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  • Dasu, A, et al. (författare)
  • Treatment modelling the influence of micro-environmental conditions.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncol. - 1651-226X. ; 47:5, s. 896-905
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The interest in theoretical modelling of radiation response has grown steadily from a fast method to estimate the gain of new treatment strategies to an individualisation tool that may be used as part of the treatment planning algorithms. While the advantages of biological optimisation of plans are obvious, accurate theoretical models and realistic information about the micro-environmental conditions in tissues are needed. This paper aimed to investigate the clinical implications of taking into consideration the details of the tumour microenvironmental conditions. The focus was on the availability of oxygen and other nutrients to tumour cells and the relationship between cellular energy reserves and DNA repair ability as this is thought to influence the response of the various hypoxic cells. The choice of the theoretical models for predicting the response (the linear quadratic model or the inducible repair model) was also addressed. The modelling performed in this project has shown that the postulated radiobiological differences between acute and chronic hypoxia have some important clinical implications which may help to understand the mechanism behind the current success rates of radiotherapy. The results also suggested that it is important to distinguish between the two types of hypoxia in predictive assays and other treatment simulations.
  • Schölin, A., et al. (författare)
  • Islet antibodies and remaining beta-cell function 8 years after diagnosis of diabetes in young adults a prospective follow-up of the nationwide Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - 0954-6820. ; 255:3, s. 384-391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • ObjectivesTo establish the prevalence of remaining β-cell function 8 years after diagnosis of diabetes in young adults and relate the findings to islet antibodies at diagnosis and 8 years later.DesignPopulation-based cohort study.SettingNationwide from all Departments of Medicine and Endocrinology in Sweden.SubjectsA total of 312 young (15–34 years old) adults diagnosed with diabetes during 1987–88.Main outcome measurePlasma connecting peptide (C-peptide) 8 years after diagnosis. Preserved β-cell function was defined as measurable C-peptide levels. Three islet antibodies – cytoplasmic islet cell antibodies (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies and tyrosine phosphatase antibodies – were measured.ResultsAmongst 269 islet antibody positives (ab+) at diagnosis, preserved β-cell function was found in 16% (42/269) 8 years later and these patients had a higher body mass index (median 22.7 and 20.5 kg m−2, respectively; P = 0.0003), an increased frequency of one islet antibody (50 and 24%, respectively; P = 0.001), and a lower prevalence of ICA (55 and 6%, respectively; P = 0.007) at diagnosis compared with ab+ without remaining β-cell function. Amongst the 241 patients without detectable β-cell function at follow-up, 14 lacked islet antibodies, both at diagnosis and at follow-up.ConclusionsSixteen per cent of patients with autoimmune type 1 diabetes had remaining β-cell function 8 years after diagnosis whereas 5.8% with β-cell failure lacked islet autoimmunity, both at diagnosis and at follow-up.
  • Gill, Peter, 1949-, et al. (författare)
  • Utvärdering av metoder mot mobbning
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Denna utvärdering ger besked om insatser och arbetssätt som effektivt förebygger och åtgärdar mobbning. Utvärderingen är unik genom att den omfattar stora mängder data, både kvalitativa och kvantitativa från 39 skolor, att enskilda individers utsatthet följs upp vid tre tillfällen och att den omfattar flera program samtidigt.Resultaten visar bland annat att olika insatser har olika effekt för pojkar och flickor samt olika effekt beroende på om mobbningen är social eller fysisk. Den visar också att ingen enskild insats har dramatiskt positiva effekter. För att en skola ska lyckas förebygga och åtgärda mobbning krävs ett systematiskt arbete och en kombination av insatser. Åtta namngivna program som används mot mobbning har ingått i utvärderingen: Farstametoden, Friends, Lions Quest, Olweusprogrammet, SET - Social och emotionell träning, Skolkomet, Skolmedling samt Stegvis. I utvärderingens fristående metodfördjupning Utvärdering av metoder mot mobbning. Metodappendix och bilagor till rapport 353, (endast publicerad som pdf ) redovisar forskarna utförligt utvärderingens design och redogör för tillvägagångssättet vid datainsamling och analys.
  • Theorell, Töres, et al. (författare)
  • A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and depressive symptoms
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - BioMed Central. - 1471-2458. ; 15:738
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Depressive symptoms are potential outcomes of poorly functioning work environments. Such symptoms are frequent and cause considerable suffering for the employees as well as financial loss for the employers. Accordingly good prospective studies of psychosocial working conditions and depressive symptoms are valuable. Scientific reviews of such studies have pointed at methodological difficulties but still established a few job risk factors. Those reviews were published some years ago. There is need for an updated systematic review using the GRADE system. In addition, gender related questions have been insufficiently reviewed. Method: Inclusion criteria for the studies published 1990 to June 2013: 1. European and English speaking countries. 2. Quantified results describing the relationship between exposure (psychosocial or physical/chemical) and outcome (standardized questionnaire assessment of depressive symptoms or interview-based clinical depression). 3. Prospective or comparable case-control design with at least 100 participants. 4. Assessments of exposure (working conditions) and outcome at baseline and outcome (depressive symptoms) once again after follow-up 1-5 years later. 5. Adjustment for age and adjustment or stratification for gender. Studies filling inclusion criteria were subjected to assessment of 1.) relevance and 2.) quality using predefined criteria. Systematic review of the evidence was made using the GRADE system. When applicable, meta-analysis of the magnitude of associations was made. Consistency of findings was examined for a number of possible confounders and publication bias was discussed. Results: Fifty-nine articles of high or medium high scientific quality were included. Moderately strong evidence (grade three out of four) was found for job strain (high psychological demands and low decision latitude), low decision latitude and bullying having significant impact on development of depressive symptoms. Limited evidence (grade two) was shown for psychological demands, effort reward imbalance, low support, unfavorable social climate, lack of work justice, conflicts, limited skill discretion, job insecurity and long working hours. There was no differential gender effect of adverse job conditions on depressive symptoms Conclusion: There is substantial empirical evidence that employees, both men and women, who report lack of decision latitude, job strain and bullying, will experience increasing depressive symptoms over time. These conditions are amenable to organizational interventions.
  • Nordgren, LB, et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of individually tailored Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders in a primary care population A randomized controlled rial
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy. - Elsevier. - 0005-7967. ; 59, s. 1-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A significant proportion of the general population suffers from anxiety disorders, often with comorbid psychiatric conditions. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been found to be a potent treatment for patients with specific psychiatric conditions. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ICBT when tailoring the treatment to address comorbidities and preferences for primary-care patients with a principal anxiety disorder. One hundred participants were recruited through their primary-care contact and randomized to either treatment or an active control group. The treatment consisted of 7–10 weekly individually assigned modules guided by online therapists. At post-treatment, 46% of the treatment group had achieved clinically significant improvement on the primary outcome measure (CORE-OM) and between-group effect sizes at ranged from d = 0.20 to 0.86, with a mean effect of d = 0.59. At one-year follow-up, within-group effect sizes varied between d = 0.53 to 1.00. Cost analysis showed significant reduction of total costs for the ICBT group, the results were maintained at one-year follow-up and the incremental  costeffectiveness ratio favored ICBT compared to control group. Individually tailored ICBT is an effective and cost-effective treatment for primary-care patients with anxiety disorders with or without comorbidities.
  • Mediernas kulturhistoria
  • 2008
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Historiska diskussioner om medier har länge dominerats av olika framstegsberättelser. Mediehistoriens mening tycks här bero på vad den pekar fram emot. Om kilskriften kulminerar i Gutenbergs tryckpress, når Turingmaskinen följaktligen sin höjdpunkt i Apples senaste gränssnitt. Men vid varje tidpunkt i historien finns ett vidsträckt medielandskap som väntar på att utforskas. Den här boken är ett bidrag till mediernas kulturhistoria. Med utgångspunkt i ett brett mediebegrepp belyser den massmedier som teve, film och internet, men också äldre medieformer som skriften, posten och ornamentik. En rad olika mediepraktiker lyfts fram  från skriftkulturens administrativa förändring av statsapparaten kring 1700, över marknadsföringen av konfektyr med hjälp av kändisar runt förra sekelskiftet, till dagens realtidsövervakning med skärmbildsteknologier. Boken argumenterar för att det är först när medier betraktas i sin historiska specificitet som det blir möjligt att föra mer övergripande resonemang om hur relationer mellan medier och kultur skiftar över tid och rum. Gamla medier var en gång nya. De vittnade om ett levande förflutet  och en osäker
  • Thomsen, Sarah, et al. (författare)
  • The world we want focus on the most disadvantaged
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Global health action. - 1654-9880. ; 6, s. 20919
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The global commitment to the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) process has resulted in significant, positive changes in health-related MDGs on the global and country levels since 1990. However, while overall progress has been made, gaps in achievements between and within many countries have not decreased, with the poorest and most disadvantaged communities being the least likely to have benefitted. This is particularly the case in many emerging economies where the gap between the rich and poor, educated and uneducated, and minority and majority ethnic populations is actually increasing. For example, in India, where the Gross National Income in purchasing power parity in 2010 was $3,468, use of antenatal care services increased by 12% from 1996 to 2008, but only 0.1% among the poor. In Indonesia, infant mortality rates are on the decline in all regions of the country except for the Eastern regions where they remain high. In Vietnam, inequity in home deliveries between poor, rural Kinh (majority) and minority mothers has increased in the last 5 years during a period of rapid economic growth. In urban China, domestic rural-to-urban migrants account for a significant proportion of notified cases of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, which is mainly associated with the low-income, poor living conditions, limited access to health care and vulnerability to poor health of this population, and their exclusion from benefits for local residents such as health insurance.
  • Altés Arlandis, Alberto, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • Hybrid collaborative art practices in contemporary public space
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Sala d'Art Jove 2009. - Barcelona : Generalitat de Catalunya Departament d’acció Social i Ciutadania. - 978-84-614-2870-0 ; s. 230-237
  • Konstnärligt arbete (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Do you see a capacity for transforming the city, its spaces or the use we make of them in artistic practice? Which public spaces do you use most day to day? Is there hope for the Santa Esperança public laundry? Do you think that Somanyprojects’ action has served to reactivate this space and awaken it in the town’s collective imaginary? Do you know of any other public space particular to women? What does the perspective of an artist offer us that an architect’s doesn’t consider when intervening in a space? What does a collaborative art practice consist of? Can an intervention of this type lead to some type of agencement on the part of the community? Would it be viable to consider more alternative uses of water such as public baths? How do you assess artistic practice as a work methodology for participatory urbanism projects? Would you be in favour of other activities being undertaken in public laundries besides washing clothing and the promotion of tourism? Are we very far off on the part of politicians from designing the cities where we want to live based on the needs of the citizens themselves? Do you have any questions for us? Do you have any questions for yourself?
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