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Sökning: swepub > Högskolan i Skövde > Lindström Birgitta > Engelska

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1.
  • Grindal, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • An Evaluation of Combination Strategies for Test Case Selection
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering. - Springer. - 1382-3256. ; 11:4, s. 583-611
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents results from a comparative evaluation of five combination strategies. Combination strategies are test case selection methods that combine “interesting” values of the input parameters of a test subject to form test cases. This research comparatively evaluated five combination strategies; the All Combination strategy (AC), the Each Choice strategy (EC), the Base Choice strategy (BC), Orthogonal Arrays (OA) and the algorithm from the Automatic Efficient Test Generator (AETG). AC satisfies n-wise coverage, EC and BC satisfy 1-wise coverage, and OA and AETG satisfy pair-wise coverage. The All Combinations strategy was used as a “gold standard” strategy; it subsumes the others but is usually too expensive for practical use. The others were used in an experiment that used five programs seeded with 128 faults. The combination strategies were evaluated with respect to the number of test cases, the number of faults found, failure size, and number of decisions covered. The strategy that requires the least number of tests, Each Choice, found the smallest number of faults. Although the Base Choice strategy requires fewer test cases than Orthogonal Arrays and AETG, it found as many faults. Analysis also shows some properties of the combination strategies that appear significant. The two most important results are that the Each Choice strategy is unpredictable in terms of which faults will be revealed, possibly indicating that faults are found by chance, and that the Base Choice and the pair-wise combination strategies to some extent target different types of faults.
2.
  • Lindström, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Generating Trace-Sets for Model-Based Testing
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Software Reliability, 2007. ISSRE '07. The 18th IEEE International Symposium on. - IEEE Press. - 9780769530246 - 978-0-7695-3024-6 ; s. 171-180
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Model-checkers are powerful tools that can find individual traces through models to satisfy desired properties. These traces provide solutions to a number of problems. Instead of individual traces, software testing needs sets of traces that satisfy coverage criteria. Finding a trace set in a large model is difficult because model checkers generate single traces and use a lot of memory. Space and time requirements of modelchecking algorithms grow exponentially with respect to the number of variables and parallel automata of the model being analyzed. We present a method that generates a set of traces by iteratively invoking a model checker. The method mitigates the memory consumption problem by dynamically building partitions along the traces. This method was applied to a testability case study, and it generated the complete trace set, while ordinary model-checking could only generate 26%.
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3.
  • Lindström, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Model-Checking with Insufficient Memory Resources
  • 2006
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Resource limitations is a major problem in model checking. Space and time requirements of model-checking algorithms grow exponentially with respect to the number of variables and parallel automata of the analyzed model. We present a method that is the result of experiences from a case study. It has enabled us to analyze models with much bigger state-spaces than what was possible without our method. The basic idea is to build partitions of the state-space of an analyzed system by iterative invocations of a model-checker. In each iteration the partitions are extended to represent a larger part of the state space, and if needed the partitions are further partitioned. Thereby the analysis problem is divided into a set of subproblems that can be analyzed independently of each other. We present how the method, implemented as a meta algorithm on-top of the Uppaal tool, has been applied in the case study.
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4.
  • Lindström, Birgitta (författare)
  • Testability of Dynamic Real-Time Systems
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation concerns testability of event-triggered real-time systems. Real-time systems are known to be hard to test because they are required to function correct both with respect to what the system does and when it does it. An event-triggered real-time system is directly controlled by the events that occur in the environment, as opposed to a time-triggered system, which behavior with respect to when the system does something is constrained, and therefore more predictable. The focus in this dissertation is the behavior in the time domain and it is shown how testability is affected by some factors when the system is tested for timeliness. This dissertation presents a survey of research that focuses on software testability and testability of real-time systems. The survey motivates both the view of testability taken in this dissertation and the metric that is chosen to measure testability in an experiment. We define a method to generate sets of traces from a model by using a meta algorithm on top of a model checker. Defining such a method is a necessary step to perform the experiment. However, the trace sets generated by this method can also be used by test strategies that are based on orderings, for example execution orders. An experimental study is presented in detail. The experiment investigates how testability of an event-triggered real-time system is affected by some constraining properties of the execution environment. The experiment investigates the effect on testability from three different constraints regarding preemptions, observations and process instances. All of these constraints were claimed in previous work to be significant factors for the level of testability. Our results support the claim for the first two of the constraints while the third constraint shows no impact on the level of testability. Finally, this dissertation discusses the effect on the event-triggered semantics when the constraints are applied on the execution environment. The result from this discussion is that the first two constraints do not change the semantics while the third one does. This result indicates that a constraint on the number of process instances might be less useful for some event-triggered real-time systems.  
5.
  • Eriksson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Model transformation impact on test artifacts : An empirical study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Workshop on Model-Driven Engineering, Verification and Validation, MoDeVVa 2012. - Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). - 978-145031801-3 ; s. 5-10
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Development environments that support Model-Driven Development often focus on model-level functional testing, enabling verification of design models against their specifications. However, developers of safety-critical software systems are also required to show that tests cover the structure of the implementation. Unfortunately, the implementation structure can diverge from the model depending on choices such as the model compiler or target language. Therefore, structural coverage at the model level may not guarantee coverage of the implementation. We present results from an industrial experiment that demonstrates the model-compiler effect on test artifacts in xtUML models when these models are transformed into C++. Test artifacts, i.e., predicates and clauses, are used to satisfy the structural code coverage criterion, in this case MCDC, which is required by the US Federal Aviation Administration. The results of the experiment show not only that the implementation contains more test artifacts than the model, but also that the test artifacts can be deterministically enumerated during translation. The analysis identifies two major sources for these additional test artifacts. © 2012 ACM.
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6.
  • Eriksson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Transformation rules for platform independent testing
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2013. - IEEE conference proceedings. - 978-1-4673-5961-0 ; s. 202-211
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most Model-Driven Development projects focus onmodel-level functional testing. However, our recent study foundan average of 67% additional logic-based test requirements from the code compared to the design model. The fact that full coverage at the design model level does not guarantee full coverage at the code level indicates that there are semantic behaviors in the model that model-based tests might miss, e.g., conditional behaviors that are not explicitly expressed as predicates and therefore not tested by logic-based coverage criteria. Avionics standards require that the structure of safety critical software is covered according to logic-based coverage criteria, including MCDC for the highest safety level. However, the standards also require that each test must be derived from the requirements. This combination makes designing tests hard, time-consuming and expensive to design. This paper defines a new model that uses transformation rules to help testers define tests at the platform independent model level. The transformation rules have been applied to six large avionic applications. The results show that the new model reduced the difference between model and code with respect to the number of additional test requirements from an average of67% to 0% in most cases and less than 1% for all applications. © 2013 IEEE.
7.
  • Grindal, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • An Evaluation of Combination Strategies for Test Case Selection
  • 2003
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In this report we present the results from a comparative evaluation of five combination strategies. Combination strategies are test case selection methods that combine interesting values of the input parameters of a test object to form test cases. One of the investigated combination strategies, namely the Each Choice strategy, satisfies 1-wise coverage, i.e., each interesting value of each parameter is represented at least once in the test suite. Two of the strategies, the Orthogonal Arrays and Heuristic Pair-Wise strategies both satisfy pair-wise coverage, i.e., every possible pair of interesting values of any two parameters are included in the test suite. The fourth combination strategy, the All Values strategy, generates all possible combinations of the interesting values of the input parameters. The fifth and last combination strategy, the Base Choice combination strategy, satisfies 1-wise coverage but in addition makes use of some semantic information to construct the test cases.Except for the All Values strategy, which is only used as a reference point with respect to the number of test cases, the combination strategies are evaluated and compared with respect to number of test cases, number of faults found, test suite failure density, and achieved decision coverage in an experiment comprising five programs, similar to Unix commands, seeded with 131 faults. As expected, the Each Choice strategy finds the smallest number of faults among the evaluated combination strategies. Surprisingly, the Base Choice strategy performs as well, in terms of detecting faults, as the pair-wise combination strategies, despite fewer test cases. Since the programs and faults in our experiment may not be representative of actual testing problems in an industrial setting, we cannot draw any general conclusions regarding the number of faults detected by the evaluated combination strategies. However, our analysis shows some properties of the combination strategies that appear significant in spite of the programs and faults not being representative. The two most important results are that the Each Choice strategy is unpredictable in terms of which faults will be detected, i.e., most faults found are found by chance, and that the Base Choice and the pair-wise combination strategies to some extent target different types of faults.
8.
  • Lindström, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Six Issues in Testing Event-Triggered Real-Time Systems
  • 2007
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Verification of real-time systems is a complex task, with problems coming from issues like concurrency. A previous paper suggested dealing with these problems by using a time-triggered design, which gives good support both for testing and formal analysis. However, atime-triggered solution is not always feasible and an event-triggered design is needed. Event-triggered systems are far more difficult to test than time-triggered systems.This paper revisits previously identified testing problems from a new perspective and identifies additional problems for event-triggered systems. The paper also presents an approach to deal with these problems. The TETReS project assumes a model-driven developmentprocess. We combine research within three different fields: (i) transformation of rule sets between timed automata specifications and ECA rules with maintained semantics, (ii) increasing testability in event-triggered system, and (iii) development of test case generation methods for event-triggered systems.
9.
  • Lindström, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Testability of Dynamic Real-Time Systems : An Empirical Study of Constrained Execution Environment Implications
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: 1st IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification, and Validation (ICST 2008). - IEEE. - 978-0-7695-3127-4 ; s. 112-120
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Real-time systems must respond to events in a timely fashion; in hard real-time systems the penalty for a missed deadline is high. It is therefore necessary to design hard real-time systems so that the timing behavior of the tasks can be predicted. Static real-time systems have prior knowledge of the worst-case arrival patterns and resource usage. Therefore, a schedule can be calculated off-line and tasks can be guaranteed to have sufficient resources to complete (resource adequacy). Dynamic real-time systems, on the other hand, do not have such prior knowledge, and therefore must react to events when they occur. They also must adapt to changes in the urgencies of various tasks, and fairly allocate resources among the tasks. A disadvantage of static real-time systems is that a requirement on resource adequacy makes them expensive and often impractical. Dynamic realtime systems, on the other hand, have the disadvantage of being less predictable and therefore difficult to test. Hence, in dynamic systems, timeliness is hard to guarantee and reliability is often low. Using a constrained execution environment, we attempt to increase the testability of such systems. An initial step is to identify factors that affect testability. We present empirical results on how various factors in the execution environment impacts testability of real-time systems. The results show that some of the factors, previously identified as possibly impacting testability, do not have an impact, while others do.
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10.
  • Lindström, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • "Using an Existing Suite of Test Objects: Experience from a Testing Experiment"
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes : SECTION: Workshop on empirical research in software testing papers. ; s. 1-3
  • Konferensbidrag (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This workshop paper presents lessons learned from a recent experiment to compare several test strategies. The test strategies were compared in terms of the number of tests needed to satisfy them and in terms of faults found. The experimental design and conduct are discussed, and frank assessments of the decisions that were made are provided. The paper closes with a summary of the lessons that were learned.
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