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1.
  • Svedberg, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Psychometric evaluation of “The 25-item Sex after MI Knowledge Test” in a Swedish context
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. - 0283-9318. ; 26:1, s. 203-208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The patients’ sexual life after a myocardial infarction is important for his/her quality of life. In spite of this, many patients are in doubt regarding their sex life after a myocardial infarction (MI) and the sexual information received, and counselling from health care providers has been seen to be insufficient. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of ‘The 25-item Sex after MI Knowledge Test’ in a Swedish context. A convenience sample was recruited. The scale was translated into Swedish and completed by 79 former patients from The Heart and Lung Patients’ National Association on two occasions, with an interval of 2 weeks. The scale was tested for face and content validity, internal consistency and test–retest reliability. The result in this study indicates that the instrument has good face and content validity and displayed a moderate internal consistency (alpha 0.61). The instrument showed some level of instability in test–retest reliability with 60% of the items presenting moderate or strong agreement between the test and retest. Further studies that use this instrument in larger and more diverse samples are thus needed.
2.
  • Frisk, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Pulp exposures in adults--choice of treatment among Swedish dentists.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Swedish dental journal. - 0347-9994. ; 37:3, s. 153-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study comprises a survey of Swedish dentists treatment preferences in cases of carious exposure of the dental pulp in adults. The survey was conducted as part of a comprehensive report on methods of diagnosis and treatment in endodontics, published in 2010 by the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment. A questionnaire was mailed to a random subsample of 2012 dental offices where one dentist at each office was requested to answer all questions. Each questionnaire contained one of three sets of questions about endodontic practice routines. Thus around one-third of the subsample received case-specific questions about treating carious exposure. Only general practitioners aged below 70 years were included. The final study sample comprised 412 participants. The dentists were presented with two case scenarios. In Case a 22-year old patient had a deep carious lesion in tooth 36 and in Case 2 a 50-year old patient had a deep carious lesion in tooth 14. The participants were asked to nominate their treatment of choice: pulp capping, partial pulpotomy or pulpectomy. For Case 1, 17 per cent of the respondents selected pulpectomy; the corresponding rate for Case 2 was 47 per cent. Female gender and age group 25-49 years were predictive of selection of less invasive treatment options. However, according to recent guidelines (2011) from the National Board of Health and Wellfare, Swedish dentists are recommended to elect pulpectomy prior to pulp capping/partial pulpotomy when confronted with a tooth having a cariously exposed pulp in adults.
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3.
  • Nohlert, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Comparison of a high and a low intensity smoking cessation intervention in a dentistry setting in Sweden
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMC Public Health. - 1471-2458. ; 9, s. 121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundTobacco is still the number one life style risk factor for ill health and premature death and also one of the major contributors to oral problems and diseases. Dentistry may be a potential setting for several aspects of clinical public health interventions and there is a growing interest in several countries to develop tobacco cessation support in dentistry setting. The aim of the present study was to assess the relative effectiveness of a high intensity intervention compared with a low intensity intervention for smoking cessation support in a dental clinic setting.Methods300 smokers attending dental or general health care were randomly assigned to two arms and referred to the local dental clinic for smoking cessation support. One arm received support with low intensity treatment (LIT), whereas the other group was assigned to high intensity treatment (HIT) support. The main outcome measures included self-reported point prevalence and continuous abstinence (≥ 183 days) at the 12-month follow-up.ResultsFollow-up questionnaires were returned from 86% of the participants. People in the HIT-arm were twice as likely to report continuous abstinence compared with the LIT-arm (18% vs. 9%, p = 0.02). There was a difference (not significant) between the arms in point prevalence abstinence in favour of the HIT-protocol (23% vs. 16%). However, point prevalence cessation rates in the LIT-arm reporting additional support were relatively high (23%) compared with available data assessing abstinence in smokers trying to quit without professional support.ConclusionScreening for willingness to quit smoking within the health care system and offering smoking cessation support within dentistry may be an effective model for smoking cessation support in Sweden. The LIT approach is less expensive and time consuming and may be appropriate as a first treatment option, but should be integrated with other forms of available support in the community. The more extensive and expensive HIT-protocol should be offered to those who are unable to quit with the LIT approach in combination with other support.
4.
  • Ståhlnacke, Katri, et al. (författare)
  • Self-perceived oral health among 65 and 75 years old in two Swedish counties
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Swedish Dental Journal. - Swedish Dental Journal (Sveriges Tandlakarforbund). - 0347-9994. ; 34:2, s. 107-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to investigate self-perceived oral health in two elderly populations, ages 65 and 75 years, and its relation to background factors, socioeconomic, individual, and dental health service system factors. Another purpose was to investigate if there were any differences in these respects, between the two age groups, born in 1932 or 1942. In two counties in Sweden, Örebro and Östergötland, all persons born in 1942 have been surveyed by mail every fifth year since 1992. In the year 2007 all persons born in 1932 were also surveyed using the same questionnaire. Those born in 1932 consisted of 3735 persons and those born in 1942 6078 persons. From an outline of a general model of inequalities in oral health data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and contingency tables with ?2 analysis. Multivariable analysis was performed by using multiple regression analysis. Factors related to self-perceived oral health were age group, social network, ethnicity, education, general health, tobacco habits, oral hygiene routines, dental visit habits and cost for care. The self-perceived oral health was overall rather high, especially in view of the studied ages, although it was worse for those of age 75. Socio-economic factors, dental health service system as well as individual lifestyle factors affected self-perceived oral health. To have a satisfying dental appearance, in the aspect of how you are judged by other people, was important for these age groups.This presents a challenge for dental health planners especially since the proportion of older age groups are growing.
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5.
  • Ketelhuth, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of a danger-associated peptide from apolipoprotein B100 (ApoBDS-1) that triggers innate proatherogenic responses
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 1524-45390009-7322. ; 124:22, s. 2433-431-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background- Subendothelial deposited low-density lipoprotein particles are a known inflammatory factor in atherosclerosis. However, the causal components derived from low-density lipoprotein are still poorly defined. Apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) is the unexchangeable protein component of low-density lipoprotein, and the progression of atherosclerosis is associated with immune responses to ApoB100-derived peptides. In this study, we analyzed the proinflammatory activity of ApoB100 peptides in atherosclerosis. Methods and Results- By screening a peptide library of ApoB100, we identified a distinct native peptide referred to as ApoB100 danger-associated signal 1 (ApoBDS-1), which shows sequence-specific bioactivity in stimulation of interleukin-8, CCL2, and interleukin-6. ApoBDS-1 activates mitogen-activated protein kinase and calcium signaling, thereby effecting the expression of interleukin-8 in innate immune cells. Ex vivo stimulation of carotid plaques with ApoBDS-1 enhances interleukin-8 and prostaglandin E(2) release. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ApoBDS-1-positive peptide fragments are present in atherosclerotic lesions using immunoassays and that low-molecular-weight fractions isolated from plaque show ApoBDS-1 activity inducing interleukin-8 production. Conclusions- Our data show that ApoBDS-1 is a previously unrecognized peptide with robust proinflammatory activity, contributing to the disease-promoting effects of low-density lipoprotein in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
6.
  • Svedberg, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Psychometric evaluation of a Swedish version of Krantz Health Opinion Survey
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Open Journal of Nursing. - 2162-5336. ; 2:3, s. 181-187
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psy- chometric properties of a Swedish version of The Krantz Health Opinion Survey (KHOS). A conven- ience sample of 79 persons (47 men and 32 women) was recruited from The Heart and Lung Patients’ National Association at ten local meeting places in different areas in Sweden. The questionnaire was examined for face and content validity, internal con-sistency and test-retest reliability. The findings showed that the Swedish version of KHOS is accept- able in terms of face and content validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability over time among 79 individuals >65 years of age and with a cardiac disease. In conclusion, wider evaluations of the psy- chometric use of KHOS for other populations and settings are recommended.
7.
  • Daderman, Anna M., et al. (författare)
  • Flunitrazepam intake in male offenders
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry. - Informa Healthcare. - 0803-9488. ; 66:2, s. 131-140
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The abuse of flunitrazepam (FZ) compounds is world-wide, and several studies have reflected on the consequences with regard to violence and criminal life-style of FZ users. Criminals take FZ or some other benzodiazepines to “calm down” before the planned crime. There is support from earlier studies that most likely, all benzodiazepines may increase aggression in vulnerable males. We have examined whether psychopathy as well as any of the four facets of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial) are related to different substance use disorders, with the focus on FZ. We have also examined the relationship between each PCL-R item and FZ use. Participants were 114 male offenders aged 14-35 years, all of whom were convicted for severe, predominantly violent, offences. Substance use, including FZ, was not more common in those who scored high in psychopaty. Use of FZ was more common in offenders who scored high in Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL-R (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% C.I. 1.86 - 9.94). Only one of the PCL-R items, “Criminal versatility”, was significantly associated with FZ use (odds ratio = 3.7). It may be concluded that intake of FZ has a specific relationship to only one of the facets and not to psychopathy per se. The findings have also important theoretical implications because Facet 4 is not a key factor of the construct of psychopathy.A short description of the clinical implications of the article: We have used the new 2-factor and 4-facet theoretical model of psychopathy in the young offender population, many of them with one or more substance use disorders. The present results suggest that antisocial behavior defined by Facet 4 (poor behavioral control, early behavior problems, juvenile delinquency, revocation of conditional release and criminal versatility) in the studied subjects, is more typical for FZ users than it is for non-FZ users. This may have implications for assessment and treatment. Clinicians should be aware that criminals with high scores on Facet 4 have a more than four-fold odds of being a FZ user. This conclusion has an important clinical implication because FZ abuse is very common and is not always the focus of a forensic psychiatric assessment.
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8.
  • Elg, M, et al. (författare)
  • Sustainable outcomes of an improvement programme: : do financial incentives matter?
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence. - Taylor and Francis (Routledge): SSH Titles. - 1478-3363. ; 24:7-8, s. 959-969
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether an improvement programme can contribute to positive sustainable improvements in an organisation, and whether financial incentives are driving forces for improvements. The material was all projects (n=232) that applied for funding in a county council improvement programme between 2007 and 2010. The projects were analysed as to whether they received funding (n=98) or were rejected (n=95). In addition, a categorisation of the projects intentions was analysed. Some projects were still ongoing, but 50 projects were implemented and sustained two or more years after being finalised. Implemented improvements were on different levels, from (micro-level) units up to the entire (macro-level) organisation. In addition, 27 rejected projects were finalised without funding. Eighteen of those 27 were sustainably implemented. This study indicates that there are incentives other than financial at work if an improvement programme contributes to sustainable improvements in the organisation. To encourage practice-based improvements is one way of incentivising the intention and effort to become and perform better.
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9.
  • Hultin, Margareta, et al. (författare)
  • Oral Rehabilitation of Tooth Loss: A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies of OHRQoL
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Prosthodontics. - 0893-2174. ; 25:6, s. 543-552
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: This study aimed to review published quantitative studies for evidence regarding the influence of oral rehabilitation following total or partial tooth loss on self-perceived oral health–related quality of life (OHRQoL). Materials and Methods: Three databases were searched using specified indexing terms. The reference lists of relevant publications were also searched manually. Quality of evidence was classified according to GRADE guidelines as high, moderate, low, or very low. Results: The search yielded 2,138 titles and abstracts, 2,102 of which were of a quantitative study design. Based on pre-established criteria, the full-text versions of 322 articles were obtained. After data extraction and interpretation, 5 publications of high or moderate study quality remained. The results of these 5 studies showed positive effects of oral rehabilitation on OHRQoL. Two studies showed substantial improvements. Conclusions: This is a relatively new field of research; there are very few quantitative studies of how patients perceive OHRQoL following tooth loss and subsequent rehabilitation. While this review indicates that treatment has positive effects on quality of life, the scientific basis is insufficient to support general conclusions about the influence of various interventions on the OHRQoL of patients who have experienced total or partial tooth loss. To achieve a more comprehensive analysis, it is recommended that future studies be based on a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, ie, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The follow-up period must also be appropriate for the specific intervention studied.
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10.
  • Öresland, Stina, et al. (författare)
  • Patients as 'safeguard' and nurses as 'substitute' in home health care
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nursing Ethics. - Sage Publications. - 0969-7330. ; 16:2, s. 219-230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One aim of this study was to explore the role, or subject position, patients take in the care they receive from nurses in their own home. Another was to examine the subject position that patients say the nurses take when giving care to them in their own home. Ten interviews were analysed and interpreted according to a discourse analytical method. The findings show that patients constructed their subject position as 'safeguard', and the nurses' subject position as 'substitute' for themselves. These subject positions provided the opportunities, and the obstacles, for the patients' possibilities to receive care in their home. The subject positions described have ethical repercussions and illuminate that the patients put great demands on tailored care.
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