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1.
  • Nilsson, Jan, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Development and validation of a new tool measuring nurses self-reported professional competence - The nurse professional competence (NPC) Scale
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nurse Education Today. - Elsevier. - 0260-6917.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: To develop and validate a new toll intended for measuring self-reported professional competence among both nurse students prior to graduation and among praticing nurses. The new tool is based on formal competence requirements from the Swedish Board of Health and Welfare, which in turn are based on WHO guidelines.Design: A methodological study including construction of a new scale and evaluation of its psychometric propersties.Participants and settings: 1086 newly graduated nurse student from 11 universities/university colleges.Results: The analyses resulted in a scale named the NPC (nurse Professional Competence) Scale, consisting of 88 items and covering 8 factors: "Nursing Care", "Value-based Nursing Care", "Medical/technical care", "Teaching/learning and support", "Documentation and information technology", "Legislation in nursing and safety planning", "Leadership and development of nursing care" and "Education and supervision of staff/students". All factors achieved Cronbach´s alpha values greater than 0.70. A second-order exploratory analysis resulted in two main themes: "Patient-related nursing" and "Nursing care organisation and development". In addition evidence of known-group validity for the NPC Scale was obtained.
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2.
  • Bisholt, Birgitta, et al. (författare)
  • Student nurses' experiences of the clinical learning environment in relation to the organization of supervision : A questionnaire survey
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nurse Education Today. - Elsevier. - 0260-6917. ; 34:4, s. 661-666
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: The aim was to investigate student nurses' experiences of the clinical learning environment in relation to how the supervision was organized. Background: The clinical environment plays an essential part in student nurses' learning. Even though different models for supervision have been previously set forth, it has been stressed that there is a need both of further empirical studies on the role of preceptorship in undergraduate nursing education and of studies comparing different models. Method: A cross-sectional study with comparative design was carried out with a mixed method approach. Data were collected from student nurses in the final term of the nursing programme at three universities in Sweden by means of a questionnaire. Results: In general the students had positive experiences of the clinical learning environment with respect to pedagogical atmosphere, leadership style of the ward manager, premises of nursing, supervisory relationship, and role of the nurse preceptor and nurse teacher. However, there were significant differences in their ratings of the supervisory relationship (p < 0.001) and the pedagogical atmosphere (p 0.025) depending on how the supervision was organized. Students who had the same preceptor all the time were more satisfied with the supervisory relationship than were those who had different preceptors each day. Students' comments on the supervision confirmed the significance of the preceptor and the supervisory relationship. Conclusion: The organization of the supervision was of significance with regard to the pedagogical atmosphere and the students' relation to preceptors. Students with the same preceptor throughout were more positive concerning the supervisory relationship and the pedagogical atmosphere.
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3.
  • Gustavsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Neuropsychopharmacology. - 0924-977X. ; 21:10, s. 718-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The spectrum of disorders of the brain is large, covering hundreds of disorders that are listed in either the mental or neurological disorder chapters of the established international diagnostic classification systems. These disorders have a high prevalence as well as short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. Therefore they are an emotional, financial and social burden to the patients, their families and their social network. In a 2005 landmark study, we estimated for the first time the annual cost of 12 major groups of disorders of the brain in Europe and gave a conservative estimate of €386 billion for the year 2004. This estimate was limited in scope and conservative due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive epidemiological and/or economic data on several important diagnostic groups. We are now in a position to substantially improve and revise the 2004 estimates. In the present report we cover 19 major groups of disorders, 7 more than previously, of an increased range of age groups and more cost items. We therefore present much improved cost estimates. Our revised estimates also now include the new EU member states, and hence a population of 514 million people.AIMS: To estimate the number of persons with defined disorders of the brain in Europe in 2010, the total cost per person related to each disease in terms of direct and indirect costs, and an estimate of the total cost per disorder and country.METHODS: The best available estimates of the prevalence and cost per person for 19 groups of disorders of the brain (covering well over 100 specific disorders) were identified via a systematic review of the published literature. Together with the twelve disorders included in 2004, the following range of mental and neurologic groups of disorders is covered: addictive disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, brain tumor, childhood and adolescent disorders (developmental disorders), dementia, eating disorders, epilepsy, mental retardation, migraine, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disorders, Parkinson's disease, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, sleep disorders, somatoform disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Epidemiologic panels were charged to complete the literature review for each disorder in order to estimate the 12-month prevalence, and health economic panels were charged to estimate best cost-estimates. A cost model was developed to combine the epidemiologic and economic data and estimate the total cost of each disorder in each of 30 European countries (EU27+Iceland, Norway and Switzerland). The cost model was populated with national statistics from Eurostat to adjust all costs to 2010 values, converting all local currencies to Euro, imputing costs for countries where no data were available, and aggregating country estimates to purchasing power parity adjusted estimates for the total cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010.RESULTS: The total cost of disorders of the brain was estimated at €798 billion in 2010. Direct costs constitute the majority of costs (37% direct healthcare costs and 23% direct non-medical costs) whereas the remaining 40% were indirect costs associated with patients' production losses. On average, the estimated cost per person with a disorder of the brain in Europe ranged between €285 for headache and €30,000 for neuromuscular disorders. The European per capita cost of disorders of the brain was €1550 on average but varied by country. The cost (in billion €PPP 2010) of the disorders of the brain included in this study was as follows: addiction: €65.7; anxiety disorders: €74.4; brain tumor: €5.2; child/adolescent disorders: €21.3; dementia: €105.2; eating disorders: €0.8; epilepsy: €13.8; headache: €43.5; mental retardation: €43.3; mood disorders: €113.4; multiple sclerosis: €14.6; neuromuscular disorders: €7.7; Parkinson's disease: €13.9; personality disorders: €27.3; psychotic disorders: €93.9; sleep disorders: €35.4; somatoform disorder: €21.2; stroke: €64.1; traumatic brain injury: €33.0. It should be noted that the revised estimate of those disorders included in the previous 2004 report constituted €477 billion, by and large confirming our previous study results after considering the inflation and population increase since 2004. Further, our results were consistent with administrative data on the health care expenditure in Europe, and comparable to previous studies on the cost of specific disorders in Europe. Our estimates were lower than comparable estimates from the US.DISCUSSION: This study was based on the best currently available data in Europe and our model enabled extrapolation to countries where no data could be found. Still, the scarcity of data is an important source of uncertainty in our estimates and may imply over- or underestimations in some disorders and countries. Even though this review included many disorders, diagnoses, age groups and cost items that were omitted in 2004, there are still remaining disorders that could not be included due to limitations in the available data. We therefore consider our estimate of the total cost of the disorders of the brain in Europe to be conservative. In terms of the health economic burden outlined in this report, disorders of the brain likely constitute the number one economic challenge for European health care, now and in the future. Data presented in this report should be considered by all stakeholder groups, including policy makers, industry and patient advocacy groups, to reconsider the current science, research and public health agenda and define a coordinated plan of action of various levels to address the associated challenges.RECOMMENDATIONS: Political action is required in light of the present high cost of disorders of the brain. Funding of brain research must be increased; care for patients with brain disorders as well as teaching at medical schools and other health related educations must be quantitatively and qualitatively improved, including psychological treatments. The current move of the pharmaceutical industry away from brain related indications must be halted and reversed. Continued research into the cost of the many disorders not included in the present study is warranted. It is essential that not only the EU but also the national governments forcefully support these initiatives.
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4.
  • Flygare, Erik, et al. (författare)
  • Utvärdering av metoder mot mobbning
  • 2011
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Denna utvärdering ger besked om insatser och arbetssätt som effektivt förebygger och åtgärdar mobbning. Utvärderingen är unik genom att den omfattar stora mängder data, både kvalitativa och kvantitativa från 39 skolor, att enskilda individers utsatthet följs upp vid tre tillfällen och att den omfattar flera program samtidigt.Resultaten visar bland annat att olika insatser har olika effekt för pojkar och flickor samt olika effekt beroende på om mobbningen är social eller fysisk. Den visar också att ingen enskild insats har dramatiskt positiva effekter. För att en skola ska lyckas förebygga och åtgärda mobbning krävs ett systematiskt arbete och en kombination av insatser. Åtta namngivna program som används mot mobbning har ingått i utvärderingen: Farstametoden, Friends, Lions Quest, Olweusprogrammet, SET - Social och emotionell träning, Skolkomet, Skolmedling samt Stegvis. I utvärderingens fristående metodfördjupning Utvärdering av metoder mot mobbning. Metodappendix och bilagor till rapport 353, (endast publicerad som pdf ) redovisar forskarna utförligt utvärderingens design och redogör för tillvägagångssättet vid datainsamling och analys.
5.
  • Wijk, H, et al. (författare)
  • Verksamhetsförlagd utbildning på avancerad nivå – ny utmaning för specialistutbildningar för sjuksköterskor
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Vård i Norden. ; 29:94, s. 41-43
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this article is to discuss challenges in the development of Specialist Nursing Educations as a result of the 2007 Swedish Higher Education Reform: the implementation of the so-called Bologna process. Certain challenges follow this reform, particularly since the specialist nursing programmes will be part of the second cycle of the higher education system, and it will be possible to combine the professional degree with a masters degree (one year). Possible strategies in four areas related to the Specialist Nursing Education are discussed: integration of researchbased knowledge, experienced-based knowledge, improvement knowledge, and strategies for collaboration between university institutions and clinics. Specific didactical issues are raised.
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6.
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7.
  • Bishop, Kevin, et al. (författare)
  • Water storage in a till catchment. II : Implications of transmissivity feedback for flow paths and turnover times
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Hydrological Processes. - 0885-6087. ; 25:25, s. 3950-3959
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper explores the flow paths and turnover times within a catchment characterized by the transmissivity feedback mechanism where there is a strong increase in the saturated hydraulic conductivity towards the soil surface and precipitation inputs saturate progressively more superficial layers of the soil profile. The analysis is facilitated by the correlation between catchment water storage and groundwater levels, which made it possible to model the daily spatial distribution of water storage, both vertically in different soil horizons and horizontally across a 6300-m2 till catchment. Soil properties and episodic precipitation input dynamics, combined with the influence of topographic features, concentrate flow in the horizontal, vertical, and temporal dimensions. Within the soil profile, there was a vertical concentration of lateral flow to superficial soil horizons (upper 30?cm of the soil), where much of the annual flow occurred during runoff episodes. Overland flow from a limited portion of the catchment can contribute to peak flows but is not a necessary condition for runoff episodes. The spatial concentration of flow, and the episodic nature of runoff events, resulted in a strong and spatially structured differentiation of local flow velocities within the catchment. There were large differences in the time spent by the laterally flowing water at different depths, with turnover times of lateral flow across a 1-m-wide soil pedon ranging from under 1?h at 10- to 20-cm depth to a month at 70- to 80-cm depth. In many regards, the hydrology of this catchment appears typical of the hydrology in till soils, which are widespread in Fenno-Scandia. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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8.
  • Krekula, Clary, et al. (författare)
  • Åldersfrågan i diskussionen om intersektionalitet
  • 2005
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intersektionalitet diskuteras främst utifrån kön, klass och etnicitet, men även när fler maktordningar som sexualitet, nation och ras nämns, kan ålder förbises, eller dyka upp i förbifarten som en för givet tagen kategorisering. I detta bidrag diskuteras ålder som en del av intersektionalitetsanalyser utifrån de två livsfaserna i livsförloppets början och slut, dvs barndom respektive ålderdom. Med utgångspunkt från dessa två ålderspositioner ställs frågor kring vilken betydelse samhällens åldersordning har för intersektionalitetsdiskussionen. I denna diskussion belyses frågor som ’ålderism’, livsförloppet som en institution uppbyggd av livsfaser som definierar åldersbaserad normalitet och avvikelse och intersektionalitetsbegreppets innebörder.
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9.
  • Nyberg, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Soil frost effects on soil water and runoff dynamics along a boreal forest transect: : 1. Field investigations
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Hydrological Processes. - 0885-6087. ; 15:6, s. 909-926
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To determine how soil frost changes flowpaths of runoff water along a hillslope, a transect consisting of four soil profiles directed towards a small stream in a mature forest stand was investigated at Svartberget, near Vindeln innorthern Sweden. Soil temperature, unfrozen water content, groundwater level and snow depth were investigated along the transect, which started at the riparian peat, and extended 30 m upslope into mineral soils. The two, more organic-rich profiles closest to the stream had higher water retention and wetter autumn conditions than the sandy mineral soils further upslope. The organic content of the soil influenced the variation in frost along the transect. The first winter (1995–96) had abnormally low snow precipitation, which gave a deep frost down to 40–80 cm, whereasthe two following winters had frost depths of 5–20 cm. During winter 1995–96, the two organic profiles close to the stream had a shallower frost depth than the mineral soil profile higher upslope, but a considerably larger amount of frozen water. The fraction of water that did not freeze despite several minus degrees in the soil was 5–7 vol.% in themineral soil and 10–15 vol.% in the organic soil. From the measurements there were no signs of perched water tables during any of the three snowmelt periods, which would have been strong evidence for changed water flowpaths due to soil frost. When shallow soil layers became saturated during snowmelt, especially in 1997 and 1998, it was because of rising groundwater levels. Several rain on frozen ground events during spring 1996 resulted in little runoff, since most of the rain either froze in the soil or filled up the soil water storage.
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10.
  • Seibert, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Water storage in a till catchment. I : Distributed modelling and relationship to runoff
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Hydrological Processes. - 0885-6087. ; 25:25, s. 3937-3949
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although water storage is an important variable to understand the hydrological functioning of a catchment, it is challenging to estimate the total water storage in a catchment. Catchment water storage can be estimated on the basis of water balance, but this approach is prone to errors in the different water balance terms. Here, an approach is presented to estimate the daily dynamics of catchment-wide soil water and groundwater storage on the basis of groundwater-level observations, soil properties and an assumption of hydrological equilibrium above the water table. This approach was applied to a 6300-m2 till catchment in Southwest Sweden. The predicted mean catchment water storage between April 1991 and June 1992 was 210mm and ranged from 190 to 260mm. The estimated water storage followed runoff rates closely especially during recession periods. On average, 79% of the water storage was held in the unsaturated zone, and the remaining 21% was groundwater, but this proportion varied strongly with runoff and total storage. During dry conditions, unsaturated storage accounted for at maximum 95% of the water storage; during wet conditions, this number dropped to 40%. Copyright (c) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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