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  • Helldin, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Experience of quality of life and attitude to care and treatment in patients with schizophrenia: Role of cross-sectional remission
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice. - 1365-1501. ; 12:2, s. 97
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveThe concept of cross-sectional remission was investigated in a sample of patients with schizophrenia. A total of 243 patients were tested for quality of life, burden and handicap, insight and satisfaction with the care provided in an epidemiological study. The question addressed was if remission is of importance for outcome.MethodsCross-sectional remission was defined by applying the symptom criteria of remission, where none of eight selected PANSS items should exceed 3 points. Out of 243 patients, 38% were in met cross-sectional remission. Quality of life was assessed with the MOS SF-36 and the Rosser Index. The Patients' understanding of their illness was assessed based on symptoms and disorder insight. Finally, attitudes to care and, health service were assessed by the UKU/Consumer Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Drug Attitude Inventory.ResultsPatients who were in cross-sectional remission reported higher quality of life and reduced burden related to the disorder, a greater level of insight into their symptoms and the illness, and a more positive attitude to treatment, including drugs.ConclusionThis study implies that remission, here expressed in terms of cross-sectional remission, is of importance for patients' well-being. Patients who had no interference from symptoms in their daily functioning found their life better, had a superior insight and were more positive to treatment.
  • Svensson, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive ability and scale bias in the contingent valuation method : An analysis of willingness to pay to reduce mortality risk
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Environmental and Resource Economics. - 0924-6460. ; 39:4, s. 481-495
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigates whether or not the scale bias found in contingent valuation (CVM) studies on mortality risk reductions is a result of cognitive constraints among respondents. Scale bias refers to insensitivity and non-near-proportionality of the respondents’ willingness to pay (WTP) to the size of the risk reduction. Two hundred Swedish students participated in an experiment in which their cognitive ability was tested before they took part in a CVM-study asking them about their WTP to reduce bus-mortality risk. The results imply that WTP answers from respondents with a higher cognitive ability are less flawed by scale bias
  • Henricsson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • The outcome of tactile touch on oxytocin in intensive care patients: a randomised controlled trial
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing. - 0962-1067. ; 17:19, s. 2624-2633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim. To explore the effects of five-day tactile touch intervention on oxytocin in intensive care patients. The hypotheses were that tactile touch increases the levels of oxytocin after intervention and over a six-day period. Background. Research on both humans and animals shows a correlation between touch and increased levels of oxytocin which inspired us to measure the levels of oxytocin in arterial blood to obtain information about the physiological effect of tactile touch. Design. Randomised controlled trial. Method. Forty-four patients from two general intensive care units, were randomly assigned to either tactile touch ( n = 21) or standard treatment – an hour of rest ( n = 23). Arterial blood was drawn for measurement of oxytocin, before and after both treatments. Results. No significant mean changes in oxytocin levels were found from day 1 to day 6 in the intervention group (mean −3·0 pM, SD 16·8). In the control group, there was a significant ( p = 0·01) decrease in oxytocin levels from day 1 to day 6, mean 26·4 pM (SD 74·1). There were no significant differences in changes between day 1 and day 6 when comparing the intervention group and control group, mean 23·4 pM (95% CI −20·2–67·0). Conclusion. Our hypothesis that tactile touch increases the levels of oxytocin in patients at intensive care units was not confirmed. An interesting observation was the decrease levels of oxytocin over the six-day period in the control group, which was not observed in the intervention group. Relevance to clinical practice. Tactile touch seemed to reduce the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Further and larger studies are needed in intensive care units to confirm/evaluate tactile touch as a complementary caring act for critically ill patients.
  • Almasri, Abdullah, et al. (författare)
  • Clustering using Wavelet Transformation
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Handbook of research on cluster theory. - Cheltenham : Edward Elgar. - 978-1-84542-516-6 - 9781845425166 ; s. 169-186
  • Bokkapitel (populärvet., debatt m.m.)
  • Athlin, Elsy, 1945-, et al. (författare)
  • Grupphandledning i klinisk sjuksköterskeutbildning
  • 2008
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • I ett samarbetsprojekt finansierat av UNISKA deltog 2 högskolor från Norge, Högskolan Dalarna och Karlstads universitet. Syftet var att stötta kliniska handledare till studenter inom sjuksköterske-program. Sammanlagt 49 sjuksköterskor deltog i grupphandlednng under ett år. Rapporten beskriver och utvärderar projektet.
  • Edberg, Andreas, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • A comparative study of three different PCR assays for detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in urogenital specimens from men and women
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Medical Microbiology. - 0022-2615. ; 57:Pt 3, s. 304-309
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to compare conventional 16S rRNA gene PCR, real-time 16S rRNA gene PCR and real-time Mycoplasma genitalium adhesin protein (MgPa) gene PCR as detection methods for M. genitalium infection. The study also determined the prevalence of M. genitalium in male and female patients attending a sexually transmitted infections clinic in a rural area in the west of Sweden. First void urine (FVU) and/or urethral swabs were collected from 381 men, and FVU and/or cervical swabs and/or urethral swabs were collected from 298 women. A total of 213 specimens were used in the PCR comparative study: 98 consecutively sampled specimens from patients enrolled in the prevalence study, 36 consecutively sampled specimens from patients with symptoms of urethritis and 79 specimens from patients positive for M. genitalium by real-time MgPa gene PCR in the prevalence study. A true-positive M. genitalium DNA specimen was defined as either a specimen positive in any two PCR assays or a specimen whose PCR product was verified by DNA sequencing. The prevalence of M. genitalium infection in men and women was 27/381 (7.1 %) and 23/298 (7.7 %), respectively. In the PCR comparative study, M. genitalium DNA was detected in 61/76 (80.3 %) of true-positive specimens by conventional 16S rRNA gene PCR, in 52/76 (68.4 %) by real-time 16S rRNA gene PCR and in 74/76 (97.4 %) by real-time MgPa gene PCR. Real-time MgPa gene PCR thus had higher sensitivity compared with conventional 16S rRNA gene PCR and had considerably increased sensitivity compared with real-time 16S rRNA gene PCR for detection of M. genitalium DNA. Real-time MgPa gene PCR is well suited for the clinical diagnosis of M. genitalium.
  • Halleröd, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Accumulation of Welfare Problems in a Longitudinal Perspective
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Social Indicators Research. - 0303-8300. ; 88:2, s. 311-327
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The central aim of the present paper is to analyse the degree to which welfare problems accumulate over time and to what extent such an accumulation is related to class position and household formation. We utilize longitudinal data from the Swedish Survey of Living Conditions, following a panel that was first interviewed in 1979 and, thereafter, re-interviewed three times (1986–87, 1994–95 and 2002–03). We use structural equation modelling to extract latent deprivation indexes based on seven manifest indicators. Thereafter, the indexes are used as input values in a latent growth curve (LGC) model when estimating an intercept variable and a slope variable. We finally estimate two structural models. In the first model, the relation over time between class position, class mobility and deprivation are estimated, and the second model deals with the relationship between household types, change of household type and deprivation. Several interesting results can be reported. We find a strong relationship between the deprivation indexes over time. The LGC model can also confirm a positive relationship between deprivation intercept and deprivation slope. That is, individuals who score high on the deprivation index from the beginning are increasingly prone to accumulate additional welfare problems over time. The analysis also reveals a clear class gradient as well as effects of class mobility. In addition, it is shown that deprivation affects class mobility, meaning that we can confirm selection effects. Also household constellation and changes of household type are closely connected to deprivation and changes in deprivation over time. The analysis reveals selection effects even in this case.
  • Hussain, S., et al. (författare)
  • Performance Evaluation Based on the Robust Mahalanobis Distance and Multilevel Modelling Using Two New Strategies
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Communications in statistics. Simulation and computation. - 0361-0918. ; 37:10, s. 1966-1980
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this article, we propose a general framework for performance evaluation of organizations and individuals over time using routinely collected performance variables or indicators. Such variables or indicators are often correlated over time, with missing observations, and often come from heavy-tailed distributions shaped by outliers. Two new double robust and model-free strategies are used for evaluation (ranking) of sampling units. Strategy 1 can handle missing data using residual maximum likelihood (RML) at stage two, while strategy two handles missing data at stage one. Strategy 2 has the advantage that overcomes the problem of multicollinearity. Strategy one requires independent indicators for the construction of the distances, where strategy two does not. Two different domain examples are used to illustrate the application of the two strategies. Example one considers performance monitoring of gynecologists and example two considers the performance of industrial firms.
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