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  • Henricsson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • The outcome of tactile touch on oxytocin in intensive care patients: a randomised controlled trial
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing. - 0962-1067. ; 17:19, s. 2624-2633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim.  To explore the effects of five-day tactile touch intervention on oxytocin in intensive care patients. The hypotheses were that tactile touch increases the levels of oxytocin after intervention and over a six-day period.Background.  Research on both humans and animals shows a correlation between touch and increased levels of oxytocin which inspired us to measure the levels of oxytocin in arterial blood to obtain information about the physiological effect of tactile touch.Design.  Randomised controlled trial.Method.  Forty-four patients from two general intensive care units, were randomly assigned to either tactile touch (n = 21) or standard treatment – an hour of rest (n = 23). Arterial blood was drawn for measurement of oxytocin, before and after both treatments.Results.  No significant mean changes in oxytocin levels were found from day 1 to day 6 in the intervention group (mean −3·0 pM, SD 16·8). In the control group, there was a significant (p = 0·01) decrease in oxytocin levels from day 1 to day 6, mean 26·4 pM (SD 74·1). There were no significant differences in changes between day 1 and day 6 when comparing the intervention group and control group, mean 23·4 pM (95% CI −20·2–67·0).Conclusion.  Our hypothesis that tactile touch increases the levels of oxytocin in patients at intensive care units was not confirmed. An interesting observation was the decrease levels of oxytocin over the six-day period in the control group, which was not observed in the intervention group.Relevance to clinical practice.  Tactile touch seemed to reduce the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Further and larger studies are needed in intensive care units to confirm/evaluate tactile touch as a complementary caring act for critically ill patients.
  • Yang, Zhe, et al. (författare)
  • An Investigation of the Business Model in the Karlskrona Municipal Wireless Network in Sweden
  • 2008
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper, an investigation on an emerging operational "business model" for the municipal wireless network in the city of Karlskrona in Sweden is explored. We inquire into the association between of different actors involved in the business model implemented by Karlskrona municipality in our selected case study, and identify a number of key considerations in the business model and wireless city services for municipality when it is initializing and deploying the municipal wireless network as a business driven and public-utility driven service.
  • Helldin, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Experience of quality of life and attitude to care and treatment in patients with schizophrenia: Role of cross-sectional remission
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice. - 1365-1501. ; 12:2, s. 97
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveThe concept of cross-sectional remission was investigated in a sample of patients with schizophrenia. A total of 243 patients were tested for quality of life, burden and handicap, insight and satisfaction with the care provided in an epidemiological study. The question addressed was if remission is of importance for outcome.MethodsCross-sectional remission was defined by applying the symptom criteria of remission, where none of eight selected PANSS items should exceed 3 points. Out of 243 patients, 38% were in met cross-sectional remission. Quality of life was assessed with the MOS SF-36 and the Rosser Index. The Patients' understanding of their illness was assessed based on symptoms and disorder insight. Finally, attitudes to care and, health service were assessed by the UKU/Consumer Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Drug Attitude Inventory.ResultsPatients who were in cross-sectional remission reported higher quality of life and reduced burden related to the disorder, a greater level of insight into their symptoms and the illness, and a more positive attitude to treatment, including drugs.ConclusionThis study implies that remission, here expressed in terms of cross-sectional remission, is of importance for patients' well-being. Patients who had no interference from symptoms in their daily functioning found their life better, had a superior insight and were more positive to treatment.
  • Henricson, Maria (författare)
  • Tactile touch in intensive care
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to acquire knowledge about whether tactile touch as a complementary method can (i) promote comfort and (ii) reduce stress reactions during care in an intensive care unit (ICU) Method: In Paper I, five nurses with a touch therapist training were interviewed about their experiences of preparation before giving tactile touch in an ICU. To analyse the meaning of preparation as a phenomenon, Giorgi’s descriptive phenomenological approach was used. In Paper II and III a randomised controlled trial was set up to investigate the effects of a five-day tactile touch intervention on patients’ oxytocin levels in arterial blood (II), on patients’ blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose level, and on patients’ levels of anxiety, sedation and alertness (III). Forty-four patients were randomised to either an intervention group (n = 21) or a control group (n = 23). Data were analysed with non-parametric statistics. In Paper IV, six patients who had received the tactile touch intervention were interviewed to illuminate the experience of receiving tactile touch during intensive care. To gain a deeper understanding of the phenomenon and to illuminate the meaning, Ricoeur’s phenomenological hermeneutical method, developed by Lindseth and Norberg, was used. Findings: The nurses need four constituents (inner balance, unconditional respect for the patients’ integrity, a relationship with the patient characterized by reciprocal trust and a supportive environment) to be prepared and go through the transition from nurse to touch therapist (I). In the intervention study, no significant differences were shown for oxytocin levels between intervention and control group over time or within each day (II). There were significantly lower levels of anxiety for patients in the intervention group. There were no significant differences between the intervention and control groups for blood pressure, heart rate, the use of drugs, levels of sedation or blood glucose levels (III). The significance of receiving tactile touch during intensive care was described as the creation of an imagined room along with the touch therapist. In this imagined room, the patients enjoyed tactile touch and gained hope for the future (IV). Conclusion: Nurses needed internal and external balance to be prepared for providing tactile touch. Patients did not notice the surroundings as much as the nurses did. Patients enjoyed the tactile touch and experienced comfort. The impact on stress parameters were limited, except for levels of anxiety which declined significantly. The results gave some evidence for the benefit of tactile touch given to patients in intensive care.
  • Almasri, Abdullah, et al. (författare)
  • Clustering using Wavelet Transformation
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Handbook of research on cluster theory. - Cheltenham : Edward Elgar. - 978-1-84542-516-6 - 9781845425166 ; s. 169-186
  • Bokkapitel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
  • Andersson, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive ability and scale bias in the contingent valuation method : An analysis of willingness to pay to reduce mortality risk
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Environmental and Resource Economics. - 0924-6460. ; 39:4, s. 481-495
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigates whether or not the scale bias found in contingent valuation (CVM) studies on mortality risk reductions is a result of cognitive constraints among respondents. Scale bias refers to insensitivity and non-near-proportionality of the respondents’ willingness to pay (WTP) to the size of the risk reduction. Two hundred Swedish students participated in an experiment in which their cognitive ability was tested before they took part in a CVM-study asking them about their WTP to reduce bus-mortality risk. The results imply that WTP answers from respondents with a higher cognitive ability are less flawed by scale bias
  • Athlin, Elsy, 1945-, et al. (författare)
  • Grupphandledning i klinisk sjuksköterskeutbildning
  • 2008
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I ett samarbetsprojekt finansierat av UNISKA deltog 2 högskolor från Norge, Högskolan Dalarna och Karlstads universitet. Syftet var att stötta kliniska handledare till studenter inom sjuksköterske-program. Sammanlagt 49 sjuksköterskor deltog i grupphandlednng under ett år. Rapporten beskriver och utvärderar projektet.
  • Blomberg, Lars G, et al. (författare)
  • New Techniques for Sample Preparation in Analytical Chemistry
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sample preparation is often a bottleneck in systems for chemical analysis. The aim of this work was to investigate and develop new techniques to address some of the shortcomings of current sample preparation methods. The goal has been to provide full automation, on-line coupling to detection systems, short sample preparation times and high-throughput.In this work a new technique for sample preparation that can be connected on-line to liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC) has been developed. Microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) is a new solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique that is miniaturized and can be fully automated. In MEPS approximately 1 mg of sorbent material is inserted into a gas tight syringe (100-250 μL) as a plug. Sample preparation takes place on the packed bed. Evaluation of the technique was done by the determination of local anaesthetics in human plasma samples using MEPS on-line with LC and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). MEPS connected to an autosampler was fully automated and clean-up of the samples took about one minute. In addition, in the case of plasma samples the same plug of sorbent could be used for about 100 extractions before it was discarded.A further aim of this work was to increase sample preparation throughput. To do that disposable pipette tips were packed with a plug of porous polymer monoliths as sample adsorbent and were then used in connection with 96-well plates and LC-MS-MS. The evaluation of the methods was done by the analysis of local anaesthetics lidocaine and ropivacaine, and anti-cancer drug roscovitine in plasma samples. When roscovitine and lidocaine in human plasma and water samples were used as model substances, a 96-plate was handled in about two minutes. Further, disposable pipette tips may be produced at low cost and because they are used only once, carry-over is eliminated.
  • Edberg, Andreas, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • A comparative study of three different PCR assays for detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in urogenital specimens from men and women
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Microbiology. - 0022-2615. ; 57:Pt 3, s. 304-309
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to compare conventional 16S rRNA gene PCR, real-time 16S rRNA gene PCR and real-time Mycoplasma genitalium adhesin protein (MgPa) gene PCR as detection methods for M. genitalium infection. The study also determined the prevalence of M. genitalium in male and female patients attending a sexually transmitted infections clinic in a rural area in the west of Sweden. First void urine (FVU) and/or urethral swabs were collected from 381 men, and FVU and/or cervical swabs and/or urethral swabs were collected from 298 women. A total of 213 specimens were used in the PCR comparative study: 98 consecutively sampled specimens from patients enrolled in the prevalence study, 36 consecutively sampled specimens from patients with symptoms of urethritis and 79 specimens from patients positive for M. genitalium by real-time MgPa gene PCR in the prevalence study. A true-positive M. genitalium DNA specimen was defined as either a specimen positive in any two PCR assays or a specimen whose PCR product was verified by DNA sequencing. The prevalence of M. genitalium infection in men and women was 27/381 (7.1 %) and 23/298 (7.7 %), respectively. In the PCR comparative study, M. genitalium DNA was detected in 61/76 (80.3 %) of true-positive specimens by conventional 16S rRNA gene PCR, in 52/76 (68.4 %) by real-time 16S rRNA gene PCR and in 74/76 (97.4 %) by real-time MgPa gene PCR. Real-time MgPa gene PCR thus had higher sensitivity compared with conventional 16S rRNA gene PCR and had considerably increased sensitivity compared with real-time 16S rRNA gene PCR for detection of M. genitalium DNA. Real-time MgPa gene PCR is well suited for the clinical diagnosis of M. genitalium.
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