologi
  • 2010
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I den här boken används socialpsykologiska teorier för att kommentera olika vardagliga exempel, och för att förklara det som annars döljer sig bakom ett självklarhetens skimmer. Vi får följa med till arbetsplatsen, till middagsbjudningen och till dagdrömmandet. Till domäner i vardagslivet som vi håller hemliga, kanske till och med för oss själva. Boken ger en fördjupad förståelse för hur människor agerar tillsammans, hur avvikande beteende skapas, hur makt utövas i vardagslivet och hur det är att leva i 2000-talets mediesamhälle.
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7.
  • Alsén, Pia, 1956- (författare)
  • Illness perception and fatigue after myocardial infarction
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) has undergone major advances in recent years, including reductions in mortality and hospital stays. To optimize patients’ recovery, secondary preventive strategies are important. However, many patients fail to attend to such programmes. It has been shown that illness perceptions may influence attendance to rehabilitation programmes as well as recovery. Other obstacles are post-MI fatigue and depression. The main focus of the present thesis was to explore illness perception and fatigue after MI. A secondary aim was to investigate the levels of illness perceptions and fatigue and their relationships with demographic/clinical variables, depression, anxiety and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In Study I, patients’ illness perception of MI was explored. The methodology used was grounded theory (25 informants interviewed). The core categories illness reasoning and trust in oneself vs. trust in others were found to be fundamental in viewing the MI either as an acute isolated heart attack or as a sign of a chronic condition. In Study II, the aim was to gain a deeper understanding of what fatigue means to patients with recent MI and how they managed to deal with the consequences of fatigue. Grounded theory was applied also in this study (19 informants interviewed). A central theme was labelled living with incomprehensible fatigue. This core category was featured by several properties: different kind of tiredness, unrelated to effort, unpredictable occurrence, and unknown cause. In Study III, the incidence of fatigue in 204 consecutive MI patients was examined and compared to reference populations. Gender differences in fatigue were also examined, as well as changes over time and the relationships between fatigue versus clinical and demographic variables and measures of emotional distress. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) were used. MI patients reported higher levels of fatigue compared with the general population, depression and fatigue overlapped, but 33% reported fatigue without coexisting depression. No gender differences were found. In Study IV, illness perceptions in 204 consecutive MI patients were examined using the Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) and compared to reference populations. Changes in illness perceptions over time were also examined, as well as the relationships between illness perceptions and anxiety/depression (HADS), fatigue (MFI-20), somatic health problems (SHCQ) and HRQoL (SF-36). It was shown that illness perceptions changed over time, from viewing the MI as an acute event to a more chronic condition, and that the beliefs in personal and treatment control of MI decreased. These negative beliefs were associated with fatigue and lowered HRQoL. In conclusion, the studies contribute to our understanding of how patients perceive their MI, and particularly that fatigue is a notable symptom affecting patients´ lives. Individualized secondary preventive strategies could start with identifying patient’s unique illness perception. It is also important to identify patients who are fatigued to provide adequate treatment as well as to prevent progression from fatigue to exhaustion.
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10.
  • Att förstå ungdomars identitetsskapande : en inspirations- och metodbok
  • 2014
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Bokens kapitel tar avstamp i en rad olika kontexter där ungdomars identitetsskapande sker och bygger på forskning utförd inom olika discipliner som belyser ungdomars lärande, utveckling och livsvillkor. I boken finns en rad exempel på ungdomars syn på skapandet av en identitet, liksom aktiverande övningar, forskarreportage och förslag på fördjupande läsning efter varje kapitel.Denna inspirations- och metodbok är användbar inom alla de utbildningsområden som behandlar frågor om ungdomar och identitet, t.ex. lärarutbildning, speciallärar- och specialpedagogprogram, socionom- och socialpedagogprogram samt kurser inom barn- och ungdomsvetenskap, psykologi och sociologi och olika metod- och examensarbeteskurser inom lärarprogrammen.
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 85
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