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  • Gilbert, Jonas, 1968- (författare)
  • A Start for Implementing ORCID in the Swedish Research Information Infrastructure
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: ScieCom Info. - 1652-3202. ; 9:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Texten presenterar i korthet det projekt kring författaridentifikatorer och publikationsdatabaser som Kungliga biblioteket finansierade under 2012 under projektledning av Stockholms universitetsbibliotek med deltagande av biblioteken vid Chalmers, Karolinska Institutet samt Malmö högskola.
  • Landgren, Sara, et al. (författare)
  • A novel ARC gene polymorphism is associated with reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neural Transmission. - 0300-9564. ; 119:7, s. 833-842
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease, and is clinically characterized by cognitive disturbances and the accumulation of the amyloid beta (A beta) peptides in plaques in the brain. Recent studies have shown the links between AD and the immediate-early gene Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein), involved in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. For example, AD mouse models show a decreased expression of Arc mRNA in the brain. In additional, acute A beta application to brain slices leads to a widespread ARC protein diffusion, unlike the normal defined localization to synapses. In this study, we investigated genetic variation in human ARC and the risk of developing AD. To this end, we genotyped 713 subjects diagnosed with AD and 841 controls without dementia. ARC was sequenced in a group of healthy individuals, and seven previously known SNPs and three novel SNPs were identified. Two of the newly found SNPs were intronic and one, +2852(G/A), was located in the 3UTR. Three tag SNPs were selected, including the novel SNP +2852(G/A), to relate to risk of AD, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker levels of total tau (T-tau), hyperphosphorylated tau181 (P-tau(181)) and A beta(1-42). The AA genotype of the newly found 3-UTR SNP +2852(A/G), was associated with a decreased risk of AD (p (c) = 0.005; OR = 0.74; 95 % CI: 0.61-0.89). No associations of single SNPs or haplotypes with MMSE score or CSF biomarkers were found. Here we report a novel ARC SNP associated with a reduced risk of developing AD. To our knowledge, this is the first study associating a gene variant of ARC with any disease. The location of the SNP within the 3UTR indicates that dendritic targeting of ARC mRNA could be involved in the molecular mechanisms underlying this protective function. However, further investigation of the importance of this SNP for ARC function, ARC processing and the pathology of AD is needed.
  • Perman, Jeanna, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • The VLDL receptor promotes lipotoxicity and increases mortality in mice following an acute myocardial infarction.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical investigation. - 1558-8238. ; 121:7, s. 2625-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Impaired cardiac function is associated with myocardial triglyceride accumulation, but it is not clear how the lipids accumulate or whether this accumulation is detrimental. Here we show that hypoxia/ischemia-induced accumulation of lipids in HL-1 cardiomyocytes and mouse hearts is dependent on expression of the VLDL receptor (VLDLR). Hypoxia-induced VLDLR expression in HL-1 cells was dependent on HIF-1α through its interaction with a hypoxia-responsive element in the Vldlr promoter, and VLDLR promoted the endocytosis of lipoproteins. Furthermore, VLDLR expression was higher in ischemic compared with nonischemic left ventricles from human hearts and was correlated with the total lipid droplet area in the cardiomyocytes. Importantly, Vldlr-/- mice showed improved survival and decreased infarct area following an induced myocardial infarction. ER stress, which leads to apoptosis, is known to be involved in ischemic heart disease. We found that ischemia-induced ER stress and apoptosis in mouse hearts were reduced in Vldlr-/- mice and in mice treated with antibodies specific for VLDLR. These findings suggest that VLDLR-induced lipid accumulation in the ischemic heart worsens survival by increasing ER stress and apoptosis.
  • Linde, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Accessibility and self-archiving of conference articles
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Information Services and Use. - 0167-5265. - 978-1-61499-064-2 ; 31:3-4, s. 259-269
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The main purpose of this project has been to examine the accessibility of refereed conference articles and the OA- and publishing policies of conferences in order to in this way elucidate different aspects concerning self-archiving in Swedish institutional repositories. For this purpose, the project participants have examined a number of conferences and references to conference articles via their institutional repositories during a specific time period and described these from the perspective of a common scheme. The study has showed that the local institutional repositories fill an important role to make conference publications visible. We have found that ca. 50% of the conference papers can be published as postprints in our institutional repositories. We have noticed that ca. 15% or the studied conference articles are not available at all. It is, therefore, of great importance to use local institutional repositories as a publishing channel, not only for primary published material such as dissertations and reports, but also as a source for finding these conference articles "without a home". Between 20-25% of the examined articles were found in some type of OA archive; ca. half of these were found in one of the project participants' own institutional repositories. This indicates that the publishing database of respective higher education institution is an important factor for open accessibility. Ca. 10% of the conferences in the study had an explicit OA policy or expressed such a policy by openly making conference articles accessible on their conference sites. A big problem when it comes to self-archiving of conference articles is the lack of information about OA policy. The landscape of conference publishing is complex and the self-archiving of documents from conferences is very time-consuming. Above all, we would wish a policy resource for conferences similar to the SHERPA/RoMEO. At present, however, there is no other alternative than scrutinizing the conferences' copyright information to the authors and from this attempt to draw conclusions about possible self-archiving. To facilitate the future handling and classification of conference articles in Swedish institutional repositories a number of recommendations are suggested.
  • Anund, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of driving situation on sleepiness indicators after sleep loss : A driving simulator study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Industrial Health. - 0019-8366. ; 47:4, s. 393-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Almost all studies of sleepy driving are carried out in driving simulators and with monotonous road conditions (no interaction with other cars). The present study investigated indicators of sleepy driving in a more challenging scenario after a night awake. 17 participants drove a high fidelity moving base driving simulator experiment while sleepiness was monitored physiologically and behaviourally. Short periods of situations of free driving (no other vehicles) alternated with short periods of following another vehicle (car following) with and without the possibility to overtake. The result showed that a night of prior sleep loss increased sleepiness levels at the wheel (eye closure duration and lateral variability) compared to after a night of normal sleep. Blink duration while overtaking was significantly lower compared to the other situations, it was at the same level as after night sleep. Speed when passing a stopped school bus was not significantly affected by sleepiness. However the warning caused a more rapid reduction of speed. In conclusion, a moderately challenging driving contest did not affect sleepiness indicators, but a very challenging one did so (overtaking). This suggests that it is important to monitor the driving situation in field operational tests of sleepy driving.
  • Gund, Anna, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • A randomized controlled study about the use of eHealth in the home health care of premature infants
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. - 1472-6947. ; 13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: One area where the use of information and communication technology (ICT), or eHealth, could be developed is the home health care of premature infants. The aim of this randomized controlled study was to investigate whether the use of video conferencing or a web application improves parents' satisfaction in taking care of a premature infant at home and decreases the need of home visits. In addition, nurses' attitudes regarding the use of these tools were examined. Method: Thirty-four families were randomized to one of three groups before their premature infant was discharged from the hospital to home health care: a control group receiving standard home health care (13 families); a web group receiving home health care supplemented with the use of a web application (12 families); a video group with home health care supplemented with video conferencing using Skype (9 families). Families and nursing staff answered questionnaires about the usefulness of ICT. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 families. Results: All the parents in the web group found the web application easy to use. 83% of the families thought it was good to have access to their child's data through the application. All the families in the video group found Skype easy to use and were satisfied with the video calls. 88% of the families thought that video calls were better than ordinary phone calls. 33% of the families in the web group and 75% of those in the video group thought the need for home visits was decreased by the web application or Skype. 50% of the families in the web group and 100% of those in the video group thought the web application or the video calls had helped them feel more confident in caring for their child. Most of the nurses were motivated to use ICT but some were reluctant and avoided using the web application and video conferencing. Conclusion: The families were satisfied with both the web application and video conferencing. The families readily embraced the use of ICT, whereas motivating some of the nurses to accept and use ICT was a major challenge.
  • Hallvig, David, et al. (författare)
  • Sleepy driving on the real road and in the simulator - A comparison
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention. - 0001-4575. ; 50, s. 44-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Sleepiness has been identified as one of the most important factors contributing to road crashes. However, almost all work on the detailed changes in behavior and physiology leading up to sleep related crashes has been carried out in driving simulators. It is not clear, however, to what extent simulator results can be generalized to real driving. This study compared real driving with driving in a high fidelity, moving base, driving simulator with respect to driving performance, sleep related physiology (using electroencephalography and electrooculography) and subjective sleepiness during night and day driving for 10 participants. The real road was emulated in the simulator. The results show that the simulator was associated with higher levels of subjective and physiological sleepiness than real driving. However, both for real and simulated driving, the response to night driving appears to be rather similar for subjective sleepiness and sleep physiology. Lateral variability was more responsive to night driving in the simulator, while real driving at night involved a movement to the left in the lane and a reduction of speed, both of which effects were absent in the simulator. It was concluded that the relative validity of simulators is acceptable for many variables, but that in absolute terms simulators cause higher sleepiness levels than real driving. Thus, generalizations from simulators to real driving must be made with great caution.
  • Martin, Claes, et al. (författare)
  • Time to secondary progression in patients with multiple sclerosis who were treated with first generation immunomodulating drugs.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Multiple Sclerosis Journal. - 1477-0970. ; 19:6, s. 765
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It is currently unknown whether early immunomodulatory treatment in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) can delay the transition to secondary progression (SP). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanObjective: To compare the time interval from onset to SP in patients with RRMS between a contemporary cohort, treated with first generation disease modifying drugs (DMDs), and a historical control cohort. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: We included a cohort of contemporary RRMS patients treated with DMDs, obtained from the Swedish National MS Registry (disease onset between 1995-2004, n = 730) and a historical population-based incidence cohort (onset 1950-64, n = 186). We retrospectively analyzed the difference in time to SP, termed the "period effect" within a 12-year survival analysis, using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: We found that the "period" affected the entire severity spectrum. After adjusting for onset features, which were weaker in the contemporary material, as well as the therapy initiation time, the DMD-treated patients still exhibited a longer time to SP than the controls (hazard ratios: men, 0.32; women, 0.53). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Our results showed there was a longer time to SP in the contemporary subjects given DMD. Our analyses suggested that this effect was not solely driven by the inclusion of benign cases, and it was at least partly due to the long-term immunomodulating therapy given.
  • van Leeuwen, Wessel M A, et al. (författare)
  • Sleep, Sleepiness, and Neurobehavioral Performance While on Watch in a Simulated 4 Hours on/8 Hours off Maritime Watch System
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Chronobiology International. - 0742-0528. ; 30:9, s. 1108-1115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Seafarer sleepiness jeopardizes safety at sea and has been documented as a direct or contributing factor in many maritime accidents. This study investigates sleep, sleepiness, and neurobehavioral performance in a simulated 4 h on/8 h off watch system as well as the effects of a single free watch disturbance, simulating a condition of overtime work, resulting in 16 h of work in a row and a missed sleep opportunity. Thirty bridge officers (age 30 ± 6 yrs; 29 men) participated in bridge simulator trials on an identical 1-wk voyage in the North Sea and English Channel. The three watch teams started respectively with the 00-04, the 04-08, and the 08-12 watches. Participants rated their sleepiness every hour (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale [KSS]) and carried out a 5-min psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) test at the start and end of every watch. Polysomnography (PSG) was recorded during 6 watches in the first and the second half of the week. KSS was higher during the first (mean ± SD: 4.0 ± 0.2) compared with the second (3.3 ± 0.2) watch of the day (p < 0.001). In addition, it increased with hours on watch (p < 0.001), peaking at the end of watch (4.1 ± 0.2). The free watch disturbance increased KSS profoundly (p < 0.001): from 4.2 ± 0.2 to 6.5 ± 0.3. PVT reaction times were slower during the first (290 ± 6 ms) compared with the second (280 ± 6 ms) watch of the day (p < 0.001) as well as at the end of the watch (289 ± 6 ms) compared with the start (281 ± 6 ms; p = 0.001). The free watch disturbance increased reaction times (p < 0.001) from 283 ± 5 to 306 ± 7 ms. Similar effects were observed for PVT lapses. One third of all participants slept during at least one of the PSG watches. Sleep on watch was most abundant in the team working 00-04 and it increased following the free watch disturbance. This study reveals that-within a 4 h on/8 h off shift system-subjective and objective sleepiness peak during the night and early morning watches, coinciding with a time frame in which relatively many maritime accidents occur. In addition, we showed that overtime work strongly increases sleepiness. Finally, a striking amount of participants fell asleep while on duty.
  • Johansson, Veronica, et al. (författare)
  • Differential effects of efavirenz, lopinavir/r, and atazanavir/r on the initial viral decay rate in treatment naïve HIV-1-infected patients.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: AIDS research and human retroviruses. - 1931-8405. ; 26:5, s. 533
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Initial viral decay rate may be useful when comparing the relative potency of antiretroviral regimens. Two hundred twenty-seven ART-naive patients were randomized to receive efavirenz (EFV) (n=74), lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) (n=77), or atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) (n=79) in combination with two NRTIs. The most frequently used NRTI combinations in the EFV and ATV/r groups were the nonthymidine analogues tenofovir and emtricitabine or lamivudine (70% and 68%, respectively) and, in the LPV/r group, lamivudine and the thymidine analogue zidovudine (89%). HIV-1 RNA was monitored during the first 28 days after treatment initiation. Phase 1 and 2 decay rate was estimated in a subset of 157 patients by RNA decrease from days 0 to 7, and days 14 to 28. One-way ANOVA and subsequent Tukey's post hoc tests were used for groupwise comparisons. Mean (95% CI) HIV-1 RNA reductions from days 0 to 28 were 2.59 (2.45-2.73), 2.42 (2.27-2.57), and 2.13 (2.01-2.25) log(10) copies/ml for the EFV-, LPV/r-, and ATV/r-based treatment groups, respectively, with a significantly larger decrease in the EFV-based group at all time points compared with ATV/r (p<0.0001), and with LPV/r at days 7-21 (p<0.0001-0.03). LPV/r gave a greater RNA decrease compared with ATV/r from day 14 (p=0.02). Phase 1 decay rate was significantly higher in the EFV group compared with LPV/r (p=0.003) or ATV/r (p<0.0001). No difference was found in phase 2 decrease. EFV-based treatment gave a more rapid decline in HIV-1 RNA than did either of the boosted protease inhibitor-based regimens. The observed differences may reflect different inherent regimen potencies.
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