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Sökning: swepub > Högskolan i Skövde > Lindström Birgitta > Engelska

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1.
  • Hassan, Mahdi Mohammad, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Testability and software performance A systematic mapping study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: SAC '16 Proceedings of the 31st Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing. - ACM Digital Library. - 978-1-4503-3739-7 ; s. 1566-1569
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In most of the research on software testability, functionalcorrectness of the software has been the focus while the ev-idence regarding testability and non-functional propertiessuch as performance is sporadic. The objective of this studyis to present the current state-of-the-art related to issuesof importance, types and domains of software under test,types of research, contribution types and design evaluationmethods concerning testability and software performance.We nd that observability, controllability and testing e ortare the main testability issues while timeliness and responsetime (i.e., time constraints) are the main performance issuesin focus. The primary studies in the area use diverse types ofsoftware under test within di erent domains, with real-timesystems as being a dominant domain. The researchers haveproposed many di erent methods in the area, however thesemethods lack implementation in practice as suggested byour gures for research type, contribution type and designevaluation methods.
2.
  • Hassan, Mohammad Mahdi, et al. (författare)
  • Testability and Software Robustness : A Systematic Literature Review
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: 2015 41st Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications. - IEEE conference proceedings. ; s. 341-348
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The concept of software testability has been researched in several different dimensions, however the relation of this important concept with other quality attributes is a grey area where existing evidence is scattered. The objective of this study is to present a state-of-the-art with respect to issues of importance concerning software testability and an important quality attribute: software robustness. The objective is achieved by conducting a systematic literature review (SLR) on the topic. Our results show that a variety of testability issues are in focus with observability and controllability issues being most researched. Fault tolerance, exception handling and handling external influence are prominent robustness issues in focus.
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3.
  • Lindström, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Using mutation to design tests for aspect-oriented models
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Information and Software Technology. - 0950-5849. ; 81, s. 112-130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Testing for properties such as robustness or security is complicated because their concerns are often repeated in many locations and muddled with the normal code. Such “cross-cutting concerns” include things like interrupt events, exception handling, and security protocols. Aspect-oriented (AO) modeling allows developers to model the cross-cutting behavior independently of the normal behavior, thus supporting model-based testing of cross-cutting concerns. However, mutation operators defined for AO programs (source code) are usually not applicable to AO models (AOMs) and operators defined for models do not target the AO features. Objective: We present a method to design abstract tests at the aspect-oriented model level. We define mutation operators for aspect-oriented models and evaluate the generated mutants for an example system. Method: AOMs are mutated with novel operators that specifically target the AO modeling features. Test traces killing these mutant models are then generated. The generated and selected traces are abstract tests that can be transformed to concrete black-box tests and run on the implementation level, to evaluate the behavior of the woven cross-cutting concerns (combined aspect and base models). Results: This paper is a significant extension of our paper at Mutation 2015. We present a complete fault model, additional mutation operators, and a thorough analysis of the mutants generated for an example system. Conclusions: The analysis shows that some mutants are stillborn (syntactically illegal) but none is equivalent (exhibiting the same behavior as the original model). Additionally, our AOM-specific mutation operators can be combined with pre-existing operators to mutate code or models without any overlap.
4.
  • Lisper, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Targeted Mutation Efficient Mutation Analysis for Testing Non-Functional Properties
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2017. - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.. - 9781509066766 ; s. 65-68
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutation analysis has proven to be a strong technique for software testing. Unfortunately, it is also computationally expensive and researchers have therefore proposed several different approaches to reduce the effort. None of these reduction techniques however, focuses on non-functional properties. Given that our goal is to create a strong test suite for testing a certain non-functional property, which mutants should be used? In this paper, we introduce the concept of targeted mutation, which focuses mutation effort to those parts of the code where a change can make a difference with respect to the targeted non-functional property. We show how targeted mutation can be applied to derive efficient test suites for estimating the Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET). We use program slicing to direct the mutations to the parts of the code that are likely to have the strongest influence on execution time. Finally, we outline an experimental procedure for how to evaluate the technique. 
5.
  • Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali, et al. (författare)
  • Robustness Testing of Embedded Software Systems An Industrial Interview Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: IEEE Access. ; 4, s. 1859-1871
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Embedded software is at the core of current and future telecommunication, automotive, multimedia, and industrial automation systems. The success of practically any industrial application depends on the embedded software system's dependability, and one method to verify the dependability of a system is testing its robustness. The motivation behind this paper is to provide a knowledge base of the state of the practice in robustness testing of embedded software systems and to compare this to the state of the art. We have gathered the information on the state of the practice in robustness testing from seven different industrial domains (telecommunication, automotive, multimedia, critical infrastructure, aerospace, consumer products, and banking) by conducting 13 semi-structured interviews. We investigate the different aspects of robustness testing, such as the general view of robustness, relation to requirements engineering and design, test execution, failures, and tools. We highlight knowledge from the state of the practice of robustness testing of embedded software systems. We found different robustness testing practices that have not been previously described. This paper shows that the state of the practice, when it comes to robustness testing, differs between organizations and is quite different from the state of the art described in the scientific literature. For example, methods commonly described in the literature (e.g., the fuzzy approach) are not used in the organizations we studied. Instead, the interviewees described several ad hoc approaches that take specific scenarios into account (e.g., power failure or overload). Other differences we found concern the classification of robustness failures, the hypothesized root causes of robustness failures, and the types of tools used for robustness testing. This paper is a first step in capturing the state of the practice of robustness testing of embedded software systems. The results can be used by both researchers and practitioners. Researchers can use our findings to understand the gap between the state of the art and the state of the practice and develop their studies to fill this gap. Practitioners can also learn from this knowledge base regarding how they can improve their practice and acquire other practices. 
6.
  • Grindal, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • An Evaluation of Combination Strategies for Test Case Selection
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering. - Springer. - 1382-3256. ; 11:4, s. 583-611
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper presents results from a comparative evaluation of five combination strategies. Combination strategies are test case selection methods that combine “interesting” values of the input parameters of a test subject to form test cases. This research comparatively evaluated five combination strategies; the All Combination strategy (AC), the Each Choice strategy (EC), the Base Choice strategy (BC), Orthogonal Arrays (OA) and the algorithm from the Automatic Efficient Test Generator (AETG). AC satisfies n-wise coverage, EC and BC satisfy 1-wise coverage, and OA and AETG satisfy pair-wise coverage. The All Combinations strategy was used as a “gold standard” strategy; it subsumes the others but is usually too expensive for practical use. The others were used in an experiment that used five programs seeded with 128 faults. The combination strategies were evaluated with respect to the number of test cases, the number of faults found, failure size, and number of decisions covered. The strategy that requires the least number of tests, Each Choice, found the smallest number of faults. Although the Base Choice strategy requires fewer test cases than Orthogonal Arrays and AETG, it found as many faults. Analysis also shows some properties of the combination strategies that appear significant. The two most important results are that the Each Choice strategy is unpredictable in terms of which faults will be revealed, possibly indicating that faults are found by chance, and that the Base Choice and the pair-wise combination strategies to some extent target different types of faults.
7.
  • Lindström, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Model-Checking with Insufficient Memory Resources
  • 2006
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Resource limitations is a major problem in model checking. Space and time requirements of model-checking algorithms grow exponentially with respect to the number of variables and parallel automata of the analyzed model. We present a method that is the result of experiences from a case study. It has enabled us to analyze models with much bigger state-spaces than what was possible without our method. The basic idea is to build partitions of the state-space of an analyzed system by iterative invocations of a model-checker. In each iteration the partitions are extended to represent a larger part of the state space, and if needed the partitions are further partitioned. Thereby the analysis problem is divided into a set of subproblems that can be analyzed independently of each other. We present how the method, implemented as a meta algorithm on-top of the Uppaal tool, has been applied in the case study.
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8.
  • Lindström, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Mutating Aspect-Oriented Models to Test Cross-Cutting Concerns
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: 2015 IEEE 8th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2015 - Proceedings. - IEEE conference proceedings. - 978-1-4799-1885-0 ; s. Article number 7107456
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aspect-oriented (AO) modeling is used to separate normal behaviors of software from specific behaviors that affect many parts of the software. These are called 'cross-cutting concerns,' and include things such as interrupt events, exception handling, and security protocols. AO modeling allow developers to model the behaviors of cross-cutting concerns independently of the normal behavior. Aspect-oriented models (AOM) are then transformed into code by 'weaving' the aspects (modeling the cross-cutting concerns) into all locations in the code where they are needed. Testing at this level is unnecessarily complicated because the concerns are often repeated in many locations and because the concerns are muddled with the normal code. This paper presents a method to design robustness tests at the abstract, or model, level. The models are mutated with novel operators that specifically target the features of AOM, and tests are designed to kill those mutants. The tests are then run on the implementation level to evaluate the behavior of the woven cross-cutting concerns.
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9.
  • Lindström, Birgitta (författare)
  • Testability of Dynamic Real-Time Systems
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This dissertation concerns testability of event-triggered real-time systems. Real-time systems are known to be hard to test because they are required to function correct both with respect to what the system does and when it does it. An event-triggered real-time system is directly controlled by the events that occur in the environment, as opposed to a time-triggered system, which behavior with respect to when the system does something is constrained, and therefore more predictable. The focus in this dissertation is the behavior in the time domain and it is shown how testability is affected by some factors when the system is tested for timeliness. This dissertation presents a survey of research that focuses on software testability and testability of real-time systems. The survey motivates both the view of testability taken in this dissertation and the metric that is chosen to measure testability in an experiment. We define a method to generate sets of traces from a model by using a meta algorithm on top of a model checker. Defining such a method is a necessary step to perform the experiment. However, the trace sets generated by this method can also be used by test strategies that are based on orderings, for example execution orders. An experimental study is presented in detail. The experiment investigates how testability of an event-triggered real-time system is affected by some constraining properties of the execution environment. The experiment investigates the effect on testability from three different constraints regarding preemptions, observations and process instances. All of these constraints were claimed in previous work to be significant factors for the level of testability. Our results support the claim for the first two of the constraints while the third constraint shows no impact on the level of testability. Finally, this dissertation discusses the effect on the event-triggered semantics when the constraints are applied on the execution environment. The result from this discussion is that the first two constraints do not change the semantics while the third one does. This result indicates that a constraint on the number of process instances might be less useful for some event-triggered real-time systems.  
10.
  • Ding, Jianguo, et al. (författare)
  • Towards Threat Modeling for CPS-based Critical Infrastructure Protection
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Emergency Management Society (TIEMS), 22nd TIEMS Annual Conference : Evolving threats and vulnerability landscape: new challenges for the emergency management. - Brussels : TIEMS, The International Emergency Management Society. - 978-94-90297-13-8
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the evolution of modern Critical Infrastructures (CI), more Cyber-Physical systems are integrated into the traditional CIs. This makes the CIs a multidimensional complex system, which is characterized by integrating cyber-physical systems into CI sectors (e.g., transportation, energy or food & agriculture). This integration creates complex interdependencies and dynamics among the system and its components. We suggest using a model with a multi-dimensional operational specification to allow detection of operational threats. Embedded (and distributed) information systems are critical parts of the CI where disruption can lead to serious consequences. Embedded information system protection is therefore crucial. As there are many different stakeholders of a CI, comprehensive protection must be viewed as a cross-sector activity to identify and monitor the critical elements, evaluate and determine the threat, and eliminate potential vulnerabilities in the CI. A systematic approach to threat modeling is necessary to support the CI threat and vulnerability assessment. We suggest a Threat Graph Model (TGM) to systematically model the complex CIs. Such modeling is expected to help the understanding of the nature of a threat and its impact on throughout the system. In order to handle threat cascading, the model must capture local vulnerabilities as well as how a threat might propagate to other components. The model can be used for improving the resilience of the CI by encouraging a design that enhances the system's ability to predict threats and mitigate their damages. This paper surveys and investigates the various threats and current approaches to threat modeling of CI. We suggest integrating both a vulnerability model and an attack model, and we incorporate the interdependencies within CI cross CI sectors. Finally, we present a multi-dimensional threat modeling approach for critical infrastructure protection.
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