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Sökning: swepub > Malmö universitet > Engelska > Göteborgs universitet > Chalmers tekniska högskola

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1.
  • Ciccozzi, Federico, et al. (författare)
  • Model-Driven Engineering for Mission-Critical IoT Systems
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: IEEE Software. - 0740-7459. ; 34:1, s. 46-53
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mission-critical Internet of Things (MC-IoT) systems involve heterogeneous things from both the digital and physical worlds. They run applications whose failure might cause significant and possibly dramatic consequences, such as interruption of public services, significant business losses, and deterioration of enterprise operations. These applications require not only high availability, reliability, safety, and security but also regulatory compliance, scalability, and serviceability. At the same time, they're exposed to various facets of uncertainty, spanning from software and hardware variability to mission planning and execution in possibly unforeseeable environments. Model-driven engineering can potentially meet these challenges and better enable the adoption of MC-IoT systems.
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3.
  • Isaksson, Simon, 1988-, et al. (författare)
  • Protein-Containing Lipid Bilayers Intercalated with Size-Matched Mesoporous Silica Thin Films
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nano Letters. - 1530-6984. ; 17:1, s. 476-485
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Proteins are key components in a multitude of biological processes, of which the functions carried out by transmembrane (membrane-spanning) proteins are especially demanding for investigations. This is because this class of protein needs to be incorporated into a lipid bilayer representing its native environment, and in addition, many experimental conditions also require a solid support for stabilization and analytical purposes. The solid support substrate may, however, limit the protein functionality due to protein material interactions and a lack of physical space. We have in this work tailored the pore size and pore ordering of a mesoporous silica thin film to match the native cell-membrane arrangement of the transmembrane protein human aquaporin 4 (hAQP4). Using neutron reflectivity (NR), we provide evidence of how substrate pores host the bulky water-soluble domain of hAQP4, which is shown to extend 7.2 nm into the pores of the substrate. Complementary surface analytical tools, including quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and fluorescence microscopy, revealed successful protein-containing supported lipid bilayer (pSLB) formation on mesoporous silica substrates, whereas pSLB formation was hampered on nonporous silica. Additionally, electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), light scattering (DLS and stopped-flow), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) were employed to provide a comprehensive characterization of this novel hybrid organic-inorganic interface, the tailoring of which is likely to be generally applicable to improve the function and stability of a broad range of membrane proteins containing water-soluble domains.
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4.
  • Woxenius, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Utilising more of the loading space in intermodal line trains – measures and decision support
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Computers in industry. - 0166-3615. ; 64:2, s. 146-154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The focus of this article is to identify, characterise and qualitatively evaluate the existing measures for increasing the utilisation of loading space in intermodal road-rail freight line trains. Normally, these trains operate like intercity passenger trains, because they make short unit load transhipment stops along rail corridors in order to travel comparatively small and short flows. The measures for loading space utilisation include adapting the train's capacity, changing the departure times, altering the train routes and sending trucks to different terminals as well as replacing rail transport with trucks. Some of the measures require improved information sharing, and executives can strengthen the effect of the measures by adding decision support systems and price incentives to transport buyers.
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6.
  • Bougas, Kostas, et al. (författare)
  • In vitro Evaluation of Calcium Phosphate Precipitation on Possibly Bioactive Titanium Surfaces in the Presence of Laminin.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Research. - 2029-283X. ; 2:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate calcium phosphate precipitation and the amount of precipitated protein on three potentially bioactive surfaces when adding laminin in simulated body fluid. Material and Methods: Blasted titanium discs were prepared by three different techniques claimed to provide bioactivity: alkali and heat treatment (AH), anodic oxidation (AO) or hydroxyapatite coating (HA). A blasted surface incubated in laminin-containing simulated body fuid served as a positive control (B) while a blasted surface incubated in non laminin-containing simulated body fuid served as a negative control (B-). The immersion time was 1 hour, 24 hours, 72 hours and 1 week. Surface topography was investigated by interferometry and morphology by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Analysis of the precipitated calcium and phosphorous was performed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and the adsorbed laminin was quantified by iodine (125I) labeling. Results: SEM demonstrated that all specimens except for the negative control were totally covered with calcium phosphate (CaP) after 1 week. EDX revealed that B- demonstrated lower sum of Ca and P levels compared to the other groups after 1 week. Iodine labeling demonstrated that laminin precipitated in a similar manner on the possibly bioactive surfaces as on the positive control surface. Conclusions: Our results indicate that laminin precipitates equally on all tested titanium surfaces and may function as a nucleation center thus locally elevating the calcium concentration. Nevertheless further studies are required to clarify the role of laminin in the interaction of biomaterials with the host bone tissue.
7.
  • Franke Stenport, Victoria, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • Precipitation of calcium phosphate in the presence of albumin on titanium implants with four different possibly bioactive surface preparations. An in vitro study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. - 0957-4530. ; 19:12, s. 3497-3505
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to compare the nucleating behaviour on four types of bioactive surfaces by using the simulated body fluid (SBF) model with the presence albumin. Titanium discs were blasted (B) and then prepared by alkali and heat treatment (AH), anodic oxidation (AO), fluoridation (F), or hydroxyapatite coating (HA). The discs were immersed in SBF with 4.5 mg/ml albumin for 3 days, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks and analysed with scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Topographic surface characterisation was performed with a contact stylus profilometer. The results demonstrated that the bioactive surfaces initiated an enhanced calcium phosphate (CaP) formation and a more rapid increase of protein content was present on the bioactive surfaces compared to the blasted control surface. The observation was present on all bioactive surfaces. The fact that there was a difference between the bioactive surfaces and the blasted control surface with respect to precipitation of CaP and protein content on the surfaces support the fact that there may be biochemical advantages in vivo by using a bioactive surface.
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8.
  • Fröjd, Victoria, 1986-, et al. (författare)
  • In situ analysis of multispecies biofilm formation on customized titanium surfaces.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Molecular oral microbiology. - 2041-1014. ; 26:4, s. 241-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many studies to identify surfaces that enhance the incorporation of dental implants into bone and soft-tissue have been undertaken previously. However, to succeed in the clinical situation, an implant surface must not support development of microbial biofilms with a pathogenic potential. As a first step in investigating this, we used two-species and three-species biofilm models with 16S ribosomal RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy to examine the effect of surface characteristics on biofilm formation by species that can colonize titanium implants in vivo: Streptococcus sanguinis, Actinomyces naeslundii and Lactobacillus salivarius. Surfaces blasted with Al(2) O(3) (S(a) = 1.0-2.0 μm) showed a seven-fold higher bacterial adhesion after 2 h than turned surfaces (S(a) = 0.18 μm) whereas porous surfaces, generated by anodic oxidation (S(a) = 0.4 μm), showed four-fold greater adhesion than turned surfaces. Hence, increased roughness promoted adhesion, most likely through protection of bacteria from shear forces. Chemical modification of the blasted and oxidized surfaces by incorporation of Ca(2+) ions reduced adhesion compared with the corresponding non-modified surfaces. After 14 h, biofilm growth occurred in the three-species model but not in the two-species consortium (containing S. sanguinis and A. naeslundii only). The biofilm biovolume on all surfaces was similar, suggesting that the influence of surface characteristics on adhesion was compensated for by biofilm development.
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9.
  • Göransson, Anna, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • An in vitro comparison of possibly bioactive titanium implant surfaces.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. - 1552-4965. ; 88:4, s. 1037-1047
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the study was to compare Ca and P formation (CaP) and subsequent bone cell response of a blasted and four different possibly bioactive commercially pure (cp) titanium surfaces; 1. Fluoride etched (Fluoride), 2. Alkali-heat treated (AH), 3. Magnesium ion incorporated anodized (TiMgO), and 4. Nano HA coated and heat treated (nano HA) in vitro. Furthermore, to evaluate the significance of the SBF formed CaP coat on bone cell response. The surfaces were characterized by Optical Interferometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). CaP formation was evaluated after 12, 24 and 72 h in simulated body fluid (SBF). Primary human mandibular osteoblast-like cells were cultured on the various surfaces subjected to SBF for 72 h. Cellular attachment, differentiation (osteocalcin) and protein production (TGF-beta(1)) was evaluated after 3 h and 10 days respectively. Despite different morphological appearances, the roughness of the differently modified surfaces was similar. The possibly bioactive surfaces gave rise to an earlier CaP formation than the blasted surface, however, after 72 h the blasted surface demonstrated increased CaP formation compared to the possibly bioactive surfaces. Subsequent bone cell attachment was correlated to neither surface roughness nor the amount of formed CaP after SBF treatment. In contrast, osteocalcin and TGF-beta(1) production were largely correlated to the amount of CaP formed on the surfaces. However, bone response (cell attachment, osteocalcin and TGF-F production) on the blasted controls were similar or increased compared to the SBF treated fluoridated, AH and TiMgO surface.
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10.
  • Meirelles, Luiz, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Bone reaction to nano hydroxyapatite modified titanium implants placed in a gap-healing model
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal Biomedical MAterials Research - A. - 1549-3296. ; 87:3, s. 624-631
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nanohydroxyapatite materials show similar chemistry to the bone apatite and depending on the underlying topography and the method of preparation, the nanohydroxyapatite may simulate the specific arrangement of the crystals in bone. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and other CaP materials have been indicated in cases in which the optimal surgical fit is not achievable during surgery, and the HA surface properties may enhance bone filling of the defect area. In this study, very smooth electropolished titanium implants were used as substrata for nano-HA surface modification and as control. One of each implant (control and nano HA) was placed in the rabbit tibia in a surgical site 0.7 mm wider than the implant diameter, resulting in a gap of 0.35 mm on each implant side. Implant stability was ensured by a fixating plate fastened with two side screws. Topographical evaluation performed with an optical interferometer revealed the absence of microstructures on both implants and higher resolution evaluation with AFM showed similar nanoroughness parameters. Surface pores detected on the AFM measurements had similar diameter, depth, and surface porosity (%). Histological evaluation demonstrated similar bone formation for the nano HA and electropolished implants after 4 weeks of healing. These results do not support that nano-HA chemistry and nanotopography will enhance bone formation when placed in a gap-healing model. The very smooth surface may have prevented optimal activity of the material and future studies may evaluate the synergic effects of the surface chemistry, micro, and nanotopography, establishing the optimal parameters for each of them.
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