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Sökning: swepub > Övrigt vetenskapligt > Göteborgs universitet > Forskningsöversikt

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  • Archer, T., et al. (författare)
  • Physical exercise ameliorates deficits induced by traumatic brain injury
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6314. ; 125:5, s. 293-302
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The extent and depth of traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major determining factor together with the type of structural insult and its location, whether mild, moderate or severe, as well as the distribution and magnitude of inflammation and loss of cerebrovascular integrity, and the eventual efficacy of intervention. The influence of exercise intervention in TBI is multiple, ranging from anti-apoptotic effects to the augmentation of neuroplasticity. Physical exercise diminishes cerebral inflammation by elevating factors and agents involved in immunomodulatory function, and buttresses glial cell, cerebrovascular, and blood-brain barrier intactness. It provides unique non-pharmacologic intervention that incorporate different physical activity regimes, whether dynamic or static, endurance or resistance. Physical training regimes ought necessarily to be adapted to the specific demands of diagnosis, type and degree of injury and prognosis for individuals who have suffered TBI. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • Nilsson Ekdahl, Kristina, et al. (författare)
  • Innate immunity activation on biomaterial surfaces: : A mechanistic model and coping strategies
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. - 0169-409X. ; 63:12, s. 1042-1050
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • When an artificial biomaterial (e.g., a stent or implantable pump) is exposed to blood, plasma proteins immediately adhere to the surface, creating a new interface between the biomaterial and the blood. The recognition proteins within the complement and contact activation/coagulation cascade systems of the blood will be bound to, or inserted into, this protein film and generate different mediators that will activate polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as platelets. Under clinical conditions, the ultimate outcome of these processes may be thrombotic and inflammatory reactions, and consequently the composition and conformation of the proteins in the initial layer formed on the surface will to a large extent determine the outcome of a treatment involving the biomaterial, affecting both the functionality of the material and the patient's life quality. This review presents models of biomaterial-induced activation processes and describes various strategies to attenuate potential adverse reactions by conjugating bioactive molecules to surfaces or by introducing nanostructures.
  • Wilson, Stephen A., et al. (författare)
  • New materials for micro-scale sensors and actuators. An engineering review
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Materials science & engineering. R, Reports. - 0927-796X. ; 56:1-6
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper provides a detailed overview of developments in transducer materials technology relating to their current and future applications in micro-scale devices. Recent advances in piezoelectric, magnetostrictive and shape-memory alloy systems are discussed and emerging transducer materials such as magnetic nanoparticles, expandable micro-spheres and conductive polymers are introduced. Materials properties, transducer mechanisms and end applications are described and the potential for integration of the materials with ancillary systems components is viewed as an essential consideration. The review concludes with a short discussion of structural polymers that are extending the range of micro-fabrication techniques available to designers and production engineers beyond the limitations of silicon fabrication technology.
  • Bolling, Anette Kocbach, et al. (författare)
  • Health effects of residential wood smoke particles the importance of combustion conditions and physicochemical particle properties
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Particle and Fibre Toxicology. - London : BioMed Central. - 1743-8977. ; 6
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Residential wood combustion is now recognized as a major particle source in many developed countries, and the number of studies investigating the negative health effects associated with wood smoke exposure is currently increasing. The combustion appliances in use today provide highly variable combustion conditions resulting in large variations in the physicochemical characteristics of the emitted particles. These differences in physicochemical properties are likely to influence the biological effects induced by the wood smoke particles.Outline: The focus of this review is to discuss the present knowledge on physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles from different combustion conditions in relation to wood smoke-induced health effects. In addition, the human wood smoke exposure in developed countries is explored in order to identify the particle characteristics that are relevant for experimental studies of wood smoke-induced health effects. Finally, recent experimental studies regarding wood smoke exposure are discussed with respect to the applied combustion conditions and particle properties.Conclusion: Overall, the reviewed literature regarding the physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles provides a relatively clear picture of how these properties vary with the combustion conditions, whereas particle emissions from specific classes of combustion appliances are less well characterised. The major gaps in knowledge concern; (i) characterisation of the atmospheric transformations of wood smoke particles, (ii) characterisation of the physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles in ambient and indoor environments, and (iii) identification of the physicochemical properties that influence the biological effects of wood smoke particles.
  • Karling, Pontus, et al. (författare)
  • Function and dysfunction of the colon and anorectum in adults : Working team report of the Swedish Motility Group (SMoG)
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY. - 0036-5521. ; 44:6, s. 646-660
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Symptoms of fecal incontinence and constipation are common in the general population. These can, however, be unreliably reported and are poorly discriminatory for underlying pathophysiology. Furthermore, both symptoms may coexist. In the elderly, fecal impaction always must be excluded. For patients with constipation, colon transit studies, anorectal manometry and defecography may help to identify patients with slow-transit constipation and/or pelvic floor dysfunction. The best documented medical treatments for constipation are the macrogols, lactulose and isphagula. Evolving drugs include lubiprostone, which enhances colonic secretion by activating chloride channels. Surgery is restricted for a highly selected group of patients with severe slow-transit constipation and for those with large rectoceles that demonstrably cause rectal evacuatory impairment. For patients with fecal incontinence that does not resolve on antidiarrheal treatment, functional and structural evaluation with anorectal manometry and endoanal ultrasound or magnetic resonance (MR) of the anal canal may help to guide management. Sacral nerve stimulation is a rapidly evolving alternative when other treatments such as biofeedback and direct sphincter repair have failed. Advances in understanding the pathophysiology as a guide to treatment of patients with constipation and fecal incontinence is a continuing important goal for translational research. The content of this article is a summary of presentations given by the authors at the Fourth Meeting of the Swedish Motility Group, held in Gothenburg in April 2007.
  • Larsson, Per-Göran, et al. (författare)
  • Bacterial vaginosis transmission, role in genital tract infection and pregnancy outcome : An enigma
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS). - 0903-4641. ; 113:4, s. 233-245
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Whether bacterial vaginosis (BV) is acquired from an endogenous or an exogenous source is subject to controversy. Despite findings of an association between sexual behaviour and BV, some data indicate that BV is not a sexually transmitted infection in the traditional sense, while other data indicate that BV is an exogenous infection. A third aspect of BV is its tendency to go unnoticed by affected women. All of this will have a strong impact on how physicians view the risks of asymptomatic BV This review focuses on whether or not BV should be regarded as a sexually transmitted infection (STI), its role in postoperative infections and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and on whether or not treatment of BV during pregnancy to reduce preterm delivery should be recommended. The reviewed studies do not lend unequivocal support to an endogenous or exogenous transmission of the bacteria present in BV For women undergoing gynaecological surgery such as therapeutic abortion, the relative risk of postoperative infection is clearly elevated (approx. 2.3-2.8). A weaker association exists between BV and pelvic inflammatory disease. Data on treatment of BV as a way of reducing preterm delivery are inconclusive and do not support recommendations for general treatment of BV during pregnancy. The discrepant associations between BV and preterm birth found in recent studies may be explained by variations in immunological response to BV. Genetic polymorphism in the cytokine response - both regarding the TNF alleles and in interleukin production - could make women more or less susceptible to BV, causing different risks of preterm birth. Thus, studies on the vaginal inflammatory response to microbial colonization should be given priority. Copyright © APMIS 2005.
  • Bondemark, L., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term stability of orthodontic treatment and patient satisfaction : A systematic review
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Angle orthodontist. - 0003-3219. ; 77:1, s. 181-191
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objective: To evaluate morphologic stability and patient satisfaction at least 5 years after orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: Published literature was searched through the PubMed and Cochrane Library electronic databases from 1966 to January 2005. The search was performed by an information specialist at the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care. The inclusion criteria consisted of a follow-up period of at least 5 years postretention, randomized clinical trials, prospective or retrospective clinical controlled studies, and cohort studies, and orthodontic treatment including fixed or removable appliances, selective grinding, or extractions. Two reviewers extracted the data independently and also assessed the quality of the studies. Results: The search strategy resulted in 1004 abstracts or full-text articles, of which 38 met the inclusion criteria. Treatment of crowding resulted in successful dental alignment. However, the mandibular arch length and width gradually decreased, and crowding of the lower anterior teeth reoccurred postretention. This condition was unpredictable at the individual level (limited evidence). Treatment of Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion with Herbst appliance normalized the occlusion. Relapse occurred but could not be predicted at the individual level (limited evidence). The scientific evidence was insufficient for conclusions on treatment of cross-bite, Angle Class III, open bite, and various other malocclusions as well as on patient satisfaction in a long-term perspective. Conclusions: This review has exposed the difficulties in drawing meaningful evidence-based conclusions often because of the inherent problems of retrospective and uncontrolled study design. © 2006 by The EH Angle Education and Research Foundation, Inc.
  • Deckmyn, G., et al. (författare)
  • Simulating ectomycorrhizal fungi and their role in carbon and nitrogen cycling in forest ecosystems
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Canadian Journal of Forest Research. - Canadian Science Publishing. - 0045-5067. ; 44:6, s. 535-553
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Although ectomycorrhizal fungi play an important role in forest ecosystem functioning, they are usually not included in forest growth or ecosystem models. Simulation is hampered by two main issues: a lack of understanding of the ecological functioning of the ectomycorrhizal fungi and a lack of adequate basic data for parameterization and validation. Concerning these issues, much progress has been made during the past few years, but this information has not found its way into the forest and soil models. In this paper, state-of-the-art insight into ectomycorrhizal functioning and basic values are described in a manner transparent to nonspecialists and modelers, together with the existing models and model strategies. As such, this paper can be the starting point and the motivator to include ectomycorrhizal fungi into existing soil and forest ecosystem models.
  • Kanduri, Chandrasekhar (författare)
  • Kcnq1ot1 : A chromatin regulatory RNA
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology. - 1084-9521 .- 1096-3634. ; 22:4, s. 343-350
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • There is a growing interest for noncoding RNA (ncRNA)-mediated epigenetic regulation of transcription in diverse biological functions. Recent evidence suggests that a subset of long ncRNA epigenetically regulate the transcription of multiple genes in chromosomal domains via interaction with chromatin. Kcnq1ot1 is one such long chromatin-interacting ncRNA that silences multiple genes in the Kcnq1 domain by establishing a repressive higher order chromatin structure. This is done by the recruitment of chromatin and DNA-modifying proteins. This review looks at recent evidence supporting the notion that Kcnq1ot1-mediated silencing is a multilayered pathway. Comparing the mode of action of Kcnq1ot1 with other well-investigated chromatin regulatory long ncRNAs, such as Xist, HOTAIR and Airn, revealed that chromatin regulatory ncRNAs share common epigenetic pathways in the silencing of multiple genes.
  • Karlsson, Oskar, et al. (författare)
  • Imaging mass spectrometry in drug development and toxicology
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Archives of Toxicology. - 0340-5761 .- 1432-0738. ; 91:6, s. 2283-2294
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • During the last decades, imaging mass spectrometry has gained significant relevance in biomedical research. Recent advances in imaging mass spectrometry have paved the way for in situ studies on drug development, metabolism and toxicology. In contrast to whole-body autoradiography that images the localization of radiolabeled compounds, imaging mass spectrometry provides the possibility to simultaneously determine the discrete tissue distribution of the parent compound and its metabolites. In addition, imaging mass spectrometry features high molecular specificity and allows comprehensive, multiplexed detection and localization of hundreds of proteins, peptides and lipids directly in tissues. Toxicologists traditionally screen for adverse findings by histopathological examination. However, studies of the molecular and cellular processes underpinning toxicological and pathologic findings induced by candidate drugs or toxins are important to reach a mechanistic understanding and an effective risk assessment strategy. One of IMS strengths is the ability to directly overlay the molecular information from the mass spectrometric analysis with the tissue section and allow correlative comparisons of molecular and histologic information. Imaging mass spectrometry could therefore be a powerful tool for omics profiling of pharmacological/toxicological effects of drug candidates and toxicants in discrete tissue regions. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of imaging mass spectrometry, with particular focus on MALDI imaging mass spectrometry, and its use in drug development and toxicology in general.
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