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  • Ahlborg, Helene, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Technology and social-ecological change: Scale mismatch, synergy and conflict in poor rural communities
  • 2015
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • There is little communication and bridging between the research fields of social-ecological and socio-technical systems approaches, while both fields construct systems that share characteristics such as complexity, uncertainty and multi-actor involvement. Beyond that, little conceptual work has been done to understand socio-technical-ecological dynamics. In the real world, however, processes of socio-technical change are at the heart of human use of and relations to natural resources and environments. In this paper we argue that there is need to engage theoretically and empirically with the interfaces between society, technology and nature, to identify how these system conceptions overlap, where and how pressures and feedbacks emerge and what synergies, trade-offs and conflicts that appear as a result of interactions. In this paper, we aim to take the conceptual discussion forward by highlighting where the current discussion may be misleading and by providing an empirical example of how socio-technical change and social-ecological dynamics can be studied and analyzed together. In order to achieve this we draw on socio-technical systems thinking, the concept of scale mismatch and literature on common pool resources (CPR). Our conceptual points are developed using an empirical case study of an NGO-led micro-hydropower development project in Tanzania. The fieldwork took place in 2012-2013 over a period of three months, and multiple data sets were gathered; 142 semi-structured interviews, documentation from participatory observation, group discussions, workshops and documentation (project reports, a GIS study of soil erosion risk, a baseline study of local livelihoods). This case study of a small-scale decentralized energy system problematizes a proposal made recently by some socio-technical scholars: that collective action and CPR theories are relevant to apply in analyses of decentralized energy systems. These attempts at bridging theoretically between fields are valuable. However, the system characteristics are sometimes similar only at the surface, and the application of CPR theory can in some cases be misleading and theoretically flawed, in cases where the technology is poorly understood. Based on our case study and conceptual discussion, we conclude that introduction of a new technology can motivate influential members of a community to engage in natural resource management and environmental protection, also when this generates social conflict and has negative implications for local food security. Theoretically, we conclude that developed understanding of non-human elements, scale and relations of power are critical to advancing the bridging work while keeping complementary analyses genuinely grounded in the theoretical base of each field.
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  • Alänge, Sverker, 1951- (författare)
  • El Método de Afinidad-Interrelación MAI
  • 2013
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • La herramienta que se presenta en este documento para la solución de problemas, el método de afinidad-interrelación (MAI), se basa en un uso sistemático de dos de las 7 herramientas de gestión: El diagrama de afinidad y el diágrafo de interrelación. Este se ha inspirado en un 19 enfoque paso a paso del profesor Shoji Shiba. Los pasos para llevar a cabo un análisis MAI se describen paso a paso, con comentarios adicionales para facilitar el proceso en nubes de comentarios. En este manual habrá instrucciones detalladas sobre cómo llevar a cabo el análisis, como en cuanto al número de participantes, cómo sentarse, cómo formular una pregunta de partida para analizar la forma de escribir los datos, el número de piezas de datos a fin de incluir, como combinar elementos de datos, etc. Estas instrucciones son recomendaciones pragmáticas sobre la base de una gran cantidad de experiencia práctica de utilizar el enfoque de MAI - que dará lugar a un análisis que ambos serán lo suficientemente profundos y será posible llevar a cabo dentro de un período de tiempo limitado. Si no se siguen las recomendaciones, por ejemplo, añadiendo más miembros del equipo, añadiendo más piezas de datos, etc - la complejidad aumentará y el tiempo para llevar a cabo el análisis será considerablemente más largo. Sin embargo, dependiendo de la finalidad específica del análisis de este tipo de desviaciones del proceso recomendado puede ser efectuado, teniendo en cuenta los requisitos de tiempo adicional. Para los usuarios por primera vez, se recomienda encarecidamente seguir las instrucciones detalladas en orden para aprender a utilizar el método de la manera más eficiente en tiempo, con efectividad y calidad. Para un grupo principiante siguiendo las instrucciones se tomaría 3-4 horas para llevar a cabo un análisis. Para un grupo experimentado tarda 1-2 horas, siguiendo las instrucciones, y permitiendo un tiempo para discutir el siguiente paso después del análisis MAI.
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  • Alänge, Sverker, 1951- (författare)
  • The Affinity-Interrelationship Method AIM
  • 2009
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The problem solving tool presented in this document, the Affinity-Interrelationship Method (AIM), is based on a systematic use of two of the 7 management tools: the affinity diagram and the interrelationship diagraph. It has been inspired by Professor Shoji Shiba’s step- by-step approach. Below the steps to conduct an AIM analysis will be described step by step, with additional comments to facilitate the process in separate boxes. In this manual there will be detailed instructions concerning how to conduct the analysis, including concerning the number of participants, how to sit, how to formulate a starting question to analyse, how to write data, how many pieces of data to include, how to combine pieces of data, etc. These instructions are pragmatic recommendations based on a large amount of practical experience of using the AIM approach – it will result in an analysis that both will be deep enough and will be possible to conduct within a limited time period. If the recommendations are not followed, e.g. by adding more team members, by adding more data pieces, etc. – the complexity will increase and the time to conduct the analysis will be considerably longer. However, depending on the specific purpose of the analysis this kind of deviations from the recommended process can be motivated, keeping in mind the added time requirements. For first time users, it is strongly recommended to keep to the detailed instructions in order to learn to use the method in the most time-efficient and quality-effective way – based on experiences not only from Japan, but also from extensive use of the method(s) in Europe and in North America. For a beginner group following the instructions it will take 3-4 hours to conduct an analysis. For an experienced group it takes 1-2 hours, following the instructions, and allowing some time to discuss the next step after the AIM-analysis.
6.
  • Baumann, Henrikke, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • Det specifika med miljösystemanalysen
  • 1999
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sammanfattning av diskussion om vad forskning i ämnet miljösystemanalys innebär och innefattar.
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  • Bryngelsson, David, 1981-, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of food-price movements on African households - An investigation of food production and consumption patterns in four African countries
  • 2009
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The recent spike in world food prices has intensified the debate regarding the impact of food prices on poverty. In this paper we aim to assess households’ vulnerability to food-price increases in four countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Using household data from the World Bank’s Living Standard Measurement Surveys in Ghana (2005–2006), Kagera region, Tanzania (2004), Malawi (2004–2005) and South Africa (1993) we analyze food production and consumption patterns in rural and urban populations. We use two established indicators of sensitivity to food price changes—one measuring the share of income spent on food, the other measuring net sales of food compared to total expenditures. We find that the shares of the populations spending more than half of their income on food ranges from 62–81% in rural areas and from 26–67% in urban areas. Further we find that in all regions studied, most households (74–99%) in rural areas are net buyers of food and stand to lose in the short term from higher food prices. As expected, for urban households this is true to an even higher extent. In contrast to earlier studies we look at all food items and not just one or a few staple foods, giving a better understanding of vulnerability to general food price changes. We find that the exclusion of non-staple foods has a significant impact on theresults.
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  • calefato, Caterina, 1980-, et al. (författare)
  • Design for children and older people - Educating the Next Generation of Designers
  • 2014
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This special issue of the IxD&A journal focuses on design for children and older people, both in teaching and in design practice. The aim is to expand the results from the DEVICE project (DEVICE - DEsign for Vulnerable generatIons – Children and Elderly) and from the workshops “Show me yours, and I’ll show you mine – Teaching design for children and the elderly” held at the The 2nd International Conference for Design Education Researchers in Oslo 2013 and “Curriculum or not – Show us how you teach Interaction Design & Children!” held at the IDC - Interaction Design & Children 2014 conference in Aarhus. This goal is achieved by discussing issues related to the involvement of children and older people in Interaction Design, aiming also at a better understanding of the underlying concerns and potentials in this realm. This special issue thus represents an attempt to collect and share the contributions of educators, researchers, designers and practitioners regarding teaching designers Interaction Design for children and older people. In addition, it tries to foster the sharing of best practices and methods, and to encourage a discussion in the relevant academic and professional communities. Despite the fact that a growing interest is targeting the needs of children and older people in design processes, only little research and debate have been devoted to developing teaching modules for design methods and practices aiming at covering these particular tasks. Our main concern is thus focused onto the risk that a gap between the accumulation of knowledge in the field and the transfer of this knowledge to new generations of designers could emerge and grow at a greater pace compared to the efforts put in place to fill it in.
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