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  • Élgan, Carina, et al. (författare)
  • To be content with one’s presentsituation: : Young women’s perceptionsof everyday life
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Nursing Research. - 0107-4083. ; 29:2, s. 14-18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to describe young women’s perceptions of lifestyle and how it was experienced in their daily lives. Traditionally, the outlook on illness and health is pathogenic, i.e. preventing illness and disease in order to achieve health, by focusing lifestyle behaviors such as physical activity and smoking. Lifestyle based on a salutary perspective cannot be measured or observed from the outside but must be described by the individual since lifestyle is an aspect of one’s life situation. Little is known about how lifestyle is perceived and what it means in ordinary people’s lives. Data were collected through interviews with 25 women selected by strategic sampling and analyzed using a phenomenographic approach. Three structural aspects emerged: enjoying life, living life, and balancing everyday life. Women described how they used lifestyle as a tool for achieving a sense of satisfaction, relaxation and happiness in everyday life. Lifestyle was also perceived as a never-ending balancing act between different personal needs and the expectations of others and society. It involved how the women used their time or lack of time as effectively as possible in order to organize their day. Lifestyle seems to be a tool in which intrinsic behaviors may be central to enhance quality of life and health. Intrinsic behaviors should be encouraged in salutary health promotion work.
  • Johansson, Anders, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in four reported symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders in a cohort of 50-year-old subjects followed up after 10 years
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6357. ; 66:1, s. 50-57
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To assess possible changes in the prevalence of four temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms reported by subjects at age 50 and again 10 years later. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Identical questionnaires were sent out in 1992 and in 2002 to all subjects born in 1942 and living in two Swedish counties. Of those who answered the four questions on TMD symptoms in 1992, 74% responded in 2002 (n=4639). The response alternatives were dichotomized into two groups: 1) No problems and 2) some, rather severe and severe problems. RESULTS: The mean prevalence of TMD-related symptoms reflected small and mainly non-significant changes, whereas the prevalence of reported bruxism was significantly greater at age 60 than at age 50. Among those with no TMD symptoms at age 50, 5-7% of the men and 8-9% of the women reported symptoms at age 60. Of those reporting one or more TMD symptoms at age 50, 47-65% of the men and 40-48% of the women had no symptoms 10 years later. There was a significant and markedly increased risk of reporting TMD symptoms and bruxism (OR>10) at age 60 among those who had symptoms at age 50. CONCLUSIONS: The mean prevalence of reported TMD symptoms was relatively consistent from age 50 to age 60. The group reporting symptoms at the first examination were highly likely still to have the symptoms 10 years later. However, approximately half of the subjects with TMD symptoms at age 50 reported no symptoms at age 60.
  • Johansson, Gunvi, et al. (författare)
  • Measuring oral health from a public health perspective
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Swedish Dental Journal. - 0347-9994. ; 32:3, s. 125-137
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper aims to analyse measures of oral health-related quality of life (OHQOL) from a Public Health perspective. Twenty-two measures were analysed conceptually as to their mirroring of the Public Health principles: empowerment, participation, holism and equity. Elements of empowerment were found in connection with application of the measures. Participation was found in using lay opinions during development in 12 measures. All measures analysed had elements of a holistic approach so far that they were not wholly biological. Two measures captured positive health effects. Measures were available for all ages, various languages and populations, an element of equity. No measure was wholly compatible with Public Health. They were based on a utilitarian theory not in full accordance with modern health promotion. There is a need to develop measures that more obviously capture the positive aspects of health and health as a process, as well as the personal perspective of oral health.
  • Lindahl, Britt, 1948-, et al. (författare)
  • Socio-scientific issues
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: US-China Education Review B. - 2161-6248. ; 1:3, s. 342-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • According to many documents, there is a strong need to renew science education. One way could be to work with SSI (socio-scientific issues). This paper reports on both students' and teachers' experiences and learning when working with socio-scientific issues in science education in secondary school (aged from 13 to 16). The approach is multidimensional, as factors that influence cognition as well as motivation and the forming of attitudes are complex. Results suggest that SSI work forms are more important than personal factors for explaining outcomes. Relevant issues, autonomy and functioning group work seem to be important aspects of successful SSI work together with structure provided by the teacher, and information that challenges previous knowledge. In general, SSI seems to be most efficient for students, who believe that they learn from presenting and discussing their knowledge, focus on "the large picture", acknowledge own responsibility for learning, find school science personally relevant and are self-efficacious. It seems that the outcomes from SSI work are much in the hands of the teacher. This paper is a short summary of the first year and quantitative part of the project. Further results from the project will later be found in our homepage (http://www.sisc.se).
  • Suhonen, Riitta, et al. (författare)
  • Adapting the Individualized Care Scale for cross-cultural comparison
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF CARING SCIENCES. - Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0283-9318. ; 24:2, s. 392-403
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rationale: Cross-cultural comparative studies using reliable and valid instruments can increase awareness of the differences and similarities between health workers ability to respond to patients individual needs within different health systems. This will enable a better understanding of cultural perspectives in individualized nursing care. Aim: To describe the translation and adaptation process of the Individualized Care Scale (ICS) and examine its reliability and validity in a cross-cultural study. Design: A cross-sectional comparative study. Settings: Twenty-seven orthopaedic and trauma in-patient units at 14 hospitals in 5 countries. Participants: A total of 1126 patients were included in the study: Finland (n = 425), Greece (n = 315), Sweden (n = 218), UK (n = 135) and USA (n = 33). Methods: A systematic forward-and back-translation procedure using bilingual techniques, a committee approach, pretest techniques and pilot testing were used with a convenience sample to produce a valid ICS for each participating group. Psychometric evaluation of the adapted ICS was based on means, SD, missing data analysis, Cronbachs alpha coefficients and average inter-item correlations. Construct validity was examined using sub-scale correlations to total scales and principal components analysis. Results: The use of the range of options and the sub-scale mean scores ranging from 2.72 to 4.30 demonstrated the sensitivity of the scale. Cronbachs alpha coefficients (0.77-0.97) and average inter-item correlations (0.37-0.77) were acceptable. The sub-scale correlations to total scales were high (0.83-0.97). The underlying theoretical construct of the ICS was demonstrated by the explained variances ranging from 58% to 79%. Conclusions: The ICS shows promise as a tool for evaluating individualized care in European cultures. The international expansion of an existing instrument developed for one country facilitates comparative studies across countries. There is a need to further test the construct validity and appropriateness of the ICS in different settings in European and nonwestern cultures.
  • Suhonen, Riitta, et al. (författare)
  • European orthopaedic and trauma patients perceptions of nursing care : a comparative study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING. - 0962-1067. ; 18:20, s. 2818-2829
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim. To compare English, Finnish, Greek and Swedish orthopaedic and trauma patients perceptions of nursing care received during hospitalisation. Background. Patient perceptions are important when evaluating nursing care delivery. Evaluations usually take place sub-nationally though European citizens may be treated throughout the European Union. International comparative studies are possible because of the universal nature and philosophical roots of quality in nursing care. They are needed to assist in improving care outcomes. Design. A cross-sectional, comparative study design was used. Method. The Schmidt Perception of Nursing Care Survey was used to obtain data from orthopaedic and trauma patients in acute hospitals in four countries: Finland (n = 425, response rate 85%), Greece (n = 315, 86%), Sweden (n = 218, 73%) and UK (n = 135, 85%). Data were first analysed using descriptive statistics, then between-country comparisons were computed inferentially using a one-way analysis of variance and a univariate analysis of covariance. Results. Between-country differences were found in patients perceptions of the nursing care received. Over the whole Schmidt Perception of Nursing Care Survey the Swedish and Finnish patients gave their care the highest assessments and the Greek patients the lowest. The same trend was seen in each of the four sub-scales: Seeing The Individual Patient, Explaining, Responding and Watching. Responding was given the highest assessments in each participating country and Seeing the Individual Patient the lowest except in Greece. Conclusions. Further research is needed to consider whether the between-country differences found are caused by differences between cultures, nursing practices, roles of healthcare personnel or patients in the different countries. The Schmidt Perception of Nursing Care Survey is suitable for the assessment of European orthopaedic and trauma patients perceptions of nursing care received during hospitalisation. Relevance to clinical practice. The results are useful in evaluating and developing nursing care in hospitals from different European countries.
  • Idvall, Ewa, et al. (författare)
  • Nurses’ sociodemographic background and assessments of individualized care
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nursing Scholarship. - 1527-6546. ; 44:3, s. 284-293
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the association between nurses’ characteristics (educational level, country, work title, gender, type of work, age, and length of working experience) and their assessments of individualized care. Design: A cross-sectional comparative survey using questionnaires was employed to sample nurses from seven countries. Methods: Data were collected from orthopedic and trauma nurses from Cyprus, Finland, Greece, Portugal, Sweden, Turkey, and the United States (N= 1,163, response rate 70%) using the Individualized Care Scale-Nurse (ICS-Nurse) and a sociodemographic questionnaire in 2008. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and general linear models. Results: When compared with practical nurses, registered nurses, length of working experience, and the country of the nurses were associated with assessments of the support of patient individuality in specific nursing activities (ICS-A-Nurse) and country assessments of individuality in the care provided (ICS-B-Nurse). The background and experience within nursing teams together with the country affect the delivery of individualized care. Conclusions: Overall, our findings suggest that nurses’ personal attributes have important effects on their assessments of individualized nursing care that will be useful when making context-dependent recruitment decisions. Clinical Relevance: The characteristics of nurses contribute to the care delivered in healthcare organizations. Recognition of these nurse-related factors may help nurse leaders in the development and management of clinical practice.
  • Löfgren, Lena, 1947- (författare)
  • Everything has its processes, one could say
  • 2009
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Denna avhandling handlar om elevers lärande och meningsskapande i naturvetenskap. Det teoretiska ramverket bygger på Human Constructivism. Detta perspektiv framhåller det unika samspel som äger rum mellan tankar, känslor och handlingar då människor skapar mening. Perspektivet betonar också språkets viktiga roll i lärandeprocesser.Avhandlingens syfte är att få mer kunskap om hur enskilda elever utvecklar förståelse av processer i vilka olika sorters materieomvandlingar sker. Sådan kunskap är värdefull vid utvecklandet av undervisningsansatser som kan leda till meningsfullt lärande.En tioårig longitudinell studie har genomförts i vilken 20 elevers uppfattningar om materia och dess omvandlingar har följts från 7 till 16 år. I intervjuer genomförda en eller två gånger per år beskrev och förklarade eleverna materieomvandlingarna i tre situationer: vad händer med vissna löv som ligger kvar på marken, vart tar stearinet från ett brinnande ljus vägen och hur uppstår imman som syns på insidan av en glasskiva som lagts ovanpå ett glas med vatten. Som en del i studien introducerades redan vid 7 års ålder idén om materiens partikelnatur.Denna studie bidrar, i förhållande till tidigare studier om elevers uppfattningar om materieomvandlingar, med att visa hur elever utvecklar sin förmåga att förklara sådana processer i vardagssituationer. Studien visar att elever utvecklar förståelse för fenomenen med en tydligt personlig prägel. Det finns en spridning i elevernas förmåga att använda sina erfarenheter och skolans naturvetenskap för att på ett fruktbart sätt utveckla sina idéer i mer vetenskaplig riktning. Denna spridning ökar under grundskoletiden.Studien visar de unga elevernas förmåga att använda ett enkelt molekylbegrepp på ett produktivt sätt i sina förklaringar av situationerna men visar också de äldre elevernas svårigheter att använda naturvetenskapen som undervisas de senare skolåren. En slutsats är att viktiga begrepp som partikelmodellen skulle kunna introduceras tidigt i skolan men bara om begreppet kontinuerligt bearbetas och utvecklas.De tidiga erfarenheternas betydelse för utvecklingen av elevernas idéer har tydliggjorts genom det longitudinella upplägget av studien. Genom att följa individuella elevers meningsskapande under en tioårsperiod och genom att låta dem kommentera de egna intervjuerna har det blivit synligt att meningsfullt lärande tar tid.Olika typer av longitudinella studier som kan ge oss ytterligare kunskap om elevers meningsfulla lärande i förhållande till läro- och kursplaner efterfrågas som en följd av studiens resultat. Longitudinella studier som kan beskriva hur elever och/eller lärare förändrar sina uppfattningar om meningen med skolan över tid efterfrågas också.
  • Suhonen, Riitta, et al. (författare)
  • Cross-cultural validity of the Individualised Care Scale – a Rasch model analysis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing. - 0962-1067. ; 22:5-6, s. 648-660
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims and objectives.  The aim of this study was to investigate, using Rasch model analysis, the measurement invariance of the item ratings of the Individualised Care Scale. Background.  Evidence of reliability is needed in cross-cultural comparative studies. To be used in different cultures and languages, the items must function the same way. Design.  A methodological and comparative design. Methods.  Secondary analysis of data, gathered in 2005–2006 from a cross-cultural survey using the Individualised Care Scale from Finnish, Greek, Swedish and English predischarge hospitalised orthopaedic and trauma patients (n = 1093), was used. The Rasch model, which produces calibrations (item locations and rank) and item fit statistics, was computed using the Winstep program. Results.  The rank of average Individualised Care Scale item calibrations (−2·26–1·52) followed a generally similar trend (Infit ≤ 1·3), but slight differences in the item rank by country were found and some item misfit was identified within the same items. There was some variation in the order and location of some Individualised Care Scale items for individual countries, but the overall pattern of item calibration was generally corresponding. Conclusions.  The Rasch model provided information about the appropriateness, sensitivity and item function in different cultures providing more in-depth information about the psychometric properties of the Individualised Care Scale instrument. Comparison of the four versions of the Individualised Care Scale – patient revealed general correspondence in the item calibration patterns although slight differences in the rank order of the items were found. Some items showed also a slight misfit. Based on these results, the phrasing and targeting of some items should be considered. Relevance to clinical practice.  The Individualised Care Scale – Patient version can be used in cross-cultural studies for the measurement of patients’ perceptions of individualised care. Information obtained with the use of the Individualised Care Scale in clinical nursing practice is important, and valid measures are needed in evaluating patients’ assessment of individualised care, one indicator of care quality.
  • Westergren, Albert, et al. (författare)
  • Malnutrition prevalence and precision in nutritional care differed in relation to hospital volume
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nutrition Journal. - 1475-2891. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: To explore the point prevalence of the risk of malnutrition and the targeting of nutritional interventions in relation to undernutrition risk and hospital volume. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey performed in nine hospitals including 2 170 (82.8%) patients that agreed to participate. The hospitals were divided into large, middle, and small sized hospitals. Undernutrition risk and overweight (including obesity) were assessed. RESULTS: The point prevalence of moderate/high undernutrition risk was 34%, 26% and 22% in large, middle and small sized hospitals respectively. The corresponding figures for overweight were 38%, 43% and 42%. The targeting of nutritional interventions in relation to moderate/high undernutrition risk was, depending on hospital size, that 7-17% got Protein- and Energy Enriched food (PE-food), 43-54% got oral supplements, 8-22% got artificial nutrition, and 14-20% received eating assistance. Eating assistance was provided to a greater extent and artificial feeding to a lesser extent in small compared to in middle and large sized hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of malnutrition risk and the precision in provision of nutritional care differed significantly depending on hospital volume, i.e. case mix. It can be recommended that greater efforts should be taken to increase the use of PE-food and oral supplements for patients with eating problems in order to prevent or treat undernutrition. A great effort needs to be taken in order to also decrease the occurrence of overweight.
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