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1.
  • Flygare, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Utvärdering av metoder mot mobbning
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Denna utvärdering ger besked om insatser och arbetssätt som effektivt förebygger och åtgärdar mobbning. Utvärderingen är unik genom att den omfattar stora mängder data, både kvalitativa och kvantitativa från 39 skolor, att enskilda individers utsatthet följs upp vid tre tillfällen och att den omfattar flera program samtidigt.Resultaten visar bland annat att olika insatser har olika effekt för pojkar och flickor samt olika effekt beroende på om mobbningen är social eller fysisk. Den visar också att ingen enskild insats har dramatiskt positiva effekter. För att en skola ska lyckas förebygga och åtgärda mobbning krävs ett systematiskt arbete och en kombination av insatser. Åtta namngivna program som används mot mobbning har ingått i utvärderingen: Farstametoden, Friends, Lions Quest, Olweusprogrammet, SET – Social och emotionell träning, Skolkomet, Skolmedling samt Stegvis. I utvärderingens fristående metodfördjupning Utvärdering av metoder mot mobbning. Metodappendix och bilagor till rapport 353, (endast publicerad som pdf ) redovisar forskarna utförligt utvärderingens design och redogör för tillvägagångssättet vid datainsamling och analys.
2.
  • Wijk, H, et al. (författare)
  • Verksamhetsförlagd utbildning på avancerad nivå : ny utmaning för specialistutbildningar för sjuksköterskor
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Vård i Norden. - København : Sjuksköterskornas samarbete i Norden. - 0107-4083. ; 29:4, s. 41-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this article is to discuss challenges in the development of Specialist Nursing Educations as a result of the 2007 Swedish Higher Education Reform: the implementation of the so-called Bologna process. Certain challenges follow this reform, particularly since the specialist nursing programmes will be part of the second cycle of the higher education system, and it will be possible to combine the professional degree with a masters degree (one year). Possible strategies in four areas related to the Specialist Nursing Education are discussed: integration of researchbased knowledge, experienced-based knowledge, improvement knowledge, and strategies for collaboration between university institutions and clinics. Specific didactical issues are raised.
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3.
  • Hugoson, A., et al. (författare)
  • Dental caries in relation to smoking and the use of Swedish snus: epidemiological studies covering 20 years (1983-2003)
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6357. ; 70:4, s. 289-296
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AbstractObjective.The aim of this study was to evaluate some intra-oral caries-associated variables and tobacco use on dental caries.Materials and methods.The participants were randomly recruited from three cross-sectional studies in Jönköping, Sweden,in 1983, 1993 and 2003. Each study consisted of 130 individuals in each of the 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70-year age groups. Ofthese, 550, 552 and 523 dentate individuals attended respective year of examination. They were all examined both clinicallyand radiographically. A questionnaire was completed in conjunction with the examination. In the studies, 345 were smokers,104 snus users and 1142 non-tobacco users, in total 1591 individuals.Results.In 1983 and 1993, there were no significantdifferences in mean DFS between non-users and smokers, but a statistically significantly higher mean DFS in comparison withsnus users. In 2003, there was no statistically significant difference in mean DFS between the groups. Multiple regressionsshowed that, after adjusting for age, gender and socio-demographic variables, there was a statistically significant associationbetween DFS and smoking in 1983 (smoking excluded in favour of lactobacilli when further analysed) and DFS and plaqueindex (PLI) in 1993. In 2003, there was no association, apart from buffer capacity (Power rising) between DFS and theexamined intra-oral caries-associated variables and tobacco use.Conclusions.The results of these epidemiological studies,performed in 1993 and 2003, indicate that daily smoking or snus use does not increase the risk of dental caries.
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4.
  • Nyberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Soil frost effects on soil water and runoff dynamics along a boreal transect : 2. Simulations
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Hydrological Processes. - 0885-6087. ; 15:6, s. 927-941
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A physically based SVAT-model was rested with soil and snow physical measurements, as well as runoff data fr om an 8600 m(2) catchment in northern Sweden in order to quantify the influence of soil frost on spring snowmelt runoff in a moderately sloped, boreal forest. The model was run as an array of connected profiles cascading to the brook. For three winter seasons (1995-98) it was able to predict the onset and total accumulation of the runoff with satisfactory accuracy. Surface runoff was identified as only a minor fraction of the total runoff occurring during short periods in connection with ice blocking of the water-conducting pores. Little surface runoff, though, does not mean that soil frost is unimportant for spring runoff. Simulations without frost routines systematically underestimated the total accumulated runoff. The possibility of major frost effects appearing in response to specific combinations of weather conditions were also tested. Different scenarios of critical initial conditions for the winter, e.g, high water saturation and delayed snow accumulation leading to an increased frost penetration, were tested. These showed that under special circumstances there is potential for increased spring runoff due to soil frost.
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5.
  • Andersson, Lars Gustaf, et al. (författare)
  • Experimentfilmens behov & filmarkivets möjligheter
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: "Skosmörja eller arkivdokument?" : Om Filmarkivet.se och den digitala filmhistorien. - Stockholm : Kungliga biblioteket. - 978-91-88468-27-7 ; s. 67-80
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The chapter is a discussion of the limitations and possibilities of digital film archives with reference to the specific needs of experimental film culture. Some films by filmmakers Reinhold Holtermann and Hans Nordenström are discussed in the framwork of the Swedish digital film archive "filmarkivet.se".
6.
  • Gustavsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology. - 0924-977X. ; 21:10, s. 718-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The spectrum of disorders of the brain is large, covering hundreds of disorders that are listed in either the mental or neurological disorder chapters of the established international diagnostic classification systems. These disorders have a high prevalence as well as short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. Therefore they are an emotional, financial and social burden to the patients, their families and their social network. In a 2005 landmark study, we estimated for the first time the annual cost of 12 major groups of disorders of the brain in Europe and gave a conservative estimate of €386 billion for the year 2004. This estimate was limited in scope and conservative due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive epidemiological and/or economic data on several important diagnostic groups. We are now in a position to substantially improve and revise the 2004 estimates. In the present report we cover 19 major groups of disorders, 7 more than previously, of an increased range of age groups and more cost items. We therefore present much improved cost estimates. Our revised estimates also now include the new EU member states, and hence a population of 514 million people.AIMS: To estimate the number of persons with defined disorders of the brain in Europe in 2010, the total cost per person related to each disease in terms of direct and indirect costs, and an estimate of the total cost per disorder and country.METHODS: The best available estimates of the prevalence and cost per person for 19 groups of disorders of the brain (covering well over 100 specific disorders) were identified via a systematic review of the published literature. Together with the twelve disorders included in 2004, the following range of mental and neurologic groups of disorders is covered: addictive disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, brain tumor, childhood and adolescent disorders (developmental disorders), dementia, eating disorders, epilepsy, mental retardation, migraine, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disorders, Parkinson's disease, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, sleep disorders, somatoform disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Epidemiologic panels were charged to complete the literature review for each disorder in order to estimate the 12-month prevalence, and health economic panels were charged to estimate best cost-estimates. A cost model was developed to combine the epidemiologic and economic data and estimate the total cost of each disorder in each of 30 European countries (EU27+Iceland, Norway and Switzerland). The cost model was populated with national statistics from Eurostat to adjust all costs to 2010 values, converting all local currencies to Euro, imputing costs for countries where no data were available, and aggregating country estimates to purchasing power parity adjusted estimates for the total cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.RESULTS: The total cost of disorders of the brain was estimated at €798 billion in 2010. Direct costs constitute the majority of costs (37% direct healthcare costs and 23% direct non-medical costs) whereas the remaining 40% were indirect costs associated with patients' production losses. On average, the estimated cost per person with a disorder of the brain in Europe ranged between €285 for headache and €30,000 for neuromuscular disorders. The European per capita cost of disorders of the brain was €1550 on average but varied by country. The cost (in billion €PPP 2010) of the disorders of the brain included in this study was as follows: addiction: €65.7; anxiety disorders: €74.4; brain tumor: €5.2; child/adolescent disorders: €21.3; dementia: €105.2; eating disorders: €0.8; epilepsy: €13.8; headache: €43.5; mental retardation: €43.3; mood disorders: €113.4; multiple sclerosis: €14.6; neuromuscular disorders: €7.7; Parkinson's disease: €13.9; personality disorders: €27.3; psychotic disorders: €93.9; sleep disorders: €35.4; somatoform disorder: €21.2; stroke: €64.1; traumatic brain injury: €33.0. It should be noted that the revised estimate of those disorders included in the previous 2004 report constituted €477 billion, by and large confirming our previous study results after considering the inflation and population increase since 2004. Further, our results were consistent with administrative data on the health care expenditure in Europe, and comparable to previous studies on the cost of specific disorders in Europe. Our estimates were lower than comparable estimates from the US.DISCUSSION: This study was based on the best currently available data in Europe and our model enabled extrapolation to countries where no data could be found. Still, the scarcity of data is an important source of uncertainty in our estimates and may imply over- or underestimations in some disorders and countries. Even though this review included many disorders, diagnoses, age groups and cost items that were omitted in 2004, there are still remaining disorders that could not be included due to limitations in the available data. We therefore consider our estimate of the total cost of the disorders of the brain in Europe to be conservative. In terms of the health economic burden outlined in this report, disorders of the brain likely constitute the number one economic challenge for European health care, now and in the future. Data presented in this report should be considered by all stakeholder groups, including policy makers, industry and patient advocacy groups, to reconsider the current science, research and public health agenda and define a coordinated plan of action of various levels to address the associated challenges.RECOMMENDATIONS: Political action is required in light of the present high cost of disorders of the brain. Funding of brain research must be increased; care for patients with brain disorders as well as teaching at medical schools and other health related educations must be quantitatively and qualitatively improved, including psychological treatments. The current move of the pharmaceutical industry away from brain related indications must be halted and reversed. Continued research into the cost of the many disorders not included in the present study is warranted. It is essential that not only the EU but also the national governments forcefully support these initiatives.
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7.
  • Gunningberg, Lena, et al. (författare)
  • The first national pressure ulcer prevalence survey in county council and municipality settings in Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice. - 1356-1294.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim  To report data from the first national pressure ulcer prevalence survey in Sweden on prevalence, pressure ulcer categories, locations and preventive interventions for persons at risk for developing pressure ulcers. Methods  A cross-sectional research design was used in a total sample of 35 058 persons in hospitals and nursing homes. The methodology used was that recommended by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Results  The prevalence of pressure ulcers was 16.6% in hospitals and 14.5% in nursing homes. Many persons at risk for developing pressure ulcers did not receive a pressure-reducing mattress (23.3-27.9%) or planned repositioning in bed (50.2-57.5%). Conclusions  Despite great effort on the national level to encourage the prevention of pressure ulcers, the prevalence is high. Public reporting and benchmarking are now available, evidence-based guidelines have been disseminated and national goals have been set. Strategies for implementing practices outlined in the guidelines, meeting goals and changing attitudes must be further developed.
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8.
  • Bishop, Kevin, et al. (författare)
  • Water storage in a till catchment. II : Implications of transmissivity feedback for flow paths and turnover times
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Hydrological Processes. - 0885-6087. ; 25:25, s. 3950-3959
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper explores the flow paths and turnover times within a catchment characterized by the transmissivity feedback mechanism where there is a strong increase in the saturated hydraulic conductivity towards the soil surface and precipitation inputs saturate progressively more superficial layers of the soil profile. The analysis is facilitated by the correlation between catchment water storage and groundwater levels, which made it possible to model the daily spatial distribution of water storage, both vertically in different soil horizons and horizontally across a 6300-m2 till catchment. Soil properties and episodic precipitation input dynamics, combined with the influence of topographic features, concentrate flow in the horizontal, vertical, and temporal dimensions. Within the soil profile, there was a vertical concentration of lateral flow to superficial soil horizons (upper 30?cm of the soil), where much of the annual flow occurred during runoff episodes. Overland flow from a limited portion of the catchment can contribute to peak flows but is not a necessary condition for runoff episodes. The spatial concentration of flow, and the episodic nature of runoff events, resulted in a strong and spatially structured differentiation of local flow velocities within the catchment. There were large differences in the time spent by the laterally flowing water at different depths, with turnover times of lateral flow across a 1-m-wide soil pedon ranging from under 1?h at 10- to 20-cm depth to a month at 70- to 80-cm depth. In many regards, the hydrology of this catchment appears typical of the hydrology in till soils, which are widespread in Fenno-Scandia. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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9.
  • Björström Svanström, Cecilia M., et al. (författare)
  • Device performance of APFO-3/PCBM solar cells with controlled morphology
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Advanced Materials. - Weinheim. - 0935-9648. ; 21:43, s. 4398-4403
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polymer/fullerene solar cells with three different device structures: A) diffuse bilayer, B) spontaneously formed multilayer, and C) vertically homogenous thin films, are fabricated. The photocurrent/voltage performance is compared and it is found that the self-stratified structure (B) yields the highest energy conversion efficiency.
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10.
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