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Sökning: swepub > Övrigt vetenskapligt > Umeå universitet > Linköpings universitet

  • Resultat 1-10 av 86
  • [1]234567...9Nästa
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  • Dasu, Alexandru, et al. (författare)
  • Treatment modelling the influence of micro-environmental conditions.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncol. - 1651-226X. ; 47:5, s. 896-905
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The interest in theoretical modelling of radiation response has grown steadily from a fast method to estimate the gain of new treatment strategies to an individualisation tool that may be used as part of the treatment planning algorithms. While the advantages of biological optimisation of plans are obvious, accurate theoretical models and realistic information about the micro-environmental conditions in tissues are needed. This paper aimed to investigate the clinical implications of taking into consideration the details of the tumour microenvironmental conditions. The focus was on the availability of oxygen and other nutrients to tumour cells and the relationship between cellular energy reserves and DNA repair ability as this is thought to influence the response of the various hypoxic cells. The choice of the theoretical models for predicting the response (the linear quadratic model or the inducible repair model) was also addressed. The modelling performed in this project has shown that the postulated radiobiological differences between acute and chronic hypoxia have some important clinical implications which may help to understand the mechanism behind the current success rates of radiotherapy. The results also suggested that it is important to distinguish between the two types of hypoxia in predictive assays and other treatment simulations.
  • Dasu, Alexandru, et al. (författare)
  • Vascular oxygen content and the tissue oxygenation--a theoretical analysis.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Med Phys. - 0094-2405. ; 35:2, s. 539-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Several methods exist for evaluating tumor oxygenation as hypoxia is an important prognostic factor for cancer patients. They use different measuring principles that highlight various aspects of oxygenation. The results could be empirically correlated, but it has been suspected that there could be discordances in some cases. This study describes an analysis of the relationship between vascular and tissue oxygenations. Theoretical simulation has been employed to characterize tissue oxygenations for a broad range of distributions of intervessel distances and vascular oxygenations. The results were evaluated with respect to the implications for practical measurements of tissue oxygenations. The findings showed that although the tissue oxygenation is deterministically related to vascular oxygenation, the relationship between them is not unequivocal. Variability also exists between the fractions of values below the sensitivity thresholds of various measurement methods which in turn could be reflected in the power of correlations between results from different methods or in the selection of patients for prognostic studies. The study has also identified potential difficulties that may be encountered at the quantitative evaluation of the results from oxygenation measurements. These could improve the understanding of oxygenation measurements and the interpretation of comparisons between results from various measurement methods.
  • Schölin, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Normal weight promotes remission and low number of islet antibodies prolong the duration of remission in Type 1 diabetes
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine. - 0742-3071. ; 21:5, s. 447-455
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim To identify clinical, immunological and biochemical factors that predict remission, and its duration in a large cohort of young adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM).Methods In Sweden, 362 patients (15–34 years), classified as Type 1 DM were included in a prospective, nation-wide population-based study. All patients were followed at local hospitals for examination of HbA1c and insulin dosage over a median period after diagnosis of 5 years. Duration of remission, defined as an insulin maintenance dose ? 0.3 U/kg/24 h and HbA1c within the normal range, was analysed in relation to characteristics at diagnosis.Results Remissions were seen in 43% of the patients with a median duration of 8 months (range 1–73). Sixteen per cent had a remission with a duration > 12 months. Among patients with antibodies (ab+), bivariate analysis suggested that adult age, absence of low BMI, high plasma C-peptide concentrations, lack of ketonuria or ketoacidosis at diagnosis and low insulin dose at discharge from hospital were associated with a high possibility of achieving remission. Multiple regression showed that normal weight (BMI of 20–24.9 kg/m2) was the only factor that remained significant for the possibility of entering remission. In survival analysis among ab+ remitters, a low number of islet antibodies, one or two instead of three or four, were associated with a long duration of remissions.Conclusion In islet antibody-positive Type 1 DM, normal body weight was the strongest factor for entering remission, whilst a low number of islet antibodies was of importance for the duration.
  • 1897 : Mediehistorier kring Stockholmsutställningen
  • 2006
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • När börjar mediehistorien? Mediehistoria var länge liktydigt med historien om 1900-talets massmedier  press, radio, teve och film. I den här boken skildras istället ett äldre medielandskap. Med utgångspunkt i Stockholmsutställningen 1897 beskriver författarna det utbud av gamla och nya medier som samlades på utställningen, från äldre attraktioner som camera obscura, dioramor och vaxfigurer till spektakulära nyheter som fonograf, kinematograf och röntgenbilder. Boken ger inblickar i några av det sena 1800-talets ledande medieindustrier, och diskuterar bland annat frågor om mediekonsumtion, publikpositioner och historiska medieringsvillkor. De medietekniker som presenterades på Stockholmsutställningen 1897 lagrade på samma gång utställningen för framtiden. Ett centralt tema är därför hur dessa medieringar blivit identiska med minnet av utställningen, och hur detta arkiv organiserats utifrån mediernas specifika egenskaper. På den DVD-skiva som medföljer boken har ett nytt mediearkiv skapats över Stockholmsutställningen 1897 och dess många länkar till en bredare mediekultur.
  • Ahlsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • A Swedish consensus on the surgical treatment of concomitant atrial fibrillation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal. - Informa Healthcare. - 1401-7431. ; 46:4, s. 212-218
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia among patients scheduled for open heart surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to international guidelines, symptomatic and selected asymptomatic patients should be offered concomitant surgical AF ablation in conjunction with valvular or coronary surgery. The gold standard in AF surgery is the Cox Maze III ("cut-and-sew") procedure, with surgical incisions in both atria according to a specified pattern, in order to prevent AF reentry circuits from developing. Over 90% of patients treated with the Cox Maze III procedure are free of AF after 1 year. Recent developments in ablation technology have introduced several energy sources capable of creating nonconducting atrial wall lesions. In addition, simplified lesion patterns have been suggested, but results with these techniques have been unsatisfactory. There is a clear need for standardization in AF surgery. The Swedish Arrhythmia Surgery Group, represented by surgeons from all Swedish units for cardiothoracic surgery, has therefore reached a consensus on surgical treatment of concomitant AF. This consensus emphasizes adherence to the lesion pattern in the Cox Maze III procedure and the use of biatrial lesions in nonparoxysmal AF.
  • Nordgren, Lise Bergman, et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of individually tailored Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for anxiety disorders in a primary care population A randomized controlled rial
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy. - Elsevier. - 0005-7967. ; 59, s. 1-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A significant proportion of the general population suffers from anxiety disorders, often with comorbid psychiatric conditions. Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has been found to be a potent treatment for patients with specific psychiatric conditions. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ICBT when tailoring the treatment to address comorbidities and preferences for primary-care patients with a principal anxiety disorder. One hundred participants were recruited through their primary-care contact and randomized to either treatment or an active control group. The treatment consisted of 7–10 weekly individually assigned modules guided by online therapists. At post-treatment, 46% of the treatment group had achieved clinically significant improvement on the primary outcome measure (CORE-OM) and between-group effect sizes at ranged from d = 0.20 to 0.86, with a mean effect of d = 0.59. At one-year follow-up, within-group effect sizes varied between d = 0.53 to 1.00. Cost analysis showed significant reduction of total costs for the ICBT group, the results were maintained at one-year follow-up and the incremental  costeffectiveness ratio favored ICBT compared to control group. Individually tailored ICBT is an effective and cost-effective treatment for primary-care patients with anxiety disorders with or without comorbidities.
  • Serenius, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Extremely Preterm Infants at 2.5 Years After Active Perinatal Care in Sweden
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0029-7828. ; 68:12, s. 781-783
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    •  A proactive approach to the care of extremely preterm infants has increased survival and lowered the gestational age of viability, but these improvements may be associated with later neurodevelopmental disability. EXPRESS is a national population-based prospective study of all infants born alive or stillborn at less than 27 weeks’ gestation between 2004 and 2007 in Sweden. This prospective follow-up study was undertaken to assess neurologic and developmental outcome of the EXPRESS cohort at 2.5 years corrected age compared with a matched control group born at term.Of 707 live-born infants, 497 (70%) survived to corrected age 2.5 years; the final cohort included 491 children. Each preterm child was matched with 2 control subjects at 2.5 years chronological age. Cognitive, language, and motor development were assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley III). Cerebral palsy (CP), visual and hearing disability, and a composite outcome of overall disabilities were assessed. The overall outcome was characterized as no, mild, moderate, and severe disability.Of 415 infants assessed with clinical examinations, 399, 393, and 382, respectively, completed the Bayley III cognitive, language, and motor scales; 366 control children were assessed with Bayley III. The mean composite cognitive, language, and motor scores for children in the preterm and control groups were 94 ± 12 and 104 ± 11, respectively (P < 0.001), 98 ± 17 and 109 ± 12 (P < 0.001), respectively, and 94 ± 16 and 107 ± 14 (P < 0.001), respectively. Normal cognitive development or mild cognitive disability was found in 354 preterm children (88.8%) and 364 control children (99.5%). Moderate or severe cognitive disability was present in 20 preterm children (5.0%) and 1 control child (0.3%) (P < 0.001) and in 25 (6.3%) and 1 (0.3%), respectively (P < 0.001). Normal language development or mild language disability was found in 330 children (83.9%) in the preterm group and with 351 (97.5%) in the control group (all group comparisons, P < 0.001). Normal motor development or mild motor disability occurred in 324 (84.8%) and 348 (98.6%) of children in the preterm and control groups, respectively. Moderate or severe mental developmental delay was seen in 88 and 10 children (20% and 2.8%), respectively (P < 0.001).In the preterm group, Bayley III cognitive, language, and motor scores increased with advancing gestational age at birth by 2.5 points (99% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–4.0) per week (P < 0.001), by 3.6 points (99% CI, 1.6–5.6) per week (P < 0.001), and by 2.5 points (99% CI, 0.5–4.5) per week scores (P = 0.001), respectively. Cerebral palsy was present in 32 preterm children (7.0%; 99% CI, 3.9–10.1%). Of 456 preterm children, 42.1% were classified as normal, 30.7% as having mild disabilities, and 27.2% as having moderate or severe disabilities (vs 78.1%, 18.6%, 3.3% of control subjects, respectively; P < 0.001 for all comparisons). The proportion of children with mild or no disabilities increased from 40% at 22 weeks to 83% at 26 weeks (P < 0.001 for trend). Moderate or severe disabilities decreased from 60% at 22 weeks to 17% at 26 weeks (P < 0.001 for trend).The impact of prematurity on neurodevelopmental outcome indicates that further improvements in neonatal care are necessary. Although preterm children had poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes than those born at term, 73% had no or mild disability, and neurodevelopmental outcome improved with each week of gestational age. These results are relevant for clinicians counseling couples facing extremely preterm birth of their infant
  • Stenhammar, Lars, 1939-, et al. (författare)
  • Small bowel biopsy in Swedish paediatric clinics.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatr. - 0803-5253. ; 91:10, s. 1126-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: A correct diagnosis of coeliac disease, one of the most common chronic diseases in Swedish children, demands small bowel biopsy, which can be performed endoscopically or by means of a peroral capsule. Recently there was a debate among Swedish paediatric gastroenterologists, with some advocating the cessation of capsule biopsy in favour of endoscopic biopsies. To gain information on which to base a recommendation for which technique to use, the Swedish Working Group for Childhood Coeliac Disease was commissioned to carry out a national questionnaire study on current small bowel biopsy routines in Swedish paediatric clinics. Methods: A questionnaire concerning biopsy routines in the year 2000 was sent to all paediatric clinics performing biopsies. A reply was obtained from 39 of 40 clinics, covering 98% of the Swedish population. Results: Some 1400 biopsies were performed, 64% of which were capsule biopsies and 36% endoscopic. Three clinics performed all biopsies endoscopically and 11 clinics all via a capsule. At endoscopy all children were under deep sedation or full anaesthesia, while most children undergoing capsule biopsy were under light or deep sedation. The oxygen saturation was monitored during endoscopy but less often or never during routine capsule biopsy. The presence of the parents during biopsy varied according to the degree of sedation: at 97% of the clinics performing capsule biopsy on children under light sedation, the parents were present during the whole procedure, whereas no parents were present at clinics where the biopsy was performed endoscopically under anaesthesia. Conclusion: Compared with the results of a similar questionnaire concerning biopsy routines performed in the early 1990s, children are now more effectively sedated, Furthermore, there is an obvious trend from capsule towards endoscopic biopsy. Both the endoscopic and the capsule biopsy techniques are useful and satisfactory for obtaining small bowel mucosal samples providing that the children are effectively sedated. For practical and economic reasons the capsule biopsy technique will probably continue to be used, although to a lesser extent than today.
  • Ingre, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • No association between VAPB mutations and familial or sporadic ALS in Sweden, Portugal and Iceland
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal degeneration. - Informa Healthcare. - 2167-8421. ; 14:7-8, s. 620-627
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background. Linkage analysis in Brazilian families with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) revealed that a missense mutation p.Pro56Ser in a conserved gene VAMP-associated protein type B and C (VAPB) co-segregates with disease.Methods. Blood samples were studied from 973 Swedish, 126 Portuguese and 19 Icelandic ALS patients, and from 644 control subjects. ?Results. We identified five VAPB mutations, two of which are novel, in 14 Swedish ALS patients and in nine control individuals from Sweden and Portugal. The 14 patients with VAPB mutations all carried a diagnosis of sporadic ALS. Mutations were also found in healthy adult relatives. The p.Asp130Glu VAPB mutation was also found in two patients from an Icelandic ALS family, but the mutation did not co-segregate with disease. All patients were instead found to be heterozygous for a p.Gly93Ser SOD1 mutation. There were no clinical differences between them, suggesting that the p.Asp130Glu VAPB mutation is unrelated to the disease process. ?Conclusions. The VAPB mutations were as frequent in control individuals as in patients. This observation, in combination with the finding of several healthy relatives carrying the VAPB mutations and no ancestors with ALS disease, suggests that it is unlikely that these VAPB mutations are pathogenic
  • Mediernas kulturhistoria
  • 2008
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Historiska diskussioner om medier har länge dominerats av olika framstegsberättelser. Mediehistoriens mening tycks här bero på vad den pekar fram emot. Om kilskriften kulminerar i Gutenbergs tryckpress, når Turingmaskinen följaktligen sin höjdpunkt i Apples senaste gränssnitt. Men vid varje tidpunkt i historien finns ett vidsträckt medielandskap som väntar på att utforskas. Den här boken är ett bidrag till mediernas kulturhistoria. Med utgångspunkt i ett brett mediebegrepp belyser den massmedier som teve, film och internet, men också äldre medieformer som skriften, posten och ornamentik. En rad olika mediepraktiker lyfts fram  från skriftkulturens administrativa förändring av statsapparaten kring 1700, över marknadsföringen av konfektyr med hjälp av kändisar runt förra sekelskiftet, till dagens realtidsövervakning med skärmbildsteknologier. Boken argumenterar för att det är först när medier betraktas i sin historiska specificitet som det blir möjligt att föra mer övergripande resonemang om hur relationer mellan medier och kultur skiftar över tid och rum. Gamla medier var en gång nya. De vittnade om ett levande förflutet  och en osäker
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