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1.
  • Canovic, Sead, et al. (författare)
  • Microstructural Investigation of the Initial Oxidation of the FeCrAlRE Alloy Kanthal AF in Dry and Wet O-2 at 600 and 800 degrees C
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society. - 0013-4651. ; 157:6, s. 223-230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The FeCrAlRE (where RE is reactive element) alloy Kanthal AF was exposed isothermally at 600 and 800°C for 72 h in dry O2 and in O2 with 10 vol % H2O. The mass gains were 3–5 times higher at the higher temperature. The presence of water vapor increased the oxidation rate at 800°C, while no significant effect was observed at 600°C. A thin two-layered oxide formed at 600°C: an outer (Fe,Cr)2O3 corundum-type oxide, containing some Al, and an inner, probably amorphous, Al-rich oxide. At 800°C a two-layered oxide formed in both environments. The inner layer consisted of inward grown a-Al2O3. In dry O2 the originally formed outward grown g-Al2O3 had transformed to a-Al2O3 after 72 h. Water vapor stabilized the outward grown g-Al2O3 and hence no transformation occurred after 72 h in humid environment. RE-rich oxide particles with varying composition (Y, Zr, and Ti) were distributed in the base oxide at both temperatures and in both environments. The RE-rich particles were separated from the alloy substrate by a layer of Al-rich oxide. At 800°C the Y-rich RE particles were surrounded by thick oxide patches in both dry and humid O2.
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2.
  • Engkvist, Josefin, et al. (författare)
  • Oxidation of FeCrAl foils at 500-900 degrees C in dry O-2 and O-2 with 40% H2O
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Materials at High Temperatures. - 0960-3409. ; 26:2, s. 199-210
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • High temperature resistant FeCrAl alloys are frequently used in high temperature applications Such as heating elements and metal based catalytic converter bodies. When exposed to high temperatures an adherent, slowly growing, dense aluminium oxide layer forms on the surface, which protects the underlying alloy from severe degradation. The composition, structure and properties of the formed oxide layer are strongly dependent on the alloy composition, temperature and oxidation environment. In this study, the Sandvik 0C404 FeCrAl alloy, in the form of 50 mu m thick foils, was exposed isothermally in the temperature range 500-900 degrees C for 168 hours in dry O-2 and in O-2 with 40 vol.% H2O. The surface morphology, composition and microstructure of the grown oxide scales were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The oxidation process was faster at 900 degrees C than at 500 and 700 degrees C. At 500 degrees C a thin (10-20 nm) mixed oxide of Fe, Cr and Al was formed. Exposure at 700 degrees C resulted ill a similar (40-50 nm) duplex oxide, in both dry O-2 and in O-2 With 40 vol.% H2O. These oxide scales consisted of all inner and an outer relatively pure alumina separated by a Cr-rich band. This type of duplex oxide scale also formed at 900 degrees C with a thin inward growing alpha-Al2O3 at the oxide/metal interface and an outward growing layer outside a Cr-rich band. However, at 900 degrees C the Outward growing layer showed two types of oxide morphologies; a thin smooth base oxide and a much thicker nodular oxide grown on top of substrate ridges. In dry O-2 atmosphere, the main part of this outward growing layer had transformed to alpha-Al2O3. Only in the outer part of the thick oxide nodules, metastable alumina was found. When exposed in the presence of water vapour the main pall of the metastable alumina remained untransformed.
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