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Sökning: swepub > Övrigt vetenskapligt > Umeå universitet > Linköpings universitet

  • Resultat 1-10 av 73
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  • Daşu, Alexandru, et al. (författare)
  • Treatment modelling : the influence of micro-environmental conditions.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncol. - 1651-226X. ; 47:5, s. 896-905
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The interest in theoretical modelling of radiation response has grown steadily from a fast method to estimate the gain of new treatment strategies to an individualisation tool that may be used as part of the treatment planning algorithms. While the advantages of biological optimisation of plans are obvious, accurate theoretical models and realistic information about the micro-environmental conditions in tissues are needed. This paper aimed to investigate the clinical implications of taking into consideration the details of the tumour microenvironmental conditions. The focus was on the availability of oxygen and other nutrients to tumour cells and the relationship between cellular energy reserves and DNA repair ability as this is thought to influence the response of the various hypoxic cells. The choice of the theoretical models for predicting the response (the linear quadratic model or the inducible repair model) was also addressed. The modelling performed in this project has shown that the postulated radiobiological differences between acute and chronic hypoxia have some important clinical implications which may help to understand the mechanism behind the current success rates of radiotherapy. The results also suggested that it is important to distinguish between the two types of hypoxia in predictive assays and other treatment simulations.
  • Daşu, Alexandru, et al. (författare)
  • Vascular oxygen content and the tissue oxygenation--a theoretical analysis.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Med Phys. - 0094-2405. ; 35:2, s. 539-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Several methods exist for evaluating tumor oxygenation as hypoxia is an important prognostic factor for cancer patients. They use different measuring principles that highlight various aspects of oxygenation. The results could be empirically correlated, but it has been suspected that there could be discordances in some cases. This study describes an analysis of the relationship between vascular and tissue oxygenations. Theoretical simulation has been employed to characterize tissue oxygenations for a broad range of distributions of intervessel distances and vascular oxygenations. The results were evaluated with respect to the implications for practical measurements of tissue oxygenations. The findings showed that although the tissue oxygenation is deterministically related to vascular oxygenation, the relationship between them is not unequivocal. Variability also exists between the fractions of values below the sensitivity thresholds of various measurement methods which in turn could be reflected in the power of correlations between results from different methods or in the selection of patients for prognostic studies. The study has also identified potential difficulties that may be encountered at the quantitative evaluation of the results from oxygenation measurements. These could improve the understanding of oxygenation measurements and the interpretation of comparisons between results from various measurement methods.
  • Ahlsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • A Swedish consensus on the surgical treatment of concomitant atrial fibrillation
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal. - Informa Healthcare. - 1401-7431. ; 46:4, s. 212-218
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia among patients scheduled for open heart surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to international guidelines, symptomatic and selected asymptomatic patients should be offered concomitant surgical AF ablation in conjunction with valvular or coronary surgery. The gold standard in AF surgery is the Cox Maze III ("cut-and-sew") procedure, with surgical incisions in both atria according to a specified pattern, in order to prevent AF reentry circuits from developing. Over 90% of patients treated with the Cox Maze III procedure are free of AF after 1 year. Recent developments in ablation technology have introduced several energy sources capable of creating nonconducting atrial wall lesions. In addition, simplified lesion patterns have been suggested, but results with these techniques have been unsatisfactory. There is a clear need for standardization in AF surgery. The Swedish Arrhythmia Surgery Group, represented by surgeons from all Swedish units for cardiothoracic surgery, has therefore reached a consensus on surgical treatment of concomitant AF. This consensus emphasizes adherence to the lesion pattern in the Cox Maze III procedure and the use of biatrial lesions in nonparoxysmal AF.
  • Stenhammar, Lars, 1939-, et al. (författare)
  • Small bowel biopsy in Swedish paediatric clinics.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatr. - 0803-5253. ; 91:10, s. 1126-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: A correct diagnosis of coeliac disease, one of the most common chronic diseases in Swedish children, demands small bowel biopsy, which can be performed endoscopically or by means of a peroral capsule. Recently there was a debate among Swedish paediatric gastroenterologists, with some advocating the cessation of capsule biopsy in favour of endoscopic biopsies. To gain information on which to base a recommendation for which technique to use, the Swedish Working Group for Childhood Coeliac Disease was commissioned to carry out a national questionnaire study on current small bowel biopsy routines in Swedish paediatric clinics. Methods: A questionnaire concerning biopsy routines in the year 2000 was sent to all paediatric clinics performing biopsies. A reply was obtained from 39 of 40 clinics, covering 98% of the Swedish population. Results: Some 1400 biopsies were performed, 64% of which were capsule biopsies and 36% endoscopic. Three clinics performed all biopsies endoscopically and 11 clinics all via a capsule. At endoscopy all children were under deep sedation or full anaesthesia, while most children undergoing capsule biopsy were under light or deep sedation. The oxygen saturation was monitored during endoscopy but less often or never during routine capsule biopsy. The presence of the parents during biopsy varied according to the degree of sedation: at 97% of the clinics performing capsule biopsy on children under light sedation, the parents were present during the whole procedure, whereas no parents were present at clinics where the biopsy was performed endoscopically under anaesthesia. Conclusion: Compared with the results of a similar questionnaire concerning biopsy routines performed in the early 1990s, children are now more effectively sedated, Furthermore, there is an obvious trend from capsule towards endoscopic biopsy. Both the endoscopic and the capsule biopsy techniques are useful and satisfactory for obtaining small bowel mucosal samples providing that the children are effectively sedated. For practical and economic reasons the capsule biopsy technique will probably continue to be used, although to a lesser extent than today.
  • Andersson, Eva, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Lärande och vardag. Om gränsöverskridande i folkbildning på distans
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Lärande, IKT och samhällsomvandling. Två rapporter om folkbildning på distans. - Stockholm : Folkbildningsrådet. - 9188692388 - 91-88692-38-8 - 978-9-18869-238-2 ; s. -156
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Att studera på distans blir allt vanligare, även inom studieförbund och folkhögskolor. Men vad innebär egentligen detta för deltagarna? Frågan belyses i denna rapport, som bygger på intervjuer med ett tjugotal deltagare i distansorganiserad och IKT-baserad folkbildning.I rapportens första del, Lärande och vardag. Om gränsöverskridande i folkbildning på distans , diskuteras gränserna mellan deltagarnas studier och deras vardagsverksamheter – och vad ett eventuellt överskridande av dessa gränser får för konsekvenser. I den andra delen, Datorkunskaper på köpet. Om folkbildning på distans, IKT och samhälle , fokuseras på distansstudiernas roll, när det gäller deltagarnas motivation, tillgång till och förmåga att använda digital teknik. Lärande, IKT och samhällsomvandling ingår i forskningsprojektet Distans, IKT, folkbildning och vardag. Rapporten är utgiven av Folkbildningsrådet, som fi - nansierat projektet i samarbete med KK-stiftelsens forskningsprogram LearnIT. Inom projektet har tidigare utgivits rapportenDeltagarröster om folkbildning på distans . Eva Andersson är universitetslektor i pedagogik vid Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik, Göteborgs universitet. Hon är där knuten till Enheten för lärande i vuxenliv. Eva Andersson har arbetat med folkbildningsforskning sedan mitten på 1990-talet, senast i projektetDistanspedagogik bland folkbildare (2001–2004).Ann-Marie Laginder är fi losofi e doktor i teknik och social förändring. Hon är universitetslektor vid Institutionen för beteendevetenskap, Linköpings universitet och föreståndare för Mimer – nationellt program för folkbildningsforskning. Hon har tidigare forskat bland annat om studiecirklars betydelse för deltagare och lokalsamhälle.Inger Landström är fi losofi e doktor i pedagogik och forskarassistent vid Institutionen för beteendevetenskap, Linköpings universitet. Hennes senare forskning gäller hur informations- och kommunikationstekniken (IKT) används och påverkar folkbildningsorganisationernas verksamhet och identitet.
  • När förvaltning blir business
  • 2013
  • Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Att företag bedriver vård, omsorg och andra verksamheter på det offentligas uppdrag är idag en del av vår vardag. Den svenska förvaltningen har förändrats och blivit alltmer business.I den här boken väcker forskare från flera lärosäten frågor och uppmuntrar till fortsatt diskussion på detta tema. Vi tar upp vad marknadisering, konkurrensutsättning och privatisering betyder för den svenska demokratin och förvaltningsmodellen. Hur står det till med politikens möjligheter till styrning? Vad händer med synen på medborgarskapet? Finns det till exempel vinnare och förlorare? Finns det en framtid för förvaltningen som business?
  • Petzäll, J, et al. (författare)
  • Wind forces and aerodynamics : Contributing factors to compromise bus and coach safety?
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Crashworthiness. - 1358-8265. ; 10:5, s. 435-444
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • A bus in motion is affected by aerodynamical side and lift forces that may interfere with the stability of the vehicle. These forces depend on the speed and direction of the resulting wind in relation to the bus. Cross-wind gusts may generate side forces so suddenly that great directional deviation is imposed on the bus prior to any possible driver or vehicle manoeuvre responses. Prevailing friction forces may not be sufficient to enable the driver to avoid large lateral deviation from the desired route, and can potentially lead to crashes. The present study, based on ten bus crashes, aimed to show that the effect of wind, in addition to vehicle speed and road friction, is a contributing factor to compromising bus safety. The results of the study confirmed that wind, in relation to vehicle speed and friction, needs more attention when addressing the pre-crash factors in crash investigations, bus manoeuvring capacities, operational management, and the aerodynamic design of buses. © Woodhead Publishing Ltd.
  • Serenius, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Extremely Preterm Infants at 2.5 Years After Active Perinatal Care in Sweden
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0029-7828. ; 68:12, s. 781-783
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    •  A proactive approach to the care of extremely preterm infants has increased survival and lowered the gestational age of viability, but these improvements may be associated with later neurodevelopmental disability. EXPRESS is a national population-based prospective study of all infants born alive or stillborn at less than 27 weeks’ gestation between 2004 and 2007 in Sweden. This prospective follow-up study was undertaken to assess neurologic and developmental outcome of the EXPRESS cohort at 2.5 years corrected age compared with a matched control group born at term.Of 707 live-born infants, 497 (70%) survived to corrected age 2.5 years; the final cohort included 491 children. Each preterm child was matched with 2 control subjects at 2.5 years chronological age. Cognitive, language, and motor development were assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley III). Cerebral palsy (CP), visual and hearing disability, and a composite outcome of overall disabilities were assessed. The overall outcome was characterized as no, mild, moderate, and severe disability.Of 415 infants assessed with clinical examinations, 399, 393, and 382, respectively, completed the Bayley III cognitive, language, and motor scales; 366 control children were assessed with Bayley III. The mean composite cognitive, language, and motor scores for children in the preterm and control groups were 94 ± 12 and 104 ± 11, respectively (P < 0.001), 98 ± 17 and 109 ± 12 (P < 0.001), respectively, and 94 ± 16 and 107 ± 14 (P < 0.001), respectively. Normal cognitive development or mild cognitive disability was found in 354 preterm children (88.8%) and 364 control children (99.5%). Moderate or severe cognitive disability was present in 20 preterm children (5.0%) and 1 control child (0.3%) (P < 0.001) and in 25 (6.3%) and 1 (0.3%), respectively (P < 0.001). Normal language development or mild language disability was found in 330 children (83.9%) in the preterm group and with 351 (97.5%) in the control group (all group comparisons, P < 0.001). Normal motor development or mild motor disability occurred in 324 (84.8%) and 348 (98.6%) of children in the preterm and control groups, respectively. Moderate or severe mental developmental delay was seen in 88 and 10 children (20% and 2.8%), respectively (P < 0.001).In the preterm group, Bayley III cognitive, language, and motor scores increased with advancing gestational age at birth by 2.5 points (99% confidence interval [CI], 1.0–4.0) per week (P < 0.001), by 3.6 points (99% CI, 1.6–5.6) per week (P < 0.001), and by 2.5 points (99% CI, 0.5–4.5) per week scores (P = 0.001), respectively. Cerebral palsy was present in 32 preterm children (7.0%; 99% CI, 3.9–10.1%). Of 456 preterm children, 42.1% were classified as normal, 30.7% as having mild disabilities, and 27.2% as having moderate or severe disabilities (vs 78.1%, 18.6%, 3.3% of control subjects, respectively; P < 0.001 for all comparisons). The proportion of children with mild or no disabilities increased from 40% at 22 weeks to 83% at 26 weeks (P < 0.001 for trend). Moderate or severe disabilities decreased from 60% at 22 weeks to 17% at 26 weeks (P < 0.001 for trend).The impact of prematurity on neurodevelopmental outcome indicates that further improvements in neonatal care are necessary. Although preterm children had poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes than those born at term, 73% had no or mild disability, and neurodevelopmental outcome improved with each week of gestational age. These results are relevant for clinicians counseling couples facing extremely preterm birth of their infant
  • Åström, I. Maria, 1965-, et al. (författare)
  • Integrated and Subject-specific
  • 2007
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis is an explorative experimental study in two parts of different ways of organising Science education in the Swedish context. The first study deals with the question if students attain higher scores on test results if they have been working with integrated Science compared to subject-specific Science i.e. Biology, Chemistry and Physics. The second study concerns the similarities and differences between integrated Science education and Science education in Biology, Chemistry and Physics, especially in the teaching organisation.The introduction describes the nature of integrated curriculum, what integrated learning is, issues about integrated Science education, in what way integration is carried out, between subjects or within subjects, what the opposite to integrated Science is (here named as subjectspecific science education) in the Swedish context and what the Swedish curriculum has to say about integrated Science. Previous studies in integrated curriculum looking at students’ results are referred to, and it is argued for the use of the OECD’s PISA assessment instrument in this study.The thesis consists of two studies, one quantitative and one qualitative, within the above framework. The quantitative study is an attempt to find differences in scores on students’ written results on a large-scale assessment in scientific literacy between students studying in different organisations of Science education. The qualitative study is an attempt to describe differences at classroom level between integrated Science and subject-specific Science. This gives a quite rich description of four schools (cases) in a small town and how they organise their teaching integrated or subject-specific.No differences in students’ results between different Science organisations were found in the quantitative study in this thesis. Possible explanations for the lack of differences in students’ results are discussed in the article. An additional investigation that attempts to test the variable used in the quantitative study is carried out in the thesis, with an attempt to sharpen the teacher organisation variable. This is done to find out if it is possible that there can be found differences with the sharpened variable.The qualitative study gives a glimpse of some differences in the implemented curriculum between schools working with integrated Science education and a school that works subjectspecifically. The teachers do the overall lesson plans in different ways according to which organisation according to integrated or subject-specific Science they work with. When asked in a survey what kind of Science organisation they have, students from the four schools studied answered differently between schools and also, sometimes, within the same school. A further analysis of this second study is carried out by defining a conceptual framework used as structure and a possible explanation for differences between students’ views and teachers’ views on the organisation of Science education. This latter analysis tries to give an enriched description in mainly the two levels of the implemented and attained curricula, and tries to discuss the difference in students’ attained curriculum.A final discussion concludes the thesis and concerns an elaboration of the results of the thesis, problems with the main variable involved in the two studies and the possibility that the teacher actions effects also the magnitude of students’ achievement on tests.
  • Wang, Ning, et al. (författare)
  • Selective IgA Deficiency in Autoimmune Diseases
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass. Print). - Feinstein Institute for Medical Research. - 1076-1551. ; 17:11-12, s. 1383-1396
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in Caucasians. It has previously been suggested to be associated with a variety of concomitant autoimmune diseases. In this review, we present data on the prevalence of IgAD in patients with Graves disease (GD), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type 1 diabetes (T1D). celiac disease (CD), myasthenia gravis (MG) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the basis of both our own recent large-scale screening results and literature data. Genetic factors are important for the development of both IgAD and various autoimmune disorders, including GD, SLE, T1D, CD, MG and RA, and a strong association with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region has been reported. In addition, non-MHC genes, such as interferon-induced helicase 1 (IFH1) and c-type lectin domain family 16, member A (CLEC16A), are also associated with the development of IgAD and some of the above diseases. This indicates a possible common genetic background. In this review, we present suggestive evidence for a shared genetic predisposition between these disorders.
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