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Sökning: swepub > Malmö högskola > Engelska > Licentiatavhandling

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  • Jingryd, Ola (författare)
  • Impartial contract-engineeering in real estate transactions : : the Swedish broker and the Latin notary
  • 2008
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Even in the days of an ever closer European union, Europe contains no less than four different legal cultures with respect to real estate conveyances: the Latin-German notary system, the deregulated Dutch notary system, the lawyer/solicitor system, and the Scandinavian licensed real estate broker system. The latter is of particular interest in that Scandinavian brokers play a far larger role in real estate transactions than their European counterparts. This paper examines and compares the Swedish real estate broker and the Latin notary. The Swedish broker is required by law to act as an impartial intermediary, to provide counseling to both parties, and to assist in drawing up all contracts and other documents necessary for the transaction at hand. To that end, the broker must be active and observant of the particular needs of the parties to the present transaction, always striving to enable them to reach equitable and practical agreements so as to prevent future disputes. In other words, the broker is required to tailor the transaction to fit the needs of the buyer and seller. The Latin notary profession prevails in large parts of the world, particularly the Latin-German parts of continental Europe, and Latin America. While there are divergences in the notarial laws of all countries, the similarities are greater still, and it is correct to speak of a single profession throughout all these countries. The notary carries out several important functions, the nexus of which is the authentication of legal documents. In the preparation of these documents, the notary is required to provide impartial counseling in order to tailor the transaction at hand to fit the will and needs of the parties. To uphold the integra fama of the profession, and to safeguard the proper performance of the notarial functions, lawgivers in all countries emphasize the importance of impartiality and integrity. There are national divergences as to the specific rules of conduct related to impartiality, particularly those concerning what activities are considered incompatible with the notariat, but they rest on common principles. Most importantly, not only must the publica fides be honored, it must be seen in the eyes of the public to be honored. The organization and regulation of the notary profession raises important economic issues, particularly with regard to competition/monopoly and market failures. The discussion of the regulation or deregulation of the notariat is by no means settled. Comparing the two professions, it is striking to see the enormous similarities in the legal frameworks and their respective rationales. Two common features are of particular interest. Firstly, both the Swedish broker and the Latin notary are required to assist the contracting parties in the contract phase, drawing up any necessary documents and counseling the parties as to the implications of the transaction. In that respect, both professions function as tailors to the transaction. Secondly, both the broker and the notary are required to act impartially and independently – impartially visavi the contracting parties, and independently in order to preserve the public faith in the independence and integrity of the professions. The similarities can be summarized as a function on the real estate market: impartial counseling and contract-engineering. This function exists alongside other functions, such as the brokers’ traditional matchmaking, or the registration of property rights. This functional approach may prove very useful in all kinds of analyses of the real estate market, whether of political, legal, or economic nature. For instance, with respect to the merits and/or necessity of the Swedish impartiality rule, those wishing to amend the law and introduce a system of overtly partial brokers acting solely on behalf of their principal have to face the question of what is to become of counseling for the principal’s counterpart. Should the counterpart be forced to choose between hiring their own legal counsel or make do without? Further, those wishing to contest the mandatory notarial intervention in real estate transactions have to face the same question: what is to happen to impartial counseling, given not only to the client but also to the client’s counterpart? Both instances illustrate the common feature shared by the two examined professions: impartial contract-engineering and counseling. To complete the picture and cover the whole arena of real estate transactions, the next logical step is therefore to compare and analyze different systems for registration of property rights. Doing so will hopefully achieve a tool for examining the real estate market that will prove useful indeed, particularly in future discussions concerning European harmonization.
  • Johansson, Gunvi, 1950- (författare)
  • Oral health-related quality of life and young adults
  • 2009
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Syftet var att ur ett folkhälsoperspektiv beskriva och analysera olika instrument för att mäta livskvalitet som är relaterad till oral hälsa (OHRQOL) och att undersöka unga vuxnas syn på tandvården. Metoderna som användes var en litteraturstudie (Arbete I) och en empirisk studie med kvalitativ design (Arbete II). Tjugotvå mätinstrument för oral hälsorelaterad livskvalitet (OHRQOL) analyserades ur ett folkhälsoperspektiv för att bedöma huruvida fyra principer förknippade med folkhälsoarbete återfanns i instrumenten. De fyra principerna var empowerment, deltagande, holism och jämlikhet. I Arbete II intervjuades unga vuxna i åldern 21- 30 år, som gjorde regelbundna tandvårdsbesök, om sin syn på tandvården. Data från 11 intervjuer analyserades i enlighet med komparativ metod. Resultatet i Arbete I visade att det fanns inslag av de fyra principerna för folkhälsoarbete i mätinstrumenten för OHRQOL. Det fanns mätinstrument för olika åldrar men inga mätinstrument var specifikt anpassade till unga vuxna. I Arbete II framkom två olika principiella synsätt i de unga vuxnas syn på tandvården: patientens syn på tandvårdskostnader och patientens förhållningssätt till beskrivna funktioner inom tandvården. Tandvårdskostnaderna såväl som synpunkter på behandlingen, som de dock inte framförde till tandvårdspersonalen, bedömdes vara viktiga. Unga vuxna tycks ha specifika synpunkter och krav på tandvården som inte speglas i de analyserade mätinstrumenten för OHRQOL. En angelägen uppgift skulle därför vara att undersöka unga vuxnas behov och förväntningar vad gäller oral hälsorelaterad livskvalitet och tandvård.
  • Palm, Peter (författare)
  • Closing the loop The use of post occupancy evaluations in real-estate management
  • 2008
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The real-estate sector has traditionally been thinking in terms of “bricks and mortar” focusing more on the buildings than on the tenants. A change of approach has, however, been detected since the mid 1990s. The tenant is now more in focus. This new situation puts higher requirements on both the individual real-estate manager’s and organization’s ability to determine the needs of the tenants. Evaluations and knowledge management can be a help in this process Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) is one tool where the tenant’s perspective is in focus.The purpose of this thesis is to study the Swedish real-estate sector’s attitudes and experience of POE. Furthermore the purpose is to investigate how POE can be implemented in the organization and what barriers there are to implementation.This thesis presents three empirical studies of the real-estate sector and their use of POE. The first study is a survey sent to Swedish real-estate managers to determine their attitudes and experience of POE. This study was followed up by a more in-depth interview study to determine the attitudes regarding POE among the real-estate managers. The third study was also an interview study and it was carried out with individuals in leading positions in organizations in the real-estate sector. The aim of this study was to get a clearer view of possibilities for change and barriers to change within the real-estate sectorThe results show that there is an interest from the real-estate managers towards evaluations but that they rarely carry out evaluations. The main barrier detected is the lack of support from top management and this has resulted in a lack of incentives for realestate managers to work with POE. The reason for this lack of interest from the top management can be the culture of the real-estate sector, a culture which has sprung from the building sector.The conclusion is that problems will not be solved solely by implementing POE. The organisation must take care of the information, share it, learn from it and use it in the best way in current and future projects. This can only be done by implanting a knowledge management system.To enable this kind of change within the organisation the top management must underline the importance of this and at the same time give the organisation both the right tools to enable implementation and incentives to carry this out and follow it through. One way to show the importance of knowledge management, and at the same time create incentives and methods to follow up the development of the organisation is to integrate POE in the Balanced Scorecard.The conclusion is that if the top management doesn’t want the organisation to fall behind its competitors it must put knowledge management on the agenda. Sooner or later the competitors will implement evaluations and knowledge management in their organisations, and then it is only a question of time before they have built a better and stronger organisation, with better-qualified employees, that generates more efficient services and more satisfied customers.
  • Havir, Jiri (författare)
  • Om kantbuckling av pappersbanan vid pappersproduktion
  • 2005
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Web wrinkling is one of the more common web handling problems, caused by shear forces, resulting from in-plane misaligned rollers. Several analytical models have been derived, mainly based on the theory of beams or membranes and isotropic material properties. Paper is a highly anisotropic material but can be assumed orthotropic for thin structures as paper web. For this reason, an orthotropic plane stress model based on the von Kármán theory of plates have been derived. Further, an investigation has been performed on the mechanics that is the origin of the shear forces due to misaligned rollers. It is believed that the differential equation proposed by von Kármán does not have a simple solution in closed form for the proposed problem. Therefore, energy methods and double Fourier series are used to calculate the critical load by solving the corresponding eigenvalue problem. It is then shown that the use of an isotropic material model to estimate the critical load could be as much as thirty percent wrong. Thus, it is concluded that orthotropy should not be neglected in the analysis of buckling of paper webs. The shear force causes the web to deflect from its original path in the machine direction according to the normal entry law. Thus, the web tension becomes non-uniform and the stresses are redistributed so that only a small part of the web caries the load. The highest stresses are then found near the load carrying edge. Because high stresses causes permanent deformation, it has been assumed that misalignment causes the characteristic waviness that often can be seen on paper web edges in manufacturing plants. In this licentiate thesis, a model has been derived that is based upon difference in material properties across machine direction. The model shows that above mentioned waviness, not necessarily is caused by misaligned rollers, but may very well be the result of the differences in material properties, such as yield strength and Young’s modulus.
  • Hejman, Ulf (författare)
  • On initiation of chemically assisted crack growth and crack propagation paths of branching cracks in polycarbonate
  • 2010
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Stress corrosion, SC, in some cases gives rise to stress corrosion cracking, SCC, which differs from purely stress intensity driven cracks in many aspects. They initiate and grow under the influence of an aggressive environment in a stressed substrate. They grow at low load and may branch. The phenomenon of SCC is very complex, both the initiation phase and crack extension itself of SCC is seemingly associated with arbitrariness due to the many unknown factors controlling the process. Such factors could be concentration of species in the environment, stress, stress concentration, electrical conditions, mass transport, and so on. In the present thesis, chemically assisted crack initiation and growth is studied with special focus on the initiation and branching of cracks. Polycarbonate plates are used as substrates subjected to an acetone environment. Experimental procedures for examining initiation and branching in polycarbonate are presented. An optical microscope is employed to study the substrate. The attack at initiation is quantified from pits found on the surface, and pits that act as origin for cracks is identified and the distribution is analysed. A growth criterion for surface cracks is formulated from the observations, and it is used to numerically simulate crack growth. The cracks are seen to coalesce, and this phenomenon is studied in detail. Branching sites of cracks growing in the bulk of polycarbonate are inspected at the sample surface. It is found that the total width of the crack branches are approximately the same as the width of the original crack. Also, angles of the branches are studied. Further, for comparison the crack growth in the bulk is simulated using a moving boundary problem based algorithm and similar behaviour of crack branching is found.
  • Li, Cong, et al. (författare)
  • Weakening of Crack-tip Singularity due to Buckling of Thin Bodies under Tension
  • 2007
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • When thin sheets containing a crack is subjected to tensile loading in the direction perpendicular to the crack surface out of plane displacement will occur in areas surrounding the crack. By this the stress state in the vicinity of the crack tip is changed and leads to a weaker crack tip singularity than the r-1/2 by linear elastic fracture mechanics. During lab testing the buckling is artificially prevented thus the conditions for transfer of predicted fracture criteria to real structures are changed. The weaker singularity is used to formulate an adopted fracture mechanical theory. Approximation is made based on the assumption that the buckled area of the paper is unable to carrying any load and that region is approximated by the region under compressive load at plane stress conditions. The result is compared with experiments performed on large paper specimens that imply that the fracture toughness does not hold a constant value for small cracks. A post-buckling analysis was performed to closely study the change of the singularity. The analysis suggests that at an applied load at 100 times the buckling load the drop of the singularity for a crack length of 20% of the sheet width is about 2%, which does not cause any major deviations from the predictions of the linear theory. However by experimental data it is predicted that the crack growth will commence at an applied load approximately 2572 times the buckling load and the drop of the singularity would be considerable larger at such load magnitudes which will result in greater impact in comparison with the linear theory
  • Maimaitiyili, T. (författare)
  • In-situ phase studies of the Zr-H system
  • 2014
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Zirconium alloys are widely used in the nuclear industry because of their high strength, good corrosion resistance and low neutron absorption cross-section. However, zirconium has strong affinity for hydrogen, which may lead to hydrogen concentration build-up over time during a corrosion reaction when exposed to water. Hydrogen stays in solution at higher temperature but precipitates as zirconium hydrides at ambient temperatures. The formation of zirconium hydrides is considered to be a major cause of embrittlement, in particular as a key step in the mechanism of delayed hydride cracking. Despite the fact that zirconium hydrides have been studied for several decades, the basic nature and mechanisms of hydride formation, transformation and exact structure are not yet fully understood. In order to find the answer to some of these problems, the precipitation and dissolution of hydrides in commercial grade Zr powder were monitored in real time with high resolution synchrotron and neutron radiations, and the whole pattern crystal structure analysis, using Rietveld and Pawley refinements, were performed. For the first time all commonly reported zirconium hydride phases and complete reversible transformation between two different Zr-hydride phases were recorded with a single setup and their phase transformation type have been analyzed. In addition, the preparation route of controversial γ-zirconium hydride (ZrH), its crystal structure and formation mechanisms are also discussed.
  • Antti, Marta-Lena (författare)
  • Preparation and properties of sapphire/alumina long fibre composites
  • 1999
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The research described in the thesis concerns the preparation and properties of oxide/oxide composites and in particular composites consisting of an oxide matrix reinforced with continuous oxide fibres and intended for use as structural materials at very high temperatures. For this application particular attention must be paid to the behaviour of the fibre/matrix interface and to the properties of the fibre. The research has involved two main aspects (i) a thorough review of the physical and mechanical properties of candidate oxides with emphasis on elastic properties and creep properties and (ii) the experimental development of methods to produce continuous fibre reinforced oxide/oxide composites.
  • Eriksson, Berth (författare)
  • Residual stress in a T-butt joint weld cylinder versus plane plate geometry
  • 2004
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The welding process introduces residual stress originating from the heating, melting and cooling of the material. From the point of view of fatigue and stress corrosion cracking, the weld residual stress perpendicular to the weld axis is of particular interest. When qualifying weld parameters for welds in large cylinders having a ratio of radius to plate thickness larger than say approximately 100; reference to plane plates are often made for the sake of simplicity. However, the weld residual stress perpendicular to the weld axis is severely underestimated in the plane plate compared with the cylindrical structure. This observation is especially pronounced in connection with preheating. The source of the differences is probably due to the radial constraint of the cylinder, compared with that of a plane plate. A plane test specimen will underestimate the weld residual stress perpendicular to the weld axis in a cylinder, even if the radius of the cylinder is very large. However, a test specimen for an 8 m diameter cylinder with a plate thickness of 35 mm needs only to have a segment width of approximately 1.3 m to reflect the stress in the real structure. The weld residual stress perpendicular to the weld axis in the vicinity of the weld toe is governed by the depositing of the weld bead adjacent to the weld toe, neglecting the accumulated strain from the previous deposited weld beads in the multi-pass joint weld. Introducing tensile straining perpendicular to the weld axis during the entire welding procedure reduces the weld-induced residual stress after completed welding. The plastic zone of the weld area will be subjected to compressive strain after completed welding, which in turn will reduce the weld residual stress. This can be achieved by cooling the weld area, which in this case is not recommended since the material is sensitive to hydrogen cracking, or by pre-stretching or modifying the locations for preheating, all aimed to impose a tensile axial straining around the weld area during the entire weldingprocess.
  • Hägglund, R. (författare)
  • Fracture mechanical modelling of embossed paper
  • 2001
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis consists of two scientific papers on strength and fracture of embossed tissue paper. In Paper A an experimental study of embossed tissue paper is presented. The mechanical properties of most soft tissue paper are to a large extent governed by the creping and subsequent embossing process. The objective is to study the in-plane fracture mechanical properties of different creped tissue paper products having different embossing patterns. In order to reproduce the embossing process patterned metal plates were used to imprint patterns in paper sheets. Fracture toughness was obtained by tensile testing of paper samples containing pre-fabricated cracks. The fracture process occurring in a sample having a periodic embossing pattern was studied by the aid of a computer controlled CCD-camera system. Inspection of the damage evolution of samples containing a pre-fabricated cracks indicates that damage occur in indentation rows parallel to the crack plane, near the tip of the main crack. This suggests that the stresses at the tip of the crack is shielded by neighbouring rows of indentation; energy dissipation may occur not only at the tip of the main crack, but in several indentation rows parallel to the main crack. Furthermore, below a certain crack lengths, the pre-fabricated crack failed to localise damage. Additionally, it was observed that the stress-strain response of creped tissue paper exhibits a pronounced non-linear behaviour in cross-direction. However, tensile tests of an embossed 2-ply tissue paper made from the same base paper exhibits surprisingly an almost linear behaviour up to failure in cross-direction. In Paper B a model is presented which aims at describing the crack tip shielding effect occurring in an embossed tissue paper material having a periodic indentation pattern. The material is analysed as consisting of representative unit cells. One major objective of homogenising, is the possibility to circumvent the complexity associated with detailed modelling of the periodic geometry of the embossed paper sheet. The effective damage behaviour of a unit cell is determined. This is accomplished by homogenising the cohesive behaviour of the unit cell, based on which an effective cohesive law is established. The result is used to describe the damage behaviour of the body. Additionally, the effective elastic properties of a unit cell are determined. The crack tip of an embossed tissue paper undergoing damage may be visualised to consist of three regions: (i) a fracture process zone ahead of the main crack developing in the direction of the crack (ii); the region immediately outside the crack plane where damage localises to the edges of the round embossing imprints(iii);an entirely elastic undamaged region outside the damage region where no damage and consequently no energy dissipation takes place. The shielding effect may be quantified by means of the shielding ratio WS,/ WMain where WMain is the energy dissipated in the fracture process zone in the plane of the main crack and WS is the energy dissipated outside the plane of the main crack. Both WMain and WS were estimated by the aid of the effective cohesive law determined for the unit cell. The shielding effect is computed and observed to be governed by the density of the indentations and relative size of the indentation.
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