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Sökning: swepub > Chalmers tekniska högskola

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  • Gilbert, Jonas, 1968- (författare)
  • A Start for Implementing ORCID in the Swedish Research Information Infrastructure
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: ScieCom Info. - 1652-3202. ; 9:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Texten presenterar i korthet det projekt kring författaridentifikatorer och publikationsdatabaser som Kungliga biblioteket finansierade under 2012 under projektledning av Stockholms universitetsbibliotek med deltagande av biblioteken vid Chalmers, Karolinska Institutet samt Malmö högskola.
  • Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Mortality is not increased in rhGH-treated patients when adjusting for birth characteristics.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 101:5, s. 2149-2159
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether reported high mortality in childhood recombinant human GH (rhGH)-treated patients was related to birth-characteristics and/or rhGH treatment. Design and Setting: We sought to develop a mortality model of the Swedish general population born between 1973 and 2010, using continuous-hazard functions adjusting for birth characteristics, sex, age intervals, and calendar year to estimate standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and to apply this model to assess expected deaths in Swedish rhGH-treated patients with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency (IGHD), idiopathic short stature (155) or born small for gestational age (SGA). Participants:The general population: Swedish Medical Birth Register (1973-2010: 1 880 668 males; 1 781 131 females) and Cause of Death Register (1985-2010). Intervention Population: Three thousand eight hundred forty-seven patients starting rhGH treatment between 1985 and 2010 and followed in the National GH Register and/or in rhGH trials diagnosed with IGHD (n = 1890), ISS (n = 975), or SGA (n=982). Main Outcome Measures: Death. Results: Using conventional models adjusting for age, sex, and calendar-year, the SMR was 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-2.19), P = .14, observed/expected deaths 21/14.68. The rhGH population differed (P < .001) from the general population regarding birth weight, birth length, and congenital malformations. Application of an Advanced Model: When applying the developed mortality model of the general population, the ratio of observed/expected deaths in rhGH-treated patients was 21/21.99; SMR = 0.955 (0.591-1.456)P = .95. Model Comparison: Expected number of deaths were 14.68 (14.35-14.96) using the conventional model, and 21.99 (21.24-22.81) using the advanced model, P < .001, which had at all ages a higher gradient of risk per SD of the model, 24% (range, 18-42%; P < .001). Conclusions: Compared with the general Swedish population, the ratio of observed/expected deaths (21/21.99) was not increased in childhood rhGH-treated IGHD, ISS, and SGA patients when applying an advanced sex-specific mortality model adjusting for birth characteristics.
  • Wallerstedt, Sven, et al. (författare)
  • Moderate hyperkalemia in hospitalized patients with cirrhotic ascites indicates a poor prognosis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - Informa Healthcare. - 0036-5521. ; 48:3, s. 358-365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. Development of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis is an ominous sign with a poor outcome. A liver transplantation must be considered, and it then becomes important to know if there are any factors indicating a worsened prognosis. Material and methods. We used official registers for a follow-up study of at least 5 years considering the prognosis of 155 prospectively recruited in-patients with cirrhotic ascites from medical units at nine Swedish university hospitals. All patients had undergone at least one diagnostic ascites tap, and had initially been questioned about background factors and physically examined according to a standardized case record form, followed by sampling of blood, urine, and ascites. Results. Death occurred within 1 year after inclusion in 53% of the cases, and was primarily liver-related in 70%. In a multivariable analysis, the two ordinary variables that showed the strongest correlation with risk of death were serum potassium and abdominal tenderness. All 22 patients with a serum potassium concentration of at least 4.8 mmol/L (maximum 5.8 mmol/L) died within 1 year after inclusion. Potassium concentration was related to renal function and potassium-saving drugs. Conclusion. This follow-up study of a prospectively recruited cohort of in-patients with cirrhotic ascites confirms their poor prognosis. Awareness of an elevated serum potassium value, which would reflect a threatened renal function, seems essential, because it may offer a simple way to identify cases with the worst prognosis. An area for further research should be to explore the significance of including serum potassium in prognostic models.
  • Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Osteoblast-derived WNT16 represses osteoclastogenesis and prevents cortical bone fragility fractures.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - 1078-8956. ; 20:11, s. 1279-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The WNT16 locus is a major determinant of cortical bone thickness and nonvertebral fracture risk in humans. The disability, mortality and costs caused by osteoporosis-induced nonvertebral fractures are enormous. We demonstrate here that Wnt16-deficient mice develop spontaneous fractures as a result of low cortical thickness and high cortical porosity. In contrast, trabecular bone volume is not altered in these mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that WNT16 is osteoblast derived and inhibits human and mouse osteoclastogenesis both directly by acting on osteoclast progenitors and indirectly by increasing expression of osteoprotegerin (Opg) in osteoblasts. The signaling pathway activated by WNT16 in osteoclast progenitors is noncanonical, whereas the pathway activated in osteoblasts is both canonical and noncanonical. Conditional Wnt16 inactivation revealed that osteoblast-lineage cells are the principal source of WNT16, and its targeted deletion in osteoblasts increases fracture susceptibility. Thus, osteoblast-derived WNT16 is a previously unreported key regulator of osteoclastogenesis and fracture susceptibility. These findings open new avenues for the specific prevention or treatment of nonvertebral fractures, a substantial unmet medical need.
  • Svedberg, U. R. A., et al. (författare)
  • Emission of hexanal and carbon monoxide from storage of wood pellets, a potential occupational and domestic health hazard
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene. - 0003-4878. ; 48:4, s. 339-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    •  Objectives: The objective of the present study was to investigate and describe the emissions of volatile compounds, particularly hexanal and carbon monoxide, from large- and small-scale storage of wood pellets.Methods: Air sampling was performed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and adsorbent sampling in pellet warehouses, domestic storage rooms, lumber kiln dryers and experimental set-ups. Literature studies were included to describe the formation of hexanal and carbon monoxide and the toxicology of hexanal.Results: A geometric mean aldehyde level of 111 +/- 32 mg/m(3) was found in one warehouse, with a peak reading of 156 mg/m(3). A maximum aldehyde reading of 457 mg/m(3) was recorded at the surface of a pellet pile. Hexanal (70-80% w/w) and pentanal (10-15% w/w) dominated, but acetone (821 +/- 24 mg/m(3)), methanol (18 7 mg/m(3)) and carbon monoxide (56 +/- 4 mg/m(3)) were also found. The emissions in a domestic storage room varied with the ambient temperature and peaked after 2 months storage in the midst of the warm season. Aldehyde levels of 98 +/- 4 mg/m(3) and carbon monoxide levels of 123 +/- 10 mg/m(3) were recorded inside such storage rooms. Elevated levels of hexanal (0.084 mg/m(3)) were recorded inside domestic housing and 6 mg/m(3) in a room adjacent to a poorly sealed storage area. Experimental laboratory studies confirmed the findings of the field studies. A field study of the emissions from industrial lumber drying also showed the formation of aldehydes and carbon monoxide.Conclusions: High levels of hexanal and carbon monoxide were strongly associated with storage of wood pellets and may constitute an occupational and domestic health hazard. The results from lumber drying show that the emissions of hexanal and carbon monoxide are not limited to wood pellets but are caused by general degradation processes of wood, facilitated by drying at elevated temperature. Emission of carbon monoxide from wood materials at low temperatures (<100degreesC) has not previously been reported in the literature. We postulate that carbon monoxide is formed due to autoxidative degradation of fats and fatty acids. A toxicological literature survey showed that the available scientific information on hexanal is insufficient to determine the potential risks to health. However, the data presented in this paper seem sufficient to undertake preventive measures to reduce exposure to hexanal.
  • Axelsson, Ann-Sofie, et al. (författare)
  • Att etablera ett kollaboratorium inom biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap: behov och utmaningar från ett praktikerperspektiv
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Svensk Biblioteksforskning. - 0284-4354. ; 16:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article describes a study that investigated the need for and challenges connected to the establishment of a collaboratory - a sociotechnical forum where information and other resources can be made accessible and used by practitioners within library and information science. In order to identify needs and challenges interviews were carried out with a number of practitioners at a number of different institutions. The results reveal that there is a need for a collaboratory in order to facilitate the sharing of personal knowledge “on demand”. It is of great importance that the collaboratory is well integrated with practitioner’s daily activities.
  • Linde, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Accessibility and self-archiving of conference articles A study on a selection of Swedish institutional repositories
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Information Services and Use. - IOS Press. - 0167-5265. - 978-1-61499-064-2 ; 31:3-4, s. 259-269
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The main purpose of this project has been to examine the accessibility of refereed conference articles and the OA- and publishing policies of conferences in order to in this way elucidate different aspects concerning self-archiving in Swedish institutional repositories. For this purpose, the project participants have examined a number of conferences and references to conference articles via their institutional repositories during a specific time period and described these from the perspective of a common scheme. The study has showed that the local institutional repositories fill an important role to make conference publications visible. We have found that ca. 50% of the conference papers can be published as postprints in our institutional repositories. We have noticed that ca. 15% or the studied conference articles are not available at all. It is, therefore, of great importance to use local institutional repositories as a publishing channel, not only for primary published material such as dissertations and reports, but also as a source for finding these conference articles "without a home". Between 20-25% of the examined articles were found in some type of OA archive; ca. half of these were found in one of the project participants' own institutional repositories. This indicates that the publishing database of respective higher education institution is an important factor for open accessibility. Ca. 10% of the conferences in the study had an explicit OA policy or expressed such a policy by openly making conference articles accessible on their conference sites. A big problem when it comes to self-archiving of conference articles is the lack of information about OA policy. The landscape of conference publishing is complex and the self-archiving of documents from conferences is very time-consuming. Above all, we would wish a policy resource for conferences similar to the SHERPA/RoMEO. At present, however, there is no other alternative than scrutinizing the conferences' copyright information to the authors and from this attempt to draw conclusions about possible self-archiving. To facilitate the future handling and classification of conference articles in Swedish institutional repositories a number of recommendations are suggested.
  • Pecorari, Diane, et al. (författare)
  • Reading in tertiary education : Undergraduate student practices and attitudes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Quality in Higher Education. - 1353-8322. ; 18:2, s. 235-256
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper reports the findings of a study of undergraduate student use of, and attitudes toward, textbooks and other assigned reading. More than 1200 students of various subjects at three Swedish universities were surveyed. Most students said reading played an important role in learning generally and attributed positive characteristics to their textbooks. However, students’ self-reported reading behaviour was at odds with these attitudes, with many students reporting some degree of non-compliance with reading assignments and a small group of students expressing active resistance to completing reading assignments. Although textbooks were perceived as valuable, students reported a preference for learning course content from other resources, such as lectures and lecture notes. Textbooks were perceived as alternatives, rather than complements, to attending class. Differences were found across academic disciplines. Implications of these findings for educational administration and classroom practice are discussed.
  • Pecorari, Diane, et al. (författare)
  • English textbooks in parallel-language tertiary education
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: TESOL Quarterly. - 0039-8322. ; 45:2, s. 313-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Tertiary education in many countries is increasingly bilingual, with English used in parallel with the national language, particularly as a reading language. This article describes the results of a survey of student attitudes toward, and reading practices regarding, English language textbooks. Over 1,000 students at three Swedish universities responded to a questionnaire asking about their experiences with English textbooks. Textbooks written in English were generally unpopular, and the perception was widespread that they placed a greater burden on students. However, respondents were divided about whether their reading behavior and their learning outcomes were affected by having a textbook in English, and about whether English texts were desirable. The findings of this study have implications for teaching practices in contexts in which students are asked to read, or are being prepared to read, in a second language. Implications for the English as a foreign language or English as a second language classroom are discussed.
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