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Sökning: swepub > Chalmers tekniska högskola

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  • Thordstein, M., et al. (författare)
  • Effects of inflammation on cerebral electric activity in fetal sheep
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: 2nd Congress of the European Academy of Paediatrics, Nice 23-28 okt 2008.
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • OBJECTIVEIntrauterine infections can by themselves induce fetal brain damage but also potentiate the effects of other harmful influences such as asphyxia and seizures. Using an EEG technique that permits the recording of extremely low frequencies, often called DC EEG, changes in the level, i.e. DC shifts can be detected. The DC level has been suggested to depend mainly on the potential over the blood brain barrier (BBB), in turn decided primarily by the arterial level of pCO2. Fetuses affected by infection/inflammation that produce detrimental effects on the brain, may have elevated levels of pCO2 and disturbance of the BBB. We aimed at investigating the possibility that the DC EEG could be used to detect the effects of inflammation on the fetal brain. METHODSFetal sheep were instrumented at 97 days of gestation with catheters, four active EEG electrodes placed on the dura mater as well as extracranial reference and ground electrodes. After three days of recovery, the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was given to the fetus (200 ng i.v.). RESULTSExposure to LPS induced a positive DC shift in parallel to the assumed affection of cerebral function and to the pCO2 elevation. This change was not always obvious in standard EEG. CONCLUSIONSThese recordings of fetal DC EEG appear to be the first to be done. They indicate that the effects of inflammation on cerebral function can be monitored by DC EEG. Such monitoring might be feasible also during late stages of labour and in neonates.
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  • Undeland, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Lipid Oxidation in Fillets of Herring (Clupea harengus) during Ice Storage
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. - 0021-8561. ; 47:2, s. 524-532
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Fillets of herring (Clupea harengus) were kept on ice for 0, 3, 6, and 9 days prior to storage at -18 °C for 0, 21, 42, 63, and 84 days. At each storage point, peroxide value (PV), absorbance at 268 nm (A268), fluorescent products (FP), ?-tocopherol, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) activity, and ascorbic acid were measured. As shown by regression analyses, samples held for 6 days on ice formed oxidation products at the highest rate during frozen storage, followed by, for PV and FP, the 9-day samples. These data indicate that severe changes that negatively affect the oxidation process took place in the herring muscle between 3 and 6 days after catch. Both the initial antioxidant levels and the rate of antioxidant loss at -18 °C decreased with increased prefreezing holding time, the latter being most obvious for GSH-px activity and ascorbic acid. ?-Tocopherol showed the largest losses and had disappeared entirely from the 6- and 9-day samples at the end of the frozen storage. Partial least-squares regression analysis of the data showed that ice storage had a greater effect than frozen storage on changes in PV, A268, FP, ?-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid. For GSH-px activity, frozen storage had the greatest effect.
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  • Sou, Kin Cheong, et al. (författare)
  • Nonserial Dynamic Programming with Applications in Smart Home Appliances Scheduling - Part I : Precedence Graph Simplification
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: 2014 European Control Conference (ECC). - IEEE. - 978-3-9524269-1-3 ; s. 1643-1648
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this and a companion paper a dynamic programming (DP) approach to solve a smart home appliances scheduling problem is considered. The challenge with solving the scheduling problem is the coupling of decision variables due to some time precedence constraints. In general, the system of precedence constraints may contain redundant constraints that offer opportunities for simplification. This simplification is desirable for reducing the computation effort of the nonserial DP procedure presented in the companion paper (i.e., Part II). The current paper establishes the uniqueness of the maximum set of redundant constraints and its polynomial-time solvability with optimality guarantee, under the sufficient and necessary condition that the precedence graph (a graph representation of the precedence constraints system) does not contain any cycle with nonnegative weight. A numerical case study indicates the efficiency of the proposed simplification algorithm versus the brute-force enumerative search. Besides helping to reduce the computation effort in the DP procedure described in the companion paper, the algorithm in the current paper solves a generalization of a precedence graph simplification problem arising from application areas such as parallel computing.
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7.
  • Wallerstedt, Sven, et al. (författare)
  • Moderate hyperkalemia in hospitalized patients with cirrhotic ascites indicates a poor prognosis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - Informa Healthcare. - 0036-5521. ; 48:3, s. 358-365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. Development of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis is an ominous sign with a poor outcome. A liver transplantation must be considered, and it then becomes important to know if there are any factors indicating a worsened prognosis. Material and methods. We used official registers for a follow-up study of at least 5 years considering the prognosis of 155 prospectively recruited in-patients with cirrhotic ascites from medical units at nine Swedish university hospitals. All patients had undergone at least one diagnostic ascites tap, and had initially been questioned about background factors and physically examined according to a standardized case record form, followed by sampling of blood, urine, and ascites. Results. Death occurred within 1 year after inclusion in 53% of the cases, and was primarily liver-related in 70%. In a multivariable analysis, the two ordinary variables that showed the strongest correlation with risk of death were serum potassium and abdominal tenderness. All 22 patients with a serum potassium concentration of at least 4.8 mmol/L (maximum 5.8 mmol/L) died within 1 year after inclusion. Potassium concentration was related to renal function and potassium-saving drugs. Conclusion. This follow-up study of a prospectively recruited cohort of in-patients with cirrhotic ascites confirms their poor prognosis. Awareness of an elevated serum potassium value, which would reflect a threatened renal function, seems essential, because it may offer a simple way to identify cases with the worst prognosis. An area for further research should be to explore the significance of including serum potassium in prognostic models.
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  • Axelsson, Ann-Sofie, et al. (författare)
  • Att etablera ett kollaboratorium inom biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap: behov och utmaningar från ett praktikerperspektiv
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Svensk Biblioteksforskning. - 0284-4354. ; 16:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article describes a study that investigated the need for and challenges connected to the establishment of a collaboratory - a sociotechnical forum where information and other resources can be made accessible and used by practitioners within library and information science. In order to identify needs and challenges interviews were carried out with a number of practitioners at a number of different institutions. The results reveal that there is a need for a collaboratory in order to facilitate the sharing of personal knowledge “on demand”. It is of great importance that the collaboratory is well integrated with practitioner’s daily activities.
9.
  • Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Osteoblast-derived WNT16 represses osteoclastogenesis and prevents cortical bone fragility fractures.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - 1078-8956 .- 1546-170X. ; 20:11, s. 1279-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The WNT16 locus is a major determinant of cortical bone thickness and nonvertebral fracture risk in humans. The disability, mortality and costs caused by osteoporosis-induced nonvertebral fractures are enormous. We demonstrate here that Wnt16-deficient mice develop spontaneous fractures as a result of low cortical thickness and high cortical porosity. In contrast, trabecular bone volume is not altered in these mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that WNT16 is osteoblast derived and inhibits human and mouse osteoclastogenesis both directly by acting on osteoclast progenitors and indirectly by increasing expression of osteoprotegerin (Opg) in osteoblasts. The signaling pathway activated by WNT16 in osteoclast progenitors is noncanonical, whereas the pathway activated in osteoblasts is both canonical and noncanonical. Conditional Wnt16 inactivation revealed that osteoblast-lineage cells are the principal source of WNT16, and its targeted deletion in osteoblasts increases fracture susceptibility. Thus, osteoblast-derived WNT16 is a previously unreported key regulator of osteoclastogenesis and fracture susceptibility. These findings open new avenues for the specific prevention or treatment of nonvertebral fractures, a substantial unmet medical need.
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10.
  • Svedberg, U. R. A., et al. (författare)
  • Emission of hexanal and carbon monoxide from storage of wood pellets, a potential occupational and domestic health hazard
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene. - 0003-4878. ; 48:4, s. 339-349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    •  Objectives: The objective of the present study was to investigate and describe the emissions of volatile compounds, particularly hexanal and carbon monoxide, from large- and small-scale storage of wood pellets.Methods: Air sampling was performed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and adsorbent sampling in pellet warehouses, domestic storage rooms, lumber kiln dryers and experimental set-ups. Literature studies were included to describe the formation of hexanal and carbon monoxide and the toxicology of hexanal.Results: A geometric mean aldehyde level of 111 +/- 32 mg/m(3) was found in one warehouse, with a peak reading of 156 mg/m(3). A maximum aldehyde reading of 457 mg/m(3) was recorded at the surface of a pellet pile. Hexanal (70-80% w/w) and pentanal (10-15% w/w) dominated, but acetone (821 +/- 24 mg/m(3)), methanol (18 7 mg/m(3)) and carbon monoxide (56 +/- 4 mg/m(3)) were also found. The emissions in a domestic storage room varied with the ambient temperature and peaked after 2 months storage in the midst of the warm season. Aldehyde levels of 98 +/- 4 mg/m(3) and carbon monoxide levels of 123 +/- 10 mg/m(3) were recorded inside such storage rooms. Elevated levels of hexanal (0.084 mg/m(3)) were recorded inside domestic housing and 6 mg/m(3) in a room adjacent to a poorly sealed storage area. Experimental laboratory studies confirmed the findings of the field studies. A field study of the emissions from industrial lumber drying also showed the formation of aldehydes and carbon monoxide.Conclusions: High levels of hexanal and carbon monoxide were strongly associated with storage of wood pellets and may constitute an occupational and domestic health hazard. The results from lumber drying show that the emissions of hexanal and carbon monoxide are not limited to wood pellets but are caused by general degradation processes of wood, facilitated by drying at elevated temperature. Emission of carbon monoxide from wood materials at low temperatures (<100degreesC) has not previously been reported in the literature. We postulate that carbon monoxide is formed due to autoxidative degradation of fats and fatty acids. A toxicological literature survey showed that the available scientific information on hexanal is insufficient to determine the potential risks to health. However, the data presented in this paper seem sufficient to undertake preventive measures to reduce exposure to hexanal.
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