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1.
  • Bexell, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Characterisation of a Non-Organofunctional Silane Film Deposited on Al, Zn and Al-43.4Zn-1.6Si Alloy Coated Steel, Part II. Interfacial Characterization by ToF-SIMS and AES
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Surface and Interface Analysis. - 0142-2421. ; 31:3, s. 223-231
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has been used to analyse the interface between a non-organofunctional silane and three different metal substrates (aluminium, zinc and an aluminium-zinc alloy). Ion etching using Ga+ ions was used to expose the interfacial region. Ion fragments from the samples were examined carefully where supposed metal-oxygen-silicon ion fragments should appear in the mass spectra. From high mass resolution spectra it was concluded that there exists an AlOSi+ ion fragment at nominal mass m/z = 71 amu on the aluminium and aluminium-zinc alloy substrates and a ZnOSi+ ion fragment at nominal mass m/z = 108 amu on the zinc and aluminium-zinc alloy substrates. These results are further enhanced by the fact that the characteristic ion pattern of ZnOSi+-type ion fragments, composed of different naturally stable zinc and silicon isotopes, in the mass range m/z = 108-112 amu showed the expected relative peak height relations. The presence of these metal-oxygen-silicon ion fragments is a strong indication that chemical interaction between the silane and the metal substrates exists and that the nature of this interaction is due to the formation of a covalent bond between the silane and the metal substrate. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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2.
  • Bexell, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Tribological Characterisation of an Organic Coating by the use of ToF-SIMS
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Applied Surface Science. - 0169-4332. ; 203-204, s. 596-599
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ToF-SIMS has been used to analyse tribological induced chemical changes of organic coatings deposited on steel strip hot-dip coated with a 55.0% Al–43.4% Zn–1.6% Si alloy (Aluzink). The organic coating was a styrene–acrylic co-polymer containing different forming additives. The forming properties of the organic coatings were evaluated with modified scratch testing. The friction curves show that organic coated hot-dip coated steel displays significantly better tribological properties, i.e. lower coefficient of friction and lower wear, as compared to hot-dip coated steel. Furthermore, the organic coatings showing the highest material transfer tendency also show the highest wear. ToF-SIMS spectra show that a transfer film consisting of species from the organic coating is formed on the ball counter surface. Finally, a combination of SEM and ToF-SIMS analysis shows that mechanical failure of the coating dominates, i.e. no tribochemical changes of the coatings could be detected in the wear track.
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3.
  • Canovic, Sead, et al. (författare)
  • Microstructural Investigation of the Initial Oxidation of the FeCrAlRE Alloy Kanthal AF in Dry and Wet O-2 at 600 and 800 degrees C
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society. - 0013-4651. ; 157:6, s. 223-230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The FeCrAlRE (where RE is reactive element) alloy Kanthal AF was exposed isothermally at 600 and 800°C for 72 h in dry O2 and in O2 with 10 vol % H2O. The mass gains were 3–5 times higher at the higher temperature. The presence of water vapor increased the oxidation rate at 800°C, while no significant effect was observed at 600°C. A thin two-layered oxide formed at 600°C: an outer (Fe,Cr)2O3 corundum-type oxide, containing some Al, and an inner, probably amorphous, Al-rich oxide. At 800°C a two-layered oxide formed in both environments. The inner layer consisted of inward grown a-Al2O3. In dry O2 the originally formed outward grown g-Al2O3 had transformed to a-Al2O3 after 72 h. Water vapor stabilized the outward grown g-Al2O3 and hence no transformation occurred after 72 h in humid environment. RE-rich oxide particles with varying composition (Y, Zr, and Ti) were distributed in the base oxide at both temperatures and in both environments. The RE-rich particles were separated from the alloy substrate by a layer of Al-rich oxide. At 800°C the Y-rich RE particles were surrounded by thick oxide patches in both dry and humid O2.
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4.
  • Carlsson, Per, et al. (författare)
  • Tribological Behaviour of Thin Organic Permanent Coatings Deposited on Hot-dip Coated Steel Sheet - a Laboratory Study
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Surface and Coatings Technology. - Elsevier. - 0257-8972. ; 132:2-3, s. 169-180
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The forming and handling of hot-dip coated steel sheets is frequently associated with problems such as galling, scratching and discoloration. Recently, a new generation of thin organic coatings has been introduced on the market in order to improve the performance of hot-dip coated steel sheets and reduce these kinds of problems. In summary, these coatings have the potential to increase the formability of the steel sheet without additional lubrication, the anti-finger print properties and the corrosion protection of the product. Besides, they should also provide a pre-treatment for painting, i.e. they can be classified as permanent coatings. In the present study, the tribological behaviour of three different thin organic permanent coatings deposited on hot-dip coated (pure zinc and 55% Al–Zn) steel sheets is evaluated by three different laboratory tests; modified scratch testing, pin-on-disc testing and bending under tension testing. The results obtained show that all tests yield consistent and valuable information concerning the friction and wear properties of the materials and can, therefore, be used in order to study the tribology in sheet metal forming and the performance of different types of permanent coatings. Of the permanent coatings investigated, a pure organic coating shows the lowest coefficient of friction (µ close to 0.1) and the highest wear resistance, thus offering excellent anti-galling properties. In contrast, a mixed organic/inorganic coating displays a relatively high coefficient of friction (µ close to 0.3) and a significantly lower wear resistance. Surface analyses of the tested surfaces show that the thickness and coverage of the thin organic coating play an important role in controlling friction and wear. Furthermore, a thin organic coating optimized for improved formability and handling should display: a high adhesion to the underlying substrate material, a low coefficient of friction, a high load carrying capacity and a high intrinsic wear resistance.
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5.
  • Engkvist, Josefin, et al. (författare)
  • Alumina scale formation on a powder metallurgical FeCrAl alloy (Kanthal APMT) at 900-1100°C in dry O2 and in O2 + H2O
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Oxidation of Metals. - 0030-770X. ; 73:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A Rapidly Solidified Powder (RSP) metallurgical FeCrAl alloy, Kanthal APMT, was exposed in dry and humid O2 for 72 h at 900–1,100 °C. The formed oxide scales were characterized using gravimetry in combination with advanced analysis techniques (SEM, EDX, TEM, XRD, AES andSIMS). The oxide scales were at all exposures composed of two-layered α-Al2O3 scales exhibiting a top layer of equiaxed grains and a bottom layer containing elongated grains. A Cr-rich zone, originating in the native oxide present before exposure, separated these two layers. The top α-Al2O3layer is suggested to have formed by transformation of outwardly grown metastable alumina, while the inward-grown bottom α-Al2O3 layer had incorporated small Zr-, Hf- and Ti-rich oxide particles present in the alloy matrix. The scale also contained larger Y-rich oxide particles. Furthermore, in the temperature range studied, the presence of water vapour accelerated alloy oxidation somewhat and affected scale morphology.
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6.
  • Eriksson, Jenny, et al. (författare)
  • Tribological testing of commercial CrN, (Ti,Al)N and CrC/C PVD coatings : Evaluation of galling and wear characteristics against different high strength steels.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology. - 0257-8972. ; 205:16, s. 4045-4051
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The increasing use of high strength steels in a variety of mechanical engineering applications has illuminatedproblems associated with galling in sheet metal forming operations. Galling is a tribological phenomenonassociated with transfer of material from the steel sheet to the tool surface during forming resulting in seizureof the tool/steel sheet contact and extensive scratching of the steel sheet surface. As a result, a number ofconcepts have been developed in order to reduce the tendency of galling in sheet metal forming, including thedevelopment of new dry lubricants, new forming tool steel grades and improved surface engineeringtreatments such as the deposition of low friction CVD- and PVD-coatings. In the present study the potentialperformance of three commercial PVD coatings, including CrN, (Ti,Al)N and a CrC/C DLC-based coating, in theforming of hot and cold rolled high strength steel as well as electro and hot-dip galvanized high strength steelhas been evaluated using pin-on-disc testing under lubricated contact conditions. Post-test examination ofthe tribosurfaces using FEG-SEM and EDS analyses was performed in order to evaluate the mechanismscontrolling the tendency to material transfer and wear. The results show that in contact with the hot and coldrolled steel the material pick-up tendency of the PVD coatings tend to increase in the order CrC/C–CrN–(Ti,Al)N while in contact with the two galvanized steel sheets, the CrC/C and the (Ti,Al)N coating show a significantlylower material pick-up tendency as compared with the CrN coating. Further, the substrate hardness has astrong influence on the wear of the PVD coatings and consequently on the friction characteristics and gallingtendency of the coating/substrate composite. Low substrate hardness, resulting in a low load bearing capacity,increases the tendency to cracking and subsequently chipping of the brittle coating.
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7.
  • Hatami, S., et al. (författare)
  • Tribological properties of powder metallurgical tool steels used in powder compaction pressing dies
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Lubrication Science. - 0954-0075. ; 23:3, s. 139-152
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The tribological properties of two powder metallurgical (PM) tool steels, high and low nitrogen containing, are investigated by means of three different wear tests: ball-on-disc, rubber wheel and scratch test. The ball-on-disc tests showed two distinct friction curves corresponding to each material. In order to simulate the tribosystem existing in metal powder compaction dies, the rubber wheel and the scratch test were modified. The rubber wheel test was performed using ferrous powder instead of sand, and scratch testing was carried out by sliding a powder compact over the tool steels. The scratch tests indicated a higher steady-state coefficient of friction for the low nitrogen containing PM steel as compared with the high nitrogen containing alloy. Additionally, the results from the rubber wheel tests were in agreement with industrial experiences, showing the low nitrogen containing tool steel to suffer from severe galling.
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8.
  • Heinrichs, Jannica, et al. (författare)
  • Mechanisms of material transfer studied in situ in the SEM : Explanations to the success of DLC coated tools in aluminium forming
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Wear. - 0043-1648. ; :292, s. 49-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metal forming constitutes a group of industrially important processes to form metallic components to net shape. When forming aluminium and other materials that tend to stick to the tools, problems occur. The transferred work material increases the friction, which increases the forming forces. Additionally, the transferred work material becomes hardened and then scratches the softer work material in subsequent forming. This process, known as galling, compromises the surface finish of the next pieces to be formed. This paper employs a newly developed technique to investigate the initial stages of transfer at high resolution in situ in the SEM. We show that the complex microscale processes involved can be distinguished into three classes: primary transfer, secondary transfer and damage activated transfer. The damage activated transfer constitutes a new fundamental tribological phenomenon, involving the activation and healing of a soft metal in sliding contact with a harder surface. Damage activation leads to transfer onto surfaces such as the polished DLC in this investigation, which would otherwise not see any transfer. These processes are important when forming aluminium, but are expected to be of general tribological significance, in sliding involving non-perfect lubricant films, especially for soft metals with protective surface oxides. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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9.
  • Heinrichs, Jannica, et al. (författare)
  • New understanding of the initiation of material transfer and transfer layer build-up in metal forming : In situ studies in the SEM
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Wear. - 0043-1648. ; 292-293, s. 61-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The tribological mechanisms behind the initiation of material transfer and build-up of transfer layers in aluminium forming have been studied in situ in the SEM where a tip of aluminium is put into contact with a tool steel surface under controlled sliding contact conditions. By combining in situ observations with post-test high resolution FEG-SEM studies of the contacting surfaces we have shown that aluminium is immediately transferred onto the fine polished tool steel. It was also confirmed that the initial transfer occurs on a very fine scale and is localised to the surface irregularities presented by the slightly protruding carbonitrides. In contrast, the less protruding M6C carbides, as well as the martensitic steel matrix exhibit very little initial transfer. Intentionally made scratches (roughly 5 mu m wide and 2 mu m deep) across the tool surface immediately result in larger scale transfer, which grows upon further passages of work material causing a high coefficient of friction. The study illuminates the extreme value of combining the in situ technique with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy using low acceleration voltage as a mean to detect the very thin initial transfer layers. With the higher acceleration voltages normally used, the transferred aluminium becomes transparent and can hardly be detected. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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10.
  • Heinrichs, Jannica, et al. (författare)
  • Transfer of titanium in sliding contacts : New discoveries and insights revealed by in situ studies in the SEM
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Wear. - 0043-1648. ; 315:1-2, s. 87-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Titanium and its alloys generally display poor tribological properties in sliding contacts due to their high chemical activity and strong adhesion to the counter surface. The strong adhesion causes a high tendency to transfer and ultimately galling or build-up edge formation, resulting in severe surface damage. As a result, forming and machining of titanium and its alloys are generally associated with significant problems such as high friction, rapid tool wear and poor surface finish of the formed/machined surface. In the present study, in situ tests in a scanning electron microscope have been performed to increase the understanding of the mechanisms controlling the initial transfer of titanium (Grade 2) in sliding contact with tool surfaces. Tool materials included cover cold work tool steel, cemented carbide, CVD deposited Al2O3 and PVD deposited DLC. In these tests, a relatively sharp tip, representing the titanium work material, slides against a flat surface, representing the tool. The contact conditions result in plastic deformation of the work material against the tool surface, thereby simulating forming or machining. The limited and well-defined contact, along with the possibility to study the sliding in the SEM, makes it possible to correlate local surface variations to transfer of work material and frictional response. Post-test characterization of the contact surfaces was performed by high-resolution SEM, TEM, EDS and EELS. The initial friction was low and stable against all tested materials, but then gradually escalated against all surfaces except the DLC. The friction escalation was associated to increasing levels of transfer, while the DLC stayed virtually free from transfer. From these very initial sliding tests DLC is a promising tool coating in forming and machining of titanium. 
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  • Resultat 1-10 av 56
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