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  • Andersson, Bodil T., et al. (författare)
  • Radiographers' areas of professional competence related to good nursing care
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. - 0283-9318. ; 22:3, s. 401-409
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Radiographers' ability and competence is a matter of vital importance for patients. Nursing care is an integral part of the radiographer's work. The demand for high competence in clinical activities has increased in diagnostic radiology and has had an impact on the development of the profession.AIM: The aim was to describe the radiographer's areas of professional competence in relation to good nursing care based on critical incidents that occur in the course of radiological examinations and interventions.METHOD: A descriptive design with a qualitative approach, using the Critical Incident Technique was employed. Interviews were conducted with a strategic sample of registered radiographers (n = 14), based at different hospitals in Sweden.ETHICAL ISSUES: The appropriate ethical principles were followed. All the participants provided informed consent, and formal approval for conducting the research was obtained according to national and local directives.RESULTS: The data analysis resulted in two main areas; direct and indirect patient-related areas of competence, which describe the radiographers' skills that either facilitate or hinder good nursing care. In the direct patient-related area of competence, four categories emerged, which illustrate good nursing care in the patient's immediate surroundings. In the indirect patient-related area of competence, four categories illuminated good nursing care that is provided without direct contact with the patient.CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the different areas of the radiographer's unique professional competence. The findings provide insight into the radiographer's profession, on one hand as a carer and on the other as a medical technologist as well as highlighting the importance of each role. The radiographer's work encompasses a variety of components--from caring for the patient to handling and checking the technical equipment.
  • Nilsson, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • Tooth loss and cognitive functions among older adults
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6357. ; 72:8, s. 639-644
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To evaluate the association between the number of teeth and cognitive functions adjusted for age and education level in a cohort of older adults living in Sweden.Materials and methods: The study employed a cross-sectional design in which 1147 individuals between 60-96 years underwent a clinical oral examination. The cognitive functions were assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock-test. The level of education was obtained from a questionnaire. Data were subjected to Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed, grouping the different variables into pre-determined categories.Results: The co-variables age and education were significantly associated with the number of teeth (p < 0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the association between the number of teeth and the cognitive functions persisted even after adjusting for age and level of education.Conclusions: The findings suggest that the presence of teeth may be of importance for cognitive abilities in older adults.
  • Johansson, Gunvi, et al. (författare)
  • Measuring oral health from a public health perspective
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Swedish Dental Journal. - 0347-9994. ; 32:3, s. 125-137
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper aims to analyse measures of oral health-related quality of life (OHQOL) from a Public Health perspective. Twenty-two measures were analysed conceptually as to their mirroring of the Public Health principles: empowerment, participation, holism and equity. Elements of empowerment were found in connection with application of the measures. Participation was found in using lay opinions during development in 12 measures. All measures analysed had elements of a holistic approach so far that they were not wholly biological. Two measures captured positive health effects. Measures were available for all ages, various languages and populations, an element of equity. No measure was wholly compatible with Public Health. They were based on a utilitarian theory not in full accordance with modern health promotion. There is a need to develop measures that more obviously capture the positive aspects of health and health as a process, as well as the personal perspective of oral health.
  • Wann-Hansson, Christine, et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors and prevention among patients with hospital-acquired and pre-existing pressure ulcers in an acute care hospital
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Nursing. - Blackwell Publishing. - 0962-1067. ; 17:13, s. 1718-1727
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims and objectives. This study aimed to describe and identify risk factors associated with hospital-acquired pressure ulcers among adults in an acute care hospital compared with patients with pre-existing pressure ulcers present on admission. A further aim was to identify the preventive measures performed with both groups respectively. Background. Pressure ulcers occur most often in older and immobile persons with severe acute illness and neurological deficits. However, few studies have addressed risk factors that are associated with hospital-acquired pressure ulcers compared with patients with pre-existing pressure ulcers. Design. A point prevalence study with a cross-sectional survey design was conducted at a Swedish university hospital. Method. Data on 535 patients were recorded using a modified version of the protocol developed and tested by the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, including the Braden scale for risk assessment. Results. The prevalence of pressure ulcers was 27% (95% confidence interval, 23-31%). Higher age and a total Braden score below 17 were significantly associated with the presence of pressure ulcers. Among individual risk factors higher age, limited activity level and friction and shear while seated or lying down were associated with hospital-acquired pressure ulcers, whereas only higher age and friction and shear were associated with the presence of pressure ulcers in the overall sample. There was an overall sparse use of preventive measures to relieve pressure. Conclusion. The findings of the present study revealed that pressure ulcers and the insufficient use of preventive measure to relieve pressure is still a problem in acute care settings. A continued focus must be placed on staff training in identifying patients at risk for pressure ulcers development. Relevance to clinical practice. Increasing the ability to identify patients who are at risk for pressure ulcer development can assist in preventing unnecessary complications and suffering as well as reduce costs.
  • Ny, Pernilla, et al. (författare)
  • Health education to prevent anemia among women of reproductive age in southern India
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Health care for women international. - Taylor & Francis. - 0739-9332. ; 27:2, s. 131-144
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study, we used a narrow, but easily measured, indicator of how communication proceeded among health workers and women in Southern India. Anemia prevention during pregnancy was studied using a semistructured questionnaire. Participants included 5 nurses, 10 health aides, and 10 (traditional birth attendants) TBAs working with maternal health care and education, as well as 32 women seeking maternal health care. Those women who received health education where they lived, from health workers they knew, and together with participants familiar to them learned more about anemia prevention than others.
  • Klinge, B, et al. (författare)
  • Peri-implant tissue destruction : The Third EAO Consensus Conference 2012
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical Oral Implants Research. - 0905-7161. ; 23:Suppl 6, s. 108-110
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: The task of this working group was to update the existing knowledge base regarding the prevalence of peri-implant tissue destruction, the role of occlusal overload, and the outcome of non-surgical and surgical treatment.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature was systematically searched and critically reviewed. Four manuscripts were presented in key areas deemed to be essential for the current understanding of the magnitude of the clinical entity peri-implantitis. The role of overload as an etiological component was reviewed. Also available data on the results from non-surgical and surgical interventions for the control of tissue destruction were presented.RESULTS: The consensus statements following plenary session approval, clinical implications, and directions for future research based on the group discussions are presented in this article. The results and conclusions of the systematic review process are presented by the respective authors in the subsequent papers.
  • Johansson, Anders, 1957-, et al. (författare)
  • Differences in four reported symptoms related to temporomandibular disorders in a cohort of 50-year-old subjects followed up after 10 years
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. - 0001-6357. ; 66:1, s. 50-57
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To assess possible changes in the prevalence of four temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms reported by subjects at age 50 and again 10 years later. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Identical questionnaires were sent out in 1992 and in 2002 to all subjects born in 1942 and living in two Swedish counties. Of those who answered the four questions on TMD symptoms in 1992, 74% responded in 2002 (n=4639). The response alternatives were dichotomized into two groups: 1) No problems and 2) some, rather severe and severe problems. RESULTS: The mean prevalence of TMD-related symptoms reflected small and mainly non-significant changes, whereas the prevalence of reported bruxism was significantly greater at age 60 than at age 50. Among those with no TMD symptoms at age 50, 5-7% of the men and 8-9% of the women reported symptoms at age 60. Of those reporting one or more TMD symptoms at age 50, 47-65% of the men and 40-48% of the women had no symptoms 10 years later. There was a significant and markedly increased risk of reporting TMD symptoms and bruxism (OR>10) at age 60 among those who had symptoms at age 50. CONCLUSIONS: The mean prevalence of reported TMD symptoms was relatively consistent from age 50 to age 60. The group reporting symptoms at the first examination were highly likely still to have the symptoms 10 years later. However, approximately half of the subjects with TMD symptoms at age 50 reported no symptoms at age 60.
  • Laine, Marja L, et al. (författare)
  • IL-1RN gene polymorphism is associated with peri-implantitis
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: CLINICAL ORAL IMPLANTS RESEARCH. - 0905-7161. ; 17:4, s. 380-385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta and their natural specific inhibitor IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) play a key role in the regulation of the inflammatory response in periodontal tissues. Polymorphisms in the IL-1 gene cluster have been associated with severe adult periodontitis. We aimed to investigate the IL-1 gene cluster polymorphisms in patients with peri-implantitis.MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 120 North Caucasian individuals. A total of 71 patients (mean age 68 years, 76% smokers) demonstrating peri-implantitis at one or more implants as evidenced by bleeding and/or pus on probing and bone loss amounting to >3 threads on Brånemark implants and 49 controls (mean age 66 years, 45% smokers) with clinical healthy mucosa and no bone loss around the implants were recruited for the study. The titanium implants, ad modum Brånemark, had been in function for at least 2 years. Mouthwash samples were collected and used for genotyping of the bi-allelic polymorphisms IL-1A(-889), IL-1B(+3953), IL-1B(-511) and a variable number of tandem repeat IL-1RN gene polymorphisms using PCR technique.RESULTS: Significant differences were found in the carriage rate of allele 2 in the IL-1RN gene between peri-implantitis patients and controls (56.5% vs. 33.3%, respectively; odds ratios (OR) 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-5.6; P=0.015). Logistic regression analysis taking smoking, gender and age into account confirmed the association between the IL-1RN allele 2 carriers and peri-implantitis (OR 3; 95% CI 1.2-7.6; P=0.02).CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence that IL-1RN gene polymorphism is associated with peri-implantitis and may represent a risk factor for this disease.
  • Lindahl, Britt, 1948-, et al. (författare)
  • Socio-scientific issues
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: US-China Education Review B. - 2161-6248. ; 1:3, s. 342-347
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • According to many documents, there is a strong need to renew science education. One way could be to work with SSI (socio-scientific issues). This paper reports on both students' and teachers' experiences and learning when working with socio-scientific issues in science education in secondary school (aged from 13 to 16). The approach is multidimensional, as factors that influence cognition as well as motivation and the forming of attitudes are complex. Results suggest that SSI work forms are more important than personal factors for explaining outcomes. Relevant issues, autonomy and functioning group work seem to be important aspects of successful SSI work together with structure provided by the teacher, and information that challenges previous knowledge. In general, SSI seems to be most efficient for students, who believe that they learn from presenting and discussing their knowledge, focus on "the large picture", acknowledge own responsibility for learning, find school science personally relevant and are self-efficacious. It seems that the outcomes from SSI work are much in the hands of the teacher. This paper is a short summary of the first year and quantitative part of the project. Further results from the project will later be found in our homepage (http://www.sisc.se).
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