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Sökning: swepub > Karlstads universitet > (2008)

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1.
  • Svensson, Krister, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • MEMS Sensor for in Situ TEM Atomic Force Microscopy
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of microelectromechanical systems. - IEEE Press. - 1057-7157. ; 17:2, s. 328-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Here, we present a MEMS atomic force microscope sensor for use inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This enables direct in situ TEM force measurements in the nanonewton range and thus mechanical characterization of nanosized structures. The main design challenges of the system and sensor are to reach a high sensitivity and to make a compact design that allows the sensor to be fitted in the narrow dimensions of the pole gap inside the TEM. In order to miniaturize the sensing device, an integrated detection with piezoresistive elements arranged in a full Wheatstone bridge was used. Fabrication of the sensor was done using standard micromachining techniques, such as ion implantation, oxide growth and deep reactive ion etch. We also present in situ TEM force measurements on nanotubes, which demonstrate the ability to measure spring constants of nanoscale systems.
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2.
  • Gustafsson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • An elite endurance athlete's recovery from underperformance aided by a multidisciplinary sport science support team
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Sport Science. - 1536-7290. ; 8:5, s. 267-276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Overload training resulting in an overreached state is common in elite sports, and if undetected can develop into an overtraining syndrome. This risk is accentuated by the lack of reliable measures of overreaching. Coaches and scientists therefore have to use a combination of tests in the monitoring process. This article presents a case study of the recovery from underperformance of a young elite endurance athlete and the work of a multidisciplinary sport science support team. When it was determined that the athlete's performance had deteriorated, and that this was due solely to the stress of training, training load was radically reduced for a period of 14 days. A combination of physiological, biochemical, and psychological measurements were then used to monitor the recovery process. The purpose of this article is to describe how coaches and sport science teams can help in monitoring training and recovery in practical settings, allowing detection of the early signs of overreaching before a more serious overtraining syndrome develops.
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3.
  • Henricson, Maria, 1972- (författare)
  • Tactile touch in intensive care Nurses' preparation, patients' experiences and the effect on stress parameters
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to acquire knowledge about whether tactile touch as a complementary method can (i) promote comfort and (ii) reduce stress reactions during care in an intensive care unit (ICU) Method: In Paper I, five nurses with a touch therapist training were interviewed about their experiences of preparation before giving tactile touch in an ICU. To analyse the meaning of preparation as a phenomenon, Giorgi’s descriptive phenomenological approach was used. In Paper II and III a randomised controlled trial was set up to investigate the effects of a five-day tactile touch intervention on patients’ oxytocin levels in arterial blood (II), on patients’ blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose level, and on patients’ levels of anxiety, sedation and alertness (III). Forty-four patients were randomised to either an intervention group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 23). Data were analysed with non-parametric statistics. In Paper IV, six patients who had received the tactile touch intervention were interviewed to illuminate the experience of receiving tactile touch during intensive care. To gain a deeper understanding of the phenomenon and to illuminate the meaning, Ricoeur’s phenomenological hermeneutical method, developed by Lindseth and Norberg, was used. Findings: The nurses need four constituents (inner balance, unconditional respect for the patients’ integrity, a relationship with the patient characterized by reciprocal trust and a supportive environment) to be prepared and go through the transition from nurse to touch therapist (I). In the intervention study, no significant differences were shown for oxytocin levels between intervention and control group over time or within each day (II). There were significantly lower levels of anxiety for patients in the intervention group. There were no significant differences between the intervention and control groups for blood pressure, heart rate, the use of drugs, levels of sedation or blood glucose levels (III). The significance of receiving tactile touch during intensive care was described as the creation of an imagined room along with the touch therapist. In this imagined room, the patients enjoyed tactile touch and gained hope for the future (IV). Conclusion: Nurses needed internal and external balance to be prepared for providing tactile touch. Patients did not notice the surroundings as much as the nurses did. Patients enjoyed the tactile touch and experienced comfort. The impact on stress parameters were limited, except for levels of anxiety which declined significantly. The results gave some evidence for the benefit of tactile touch given to patients in intensive care.
4.
  • Overud, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Från reserv till reserv : Genusaspekter på den regionala arbetsmarknadspolitiken
  • 2008
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sverige har vid olika tidpunkter lanserats satsningar för att skapa förutsättningar för en mer jämställd arbetsmarknad. Både politik och arbetsmarknad har genomgått betydande förändringar, något som i denna rapport studeras på regional nivå utifrån ett genusperspektiv. Studien placeras i skärningspunkten mellan arbetsmarknadspolitik, jämställdhetspolitik och regionalpolitik. Arbetsmarknadspolitiken har länge varit ett av de starkaste medlen för att uppnå målen med jämställdhetspolitiken. I den här rapporten undersöks den del av arbetsmarknadspolitiken som samverkar med den regionala utvecklingspolitiken och hur den utformas i relation till de jämställdhetspolitiska målen.<br/><br/>Rapportens huvudsyfte är att utifrån två tidsbilder diskutera möjligheter och problem som är förknippade med den politik som uppmuntrar och stimulerar kvinnor att övergå från hemarbete till lönearbete, respektive från lönearbete till företagande. Genom två nedslag i tiden i Jämtlands län illustreras en förskjutning i den politiska retoriken från lönearbete till företagande som avspeglas i olika arbetsmarknadssatsningar för att öka kvinnors förankring på arbetsmarknaden. Med en maktordning som underordnar kvinnor återkommer ett synsätt som leder till att politiska åtgärder gång på gång utformas utifrån synen på kvinnors arbetskraft som en reserv
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5.
  • Henricson, Maria, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • The outcome of tactile touch on oxytocin in intensive care patients: a randomised controlled trial
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing. - 0962-1067. ; 17:19, s. 2624-2633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim.  To explore the effects of five-day tactile touch intervention on oxytocin in intensive care patients. The hypotheses were that tactile touch increases the levels of oxytocin after intervention and over a six-day period.Background.  Research on both humans and animals shows a correlation between touch and increased levels of oxytocin which inspired us to measure the levels of oxytocin in arterial blood to obtain information about the physiological effect of tactile touch.Design.  Randomised controlled trial.Method.  Forty-four patients from two general intensive care units, were randomly assigned to either tactile touch (n = 21) or standard treatment – an hour of rest (n = 23). Arterial blood was drawn for measurement of oxytocin, before and after both treatments.Results.  No significant mean changes in oxytocin levels were found from day 1 to day 6 in the intervention group (mean −3·0 pM, SD 16·8). In the control group, there was a significant (p = 0·01) decrease in oxytocin levels from day 1 to day 6, mean 26·4 pM (SD 74·1). There were no significant differences in changes between day 1 and day 6 when comparing the intervention group and control group, mean 23·4 pM (95% CI −20·2–67·0).Conclusion.  Our hypothesis that tactile touch increases the levels of oxytocin in patients at intensive care units was not confirmed. An interesting observation was the decrease levels of oxytocin over the six-day period in the control group, which was not observed in the intervention group.Relevance to clinical practice.  Tactile touch seemed to reduce the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Further and larger studies are needed in intensive care units to confirm/evaluate tactile touch as a complementary caring act for critically ill patients.
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6.
  • Gudmundson,, E., et al. (författare)
  • On the reconstruction of gapped sinusoidal data
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Proc. International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing : ICASSP 2008. - Piscataway, NJ : IEEE. - 978-1-4244-1483-3 ; s. 3513-3516
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The problem of estimating a spectral representation of damped sinusoidal signals from a gapped data set is of considerable interest in several applications. In this paper, we propose a filterbank approach to provide such an estimate, by first reconstructing the missing data samples assuming that the spectral content of the missing data is similar to that of the available samples, and then forming a spectral representation of the reconstruced data set as a function of frequency and damping. Numerical examples illustrate the benefits of the proposed estimator as compared to currently available methods.
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7.
  • Boström, Anne-Marie, et al. (författare)
  • Barriers to research utilization and research use among registered nurses working in the care of older people. Does the BARRIERS Scale discriminate between research users and non-research uses on perception of barriers?
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Implementation Science. - 1748-5908. ; 3:24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundOne strategy to enhance research use and change current practice is to identify barriers and then implement tailored interventions to reduce these barriers. In nursing, the BARRIERS scale has been frequently used to identify nurses' perceptions of barriers to research utilization. However, this scale has not been applied to care of older people, and only one study has investigated how identified barriers link to research utilization. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: to describe RNs' perceptions of barriers to and facilitators of research utilization and to examine the validity of the BARRIERS scale in relation to research use.MethodsA cross-sectional survey design was used and registered nurses (RNs) working in the care of older people participated (response rate 67%, n = 140/210). Two questionnaires, the BARRIERS scale and the Research Utilization Questionnaire (RUQ), were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate inferential statistics.ResultsCharacteristics of the organization and the presentation of research findings were rated as the most prominent barriers. The three items most frequently reported as barriers were: the nurse is isolated from knowledgeable colleagues with whom to discuss the research (89%); the facilities are inadequate for implementation (88%); and, the relevant literature is not compiled in one place (81%). Surveyed RNs suggested more support from unit managers and better availability of user-friendly reports in Swedish to enhance research use.The RNs reported a modest use of research. A weak but significant correlation was found between the Research Use index in RUQ and the Presentation subscale in the BARRIERS scale (r = -0.289, p &lt; 0.01), suggesting that the RNs reporting more research use were less likely to perceive presentation of research as a barrier. Dividing the sample into research users (n = 29) and non-research users (n = 105), the research users rated significantly lower on the subscales Presentation, Nurse and Research in the BARRIERS scale.ConclusionThe BARRIERS scale revealed differences in the perception of barriers between research users and non-research users. Thus, methodologically the scale appears useful in identifying some types of barriers to research utilization but not organizational barriers. The identified barriers, however, are general and wide-ranging, making it difficult to design useful specific interventions.
8.
  • Sand, H., et al. (författare)
  • Summer kill rates and predation pattern in a wolf-moose system: can we rely on winter estimates?
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Oecologia. - 0029-8549 .- 1432-1939. ; 156:1, s. 53-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • So far the vast majority of studies on large carnivore predation, including kill rates and consumption, have been based on winter studies. Because large carnivores relying on ungulates as prey often show a preference for juveniles, kill rates may be both higher and more variable during the summer season than during the rest of the year leading to serious underestimates of the total annual predation rate. This study is the first to present detailed empirical data on kill rates and prey selection in a wolf-moose system during summer (June-September) as obtained by applying modern Global Positioning System-collar techniques on individual wolves (Canis lupus) in Scandinavia. Moose (Alces alces) was the dominant prey species both by number (74.4%) and biomass (95.6%); 89.9% of all moose killed were juveniles, representing 76.0% of the biomass consumed by wolves. Kill rate in terms of the kilogram biomass/kilogram wolf per day averaged 0.20 (range: 0.07-0.32) among wolf territories and was above, or well above, the daily minimum food requirements in most territories. The average number of days between moose kills across wolf territories and study periods was 1.71 days, but increased with time and size of growing moose calves during summer. Over the entire summer (June-September, 122 days), a group (from two to nine) of wolves killed a total of 66 (confidence interval 95%; 56-81) moose. Incorporation of body growth functions of moose calves and yearlings and wolf pups over the summer period showed that wolves adjusted their kill rate on moose, so the amount of biomass/kilogram wolf was relatively constant or increased. The kill rate was much higher (94-116%) than estimated from the winter period. As a consequence, projecting winter kill rates to obtain annual estimates of predation in similar predator-prey systems may result in a significant underestimation of the total number of prey killed.
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9.
  • Almasri, Abdullah, et al. (författare)
  • Clustering using Wavelet Transformation
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Handbook of research on cluster theory. - Cheltenham : Edward Elgar. - 978-1-84542-516-6 ; s. 169-186
  • Bokkapitel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
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10.
  • Altun, Zeki, 1978-, et al. (författare)
  • New Techniques for Sample Preparation in Analytical Chemistry Microextraction in Packed Syringe (MEPS) and Methacrylate Based Monolithic Pipette Tips
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sample preparation is often a bottleneck in systems for chemical analysis. The aim of this work was to investigate and develop new techniques to address some of the shortcomings of current sample preparation methods. The goal has been to provide full automation, on-line coupling to detection systems, short sample preparation times and high-throughput.In this work a new technique for sample preparation that can be connected on-line to liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) has been developed. Microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) is a new solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique that is miniaturized and can be fully automated. In MEPS approximately 1 mg of sorbent material is inserted into a gas tight syringe (100-250 μL) as a plug. Sample preparation takes place on the packed bed. Evaluation of the technique was done by the determination of local anaesthetics in human plasma samples using MEPS on-line with LC and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). MEPS connected to an autosampler was fully automated and clean-up of the samples took about one minute. In addition, in the case of plasma samples the same plug of sorbent could be used for about 100 extractions before it was discarded.A further aim of this work was to increase sample preparation throughput. To do that disposable pipette tips were packed with a plug of porous polymer monoliths as sample adsorbent and were then used in connection with 96-well plates and LC-MS-MS. The evaluation of the methods was done by the analysis of local anaesthetics lidocaine and ropivacaine, and anti-cancer drug roscovitine in plasma samples. When roscovitine and lidocaine in human plasma and water samples were used as model substances, a 96-plate was handled in about two minutes. Further, disposable pipette tips may be produced at low cost and because they are used only once, carry-over is eliminated.
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