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Sökning: swepub > Övrigt vetenskapligt > Umeå universitet

  • Resultat 1-10 av 18359
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  • Lahermo, P, et al. (författare)
  • A quality assessment survey of SNP genotyping laboratories
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - 1059-7794. ; 27:7, s. 711-714
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • To survey the quality of SNP genotyping, a joint Nordic quality assessment (QA) round was organized between 11 laboratories in the Nordic and Baltic countries. The QA round involved blinded genotyping of 47 DNA samples for 18 or six randomly selected SNPs. The methods used by the participating laboratories included all major platforms for small- to medium-size SNP genotyping. The laboratories used their standard procedures for SNP assay design, genotyping, and quality control. Based on the joint results from all laboratories, a consensus genotype for each DNA sample and SNP was determined by the coordinator of the survey, and the results from each laboratory were compared to this genotype. The overall genotyping accuracy achieved in the survey was excellent. Six laboratories delivered genotype data that were in full agreement with the consensus genotype. The average accuracy per SNP varied from 99.1 to 100% between the laboratories, and it was frequently 100% for the majority of the assays for which SNP genotypes were reported. Lessons from the survey are that special attention should be given to the quality of the DNA samples prior to genotyping, and that a conservative approach for calling the genotypes should be used to achieve a high accuracy.
  • Dasu, A, et al. (författare)
  • Treatment modelling the influence of micro-environmental conditions.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncol. - 1651-226X. ; 47:5, s. 896-905
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The interest in theoretical modelling of radiation response has grown steadily from a fast method to estimate the gain of new treatment strategies to an individualisation tool that may be used as part of the treatment planning algorithms. While the advantages of biological optimisation of plans are obvious, accurate theoretical models and realistic information about the micro-environmental conditions in tissues are needed. This paper aimed to investigate the clinical implications of taking into consideration the details of the tumour microenvironmental conditions. The focus was on the availability of oxygen and other nutrients to tumour cells and the relationship between cellular energy reserves and DNA repair ability as this is thought to influence the response of the various hypoxic cells. The choice of the theoretical models for predicting the response (the linear quadratic model or the inducible repair model) was also addressed. The modelling performed in this project has shown that the postulated radiobiological differences between acute and chronic hypoxia have some important clinical implications which may help to understand the mechanism behind the current success rates of radiotherapy. The results also suggested that it is important to distinguish between the two types of hypoxia in predictive assays and other treatment simulations.
  • Dasu, A, et al. (författare)
  • Vascular oxygen content and the tissue oxygenation--a theoretical analysis.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Med Phys. - 0094-2405. ; 35:2, s. 539-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Several methods exist for evaluating tumor oxygenation as hypoxia is an important prognostic factor for cancer patients. They use different measuring principles that highlight various aspects of oxygenation. The results could be empirically correlated, but it has been suspected that there could be discordances in some cases. This study describes an analysis of the relationship between vascular and tissue oxygenations. Theoretical simulation has been employed to characterize tissue oxygenations for a broad range of distributions of intervessel distances and vascular oxygenations. The results were evaluated with respect to the implications for practical measurements of tissue oxygenations. The findings showed that although the tissue oxygenation is deterministically related to vascular oxygenation, the relationship between them is not unequivocal. Variability also exists between the fractions of values below the sensitivity thresholds of various measurement methods which in turn could be reflected in the power of correlations between results from different methods or in the selection of patients for prognostic studies. The study has also identified potential difficulties that may be encountered at the quantitative evaluation of the results from oxygenation measurements. These could improve the understanding of oxygenation measurements and the interpretation of comparisons between results from various measurement methods.
  • Scholin, A, et al. (författare)
  • Normal weight promotes remission and low number of islet antibodies prolong the duration of remission in Type 1 diabetes
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine. - 0742-3071. ; 21:5, s. 447-455
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim To identify clinical, immunological and biochemical factors that predict remission, and its duration in a large cohort of young adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM).Methods In Sweden, 362 patients (15–34 years), classified as Type 1 DM were included in a prospective, nation-wide population-based study. All patients were followed at local hospitals for examination of HbA1c and insulin dosage over a median period after diagnosis of 5 years. Duration of remission, defined as an insulin maintenance dose ≤ 0.3 U/kg/24 h and HbA1c within the normal range, was analysed in relation to characteristics at diagnosis.Results Remissions were seen in 43% of the patients with a median duration of 8 months (range 1–73). Sixteen per cent had a remission with a duration > 12 months. Among patients with antibodies (ab+), bivariate analysis suggested that adult age, absence of low BMI, high plasma C-peptide concentrations, lack of ketonuria or ketoacidosis at diagnosis and low insulin dose at discharge from hospital were associated with a high possibility of achieving remission. Multiple regression showed that normal weight (BMI of 20–24.9 kg/m2) was the only factor that remained significant for the possibility of entering remission. In survival analysis among ab+ remitters, a low number of islet antibodies, one or two instead of three or four, were associated with a long duration of remissions.Conclusion In islet antibody-positive Type 1 DM, normal body weight was the strongest factor for entering remission, whilst a low number of islet antibodies was of importance for the duration.
  • Schölin, A., et al. (författare)
  • Islet antibodies and remaining beta-cell function 8 years after diagnosis of diabetes in young adults a prospective follow-up of the nationwide Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - 0954-6820. ; 255:3, s. 384-391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • ObjectivesTo establish the prevalence of remaining β-cell function 8 years after diagnosis of diabetes in young adults and relate the findings to islet antibodies at diagnosis and 8 years later.DesignPopulation-based cohort study.SettingNationwide from all Departments of Medicine and Endocrinology in Sweden.SubjectsA total of 312 young (15–34 years old) adults diagnosed with diabetes during 1987–88.Main outcome measurePlasma connecting peptide (C-peptide) 8 years after diagnosis. Preserved β-cell function was defined as measurable C-peptide levels. Three islet antibodies – cytoplasmic islet cell antibodies (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies and tyrosine phosphatase antibodies – were measured.ResultsAmongst 269 islet antibody positives (ab+) at diagnosis, preserved β-cell function was found in 16% (42/269) 8 years later and these patients had a higher body mass index (median 22.7 and 20.5 kg m−2, respectively; P = 0.0003), an increased frequency of one islet antibody (50 and 24%, respectively; P = 0.001), and a lower prevalence of ICA (55 and 6%, respectively; P = 0.007) at diagnosis compared with ab+ without remaining β-cell function. Amongst the 241 patients without detectable β-cell function at follow-up, 14 lacked islet antibodies, both at diagnosis and at follow-up.ConclusionsSixteen per cent of patients with autoimmune type 1 diabetes had remaining β-cell function 8 years after diagnosis whereas 5.8% with β-cell failure lacked islet autoimmunity, both at diagnosis and at follow-up.
  • Hjorth, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Thalidomide and dexamethasone vs. bortezomib and dexamethasone for melphalan refractory myeloma: a randomized study.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European journal of haematology. - 0902-4441. ; 88:6, s. 485-496
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Objectives: Thalidomide and bortezomib have been frequently used for second-line therapy in patients with myeloma relapsing after or refractory to initial melphalan-based treatment, but no randomized trials have been published comparing these two treatment alternatives.Methods: Thalidomide- and bortezomib-naive patients with melphalan refractory myeloma were randomly assigned to low-dose thalidomide + dexamethasone (Thal-Dex) or bortezomib + dexamethasone (Bort-Dex). At progression on either therapy, the patients were offered crossover to the alternative drug combination. An estimated 300 patients would be needed for the trial to detect a 50% difference in median PFS between the treatment arms.Results: After inclusion of 131 patients, the trial was prematurely closed because of low accrual. Sixty-seven patients were randomized to Thal-Dex and 64 to Bort-Dex. Progression-free survival was similar (median, 9.0 months for Thal-Dex and 7.2 for Bort-Dex). Response rate was similar (55% for Thal-Dex and 63% for Bort-Dex), but time to response was shorter (P < 0.05) and the VGPR rate higher (P < 0.01) for Bort-Dex. Time-to-other treatment after crossover was similar (median, 13.2 months for Thal-Dex and 11.2 months for Bort-Dex), as was overall survival (22.8 months for Thal-Dex and 19.0 for Bort-Dex). Venous thromboembolism was seen in seven patients and cerebrovascular events in four patients in the Thal-Dex group. Severe neuropathy, reactivation of herpes virus infections, and mental depression were more frequently observed in the Bort-Dex group. In the quality-of-life analysis, no difference was noted for physical function, pain, and global quality of life. Fatigue and sleep disturbances were significantly more prevalent in the Bort-Dex group.Conclusions: Thalidomide (50-100 mg daily) in combination with dexamethasone seems to have an efficacy comparable with that of bortezomib and dexamethasone in melphalan refractory myeloma. However, the statistical strength of the results in this study is limited by the low number of included patients.
  • 1897 : Mediehistorier kring Stockholmsutställningen
  • 2006
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Mediehistoria var länge liktydigt med historien om 1900-­talets massmedier – press, radio, teve och film. I den här boken skildras istället ett äldre medielandskap. Med utgångspunkt i Stockholms-­ utställningen 1897 beskriver författarna det utbud av gamla och nya medier som samlades på utställningen, från äldre attraktioner som camera obscura, dioramor och vaxfigurer till spektakulära nyheter som fonograf, kinematograf och röntgenbilder. Boken ger inblickar i några av det sena 1800-­talets ledande medieindust-­ rier, och diskuterar bland annat frågor om mediekonsumtion, publikpositioner och historiska medieringsvillkor. Sammantaget framträder en komplex mediekultur med förbindelser både till det förra sekelskiftets museiinstitutioner och ett äldre utbud av audiovisuella attraktioner, men också till 1900-­talets förmenta mediemodernitet och våra dagars digitala ”revolution”.De medietekniker som presenterades på Stockholmsutställning-­ en 1897 lagrade på samma gång utställningen för framtiden. Ett centralt tema är därför hur dessa medieringar blivit identiska med minnet av utställningen, och hur detta arkiv organiserats utifrån mediernas specifika egenskaper. På den dvd-­skiva som medföljer boken har ett nytt mediearkiv skapats över Stock-­ holmsutställningen 1897 och dess många länkar till en bredare mediekultur.
  • Adams, Robin, et al. (författare)
  • What is the word for 'Engineering' in Swedish : Swedish students conceptions of their discipline
  • 2007
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Engineering education in Sweden – as in the rest of the world – is experiencing a decline in student interest. There are concerns about the ways in which students think about engineering education, why they join an academic programme in engineering, and why they persist in their studies. In this context the aims of the Nationellt ämnesdidaktiskt Centrum för Teknikutbildning i Studenternas Sammanhang project (CeTUSS) is to investigate the student experience and to identify and support a continuing network of interested researchers, as well as in building capacity for disciplinary pedagogic investigation.The Stepping Stones project brings together these interests in a multi-researcher, multi-institutional study that investigates how tudents and academic staff perceive engineering in Sweden and in Swedish education. The first results of that project are reported here. As this study is situated uniquely in Swedish education, it allows for exploration of “a Swedish perspective” on conceptions of engineering. The Stepping Stones project was based on a model of research capacity-building previously instantiated in the USA and Australia (Fincher & Tenenberg, 2006).
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