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Sökning: swepub > Karlstads universitet > (2008)

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  • Svensson, Krister, 1969-, et al. (författare)
  • MEMS Sensor for in Situ TEM Atomic Force Microscopy
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of microelectromechanical systems. - IEEE Press. - 1057-7157. ; 17:2, s. 328-333
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Here, we present a MEMS atomic force microscope sensor for use inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This enables direct in situ TEM force measurements in the nanonewton range and thus mechanical characterization of nanosized structures. The main design challenges of the system and sensor are to reach a high sensitivity and to make a compact design that allows the sensor to be fitted in the narrow dimensions of the pole gap inside the TEM. In order to miniaturize the sensing device, an integrated detection with piezoresistive elements arranged in a full Wheatstone bridge was used. Fabrication of the sensor was done using standard micromachining techniques, such as ion implantation, oxide growth and deep reactive ion etch. We also present in situ TEM force measurements on nanotubes, which demonstrate the ability to measure spring constants of nanoscale systems.
  • Henricson, Maria, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • The outcome of tactile touch on oxytocin in intensive care patients: a randomised controlled trial
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing. - 0962-1067. ; 17:19, s. 2624-2633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim.  To explore the effects of five-day tactile touch intervention on oxytocin in intensive care patients. The hypotheses were that tactile touch increases the levels of oxytocin after intervention and over a six-day period.Background.  Research on both humans and animals shows a correlation between touch and increased levels of oxytocin which inspired us to measure the levels of oxytocin in arterial blood to obtain information about the physiological effect of tactile touch.Design.  Randomised controlled trial.Method.  Forty-four patients from two general intensive care units, were randomly assigned to either tactile touch (n = 21) or standard treatment – an hour of rest (n = 23). Arterial blood was drawn for measurement of oxytocin, before and after both treatments.Results.  No significant mean changes in oxytocin levels were found from day 1 to day 6 in the intervention group (mean −3·0 pM, SD 16·8). In the control group, there was a significant (p = 0·01) decrease in oxytocin levels from day 1 to day 6, mean 26·4 pM (SD 74·1). There were no significant differences in changes between day 1 and day 6 when comparing the intervention group and control group, mean 23·4 pM (95% CI −20·2–67·0).Conclusion.  Our hypothesis that tactile touch increases the levels of oxytocin in patients at intensive care units was not confirmed. An interesting observation was the decrease levels of oxytocin over the six-day period in the control group, which was not observed in the intervention group.Relevance to clinical practice.  Tactile touch seemed to reduce the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Further and larger studies are needed in intensive care units to confirm/evaluate tactile touch as a complementary caring act for critically ill patients.
  • Helldin, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Experience of quality of life and attitude to care and treatment in patients with schizophrenia: Role of cross-sectional remission
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice. - 1365-1501. ; 12:2, s. 97-104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveThe concept of cross-sectional remission was investigated in a sample of patients with schizophrenia. A total of 243 patients were tested for quality of life, burden and handicap, insight and satisfaction with the care provided in an epidemiological study. The question addressed was if remission is of importance for outcome.MethodsCross-sectional remission was defined by applying the symptom criteria of remission, where none of eight selected PANSS items should exceed 3 points. Out of 243 patients, 38% were in met cross-sectional remission. Quality of life was assessed with the MOS SF-36 and the Rosser Index. The Patients' understanding of their illness was assessed based on symptoms and disorder insight. Finally, attitudes to care and, health service were assessed by the UKU/Consumer Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Drug Attitude Inventory.ResultsPatients who were in cross-sectional remission reported higher quality of life and reduced burden related to the disorder, a greater level of insight into their symptoms and the illness, and a more positive attitude to treatment, including drugs.ConclusionThis study implies that remission, here expressed in terms of cross-sectional remission, is of importance for patients' well-being. Patients who had no interference from symptoms in their daily functioning found their life better, had a superior insight and were more positive to treatment.
  • Henricson, Maria, 1972- (författare)
  • Tactile touch in intensive care Nurses' preparation, patients' experiences and the effect on stress parameters
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to acquire knowledge about whether tactile touch as a complementary method can (i) promote comfort and (ii) reduce stress reactions during care in an intensive care unit (ICU) Method: In Paper I, five nurses with a touch therapist training were interviewed about their experiences of preparation before giving tactile touch in an ICU. To analyse the meaning of preparation as a phenomenon, Giorgi’s descriptive phenomenological approach was used. In Paper II and III a randomised controlled trial was set up to investigate the effects of a five-day tactile touch intervention on patients’ oxytocin levels in arterial blood (II), on patients’ blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose level, and on patients’ levels of anxiety, sedation and alertness (III). Forty-four patients were randomised to either an intervention group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 23). Data were analysed with non-parametric statistics. In Paper IV, six patients who had received the tactile touch intervention were interviewed to illuminate the experience of receiving tactile touch during intensive care. To gain a deeper understanding of the phenomenon and to illuminate the meaning, Ricoeur’s phenomenological hermeneutical method, developed by Lindseth and Norberg, was used. Findings: The nurses need four constituents (inner balance, unconditional respect for the patients’ integrity, a relationship with the patient characterized by reciprocal trust and a supportive environment) to be prepared and go through the transition from nurse to touch therapist (I). In the intervention study, no significant differences were shown for oxytocin levels between intervention and control group over time or within each day (II). There were significantly lower levels of anxiety for patients in the intervention group. There were no significant differences between the intervention and control groups for blood pressure, heart rate, the use of drugs, levels of sedation or blood glucose levels (III). The significance of receiving tactile touch during intensive care was described as the creation of an imagined room along with the touch therapist. In this imagined room, the patients enjoyed tactile touch and gained hope for the future (IV). Conclusion: Nurses needed internal and external balance to be prepared for providing tactile touch. Patients did not notice the surroundings as much as the nurses did. Patients enjoyed the tactile touch and experienced comfort. The impact on stress parameters were limited, except for levels of anxiety which declined significantly. The results gave some evidence for the benefit of tactile touch given to patients in intensive care.
  • Overud, Johanna, et al. (författare)
  • Från reserv till reserv : Genusaspekter på den regionala arbetsmarknadspolitiken
  • 2008
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sverige har vid olika tidpunkter lanserats satsningar för att skapa förutsättningar för en mer jämställd arbetsmarknad. Både politik och arbetsmarknad har genomgått betydande förändringar, något som i denna rapport studeras på regional nivå utifrån ett genusperspektiv. Studien placeras i skärningspunkten mellan arbetsmarknadspolitik, jämställdhetspolitik och regionalpolitik. Arbetsmarknadspolitiken har länge varit ett av de starkaste medlen för att uppnå målen med jämställdhetspolitiken. I den här rapporten undersöks den del av arbetsmarknadspolitiken som samverkar med den regionala utvecklingspolitiken och hur den utformas i relation till de jämställdhetspolitiska målen.<br/><br/>Rapportens huvudsyfte är att utifrån två tidsbilder diskutera möjligheter och problem som är förknippade med den politik som uppmuntrar och stimulerar kvinnor att övergå från hemarbete till lönearbete, respektive från lönearbete till företagande. Genom två nedslag i tiden i Jämtlands län illustreras en förskjutning i den politiska retoriken från lönearbete till företagande som avspeglas i olika arbetsmarknadssatsningar för att öka kvinnors förankring på arbetsmarknaden. Med en maktordning som underordnar kvinnor återkommer ett synsätt som leder till att politiska åtgärder gång på gång utformas utifrån synen på kvinnors arbetskraft som en reserv
  • Brorström, B., et al. (författare)
  • Perspektiv på framgångsrika kommuner
  • 2008
  • Bok (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I boken Perspektiv på framgångsrika kommuner sammanfattar Björn Brorström och Sven Siverbo tio års forskning om den organisatoriska och ekonomiska utvecklingen i kommuner och landsting. Boken bygger på teorier om vad som förklarar en god samhällsutveckling och på fyrtio fallstudier där både framgångsrika kommuner och så kallade kriskommuner har djupstuderats. Data har samlats in genom intervjuer med nyckelpersoner, men även på flera andra sätt såsom enkäter, observationer och dokumentstudier. Författarna ger en bild av tillståndet i kommunsektorn avseende demokrati och effektivitet och uttalar sig om möjligheter och hinder för en gynnsam utveckling.
  • Halleröd, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Accumulation of Welfare Problems in a Longitudinal Perspective
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Social Indicators Research. - 0303-8300. ; 88:2, s. 311-327
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The central aim of the present paper is to analyse the degree to which welfare problems accumulate over time and to what extent such an accumulation is related to class position and household formation. We utilize longitudinal data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, following a panel that was first interviewed in 1979 and, thereafter, re-interviewed three times (1986–87, 1994–95 and 2002–03). We use structural equation modelling to extract latent deprivation indexes based on seven manifest indicators. Thereafter, the indexes are used as input values in a latent growth curve (LGC) model when estimating an intercept variable and a slope variable. We finally estimate two structural models. In the first model, the relation over time between class position, class mobility and deprivation are estimated, and the second model deals with the relationship between household types, change of household type and deprivation. Several interesting results can be reported. We find a strong relationship between the deprivation indexes over time. The LGC model can also confirm a positive relationship between deprivation intercept and deprivation slope. That is, individuals who score high on the deprivation index from the beginning are increasingly prone to accumulate additional welfare problems over time. The analysis also reveals a clear class gradient as well as effects of class mobility. In addition, it is shown that deprivation affects class mobility, meaning that we can confirm selection effects. Also household constellation and changes of household type are closely connected to deprivation and changes in deprivation over time. The analysis reveals selection effects even in this case.
  • Petrov, Kristian (författare)
  • Construction, Reconstruction, Deconstruction: The Fall of the Soviet Union from the Point of View of Conceptual History
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Studies in East European Thought. - 0925-9392. ; 60:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The fall of the Soviet Union is analysed in conceptual terms, drawing on Reinhart Koselleck’s Begriffsgeschichte. The author seeks to interpret the instrumental role of the concepts perestrojka, glasnost´, reform, revolution, socialist pluralism, and acceleration in the Soviet collapse. The semantics and pragmatics are related to a wider intellectual and political context, and the conceptual perspective is used to help explain the progress of events. The author argues that the common notion of the reform policy concepts as clichés is not valid.
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