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1.
  • Suzuki, Kayo, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of Mechanical Pain Thresholds in the Orofacial Region : A Comparison Between Pinprick Stimulators and Electronic Von Frey Device
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Oral and Facial Pain and Headache. - Quintessence. - 2333-0384. ; 30:4, s. 338-45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To compare mechanical pain thresholds (MPTs) in the orofacial region assessed with two different approaches: with an electronic von Frey (EvF) device and with custom-made weighted pinprick stimulators. The test-retest reliability, variability of MPTs, and time duration of each test were also compared, as well as the ability of each test to create stimulus-response (S-R) curves. Methods: A total of 16 healthy volunteers participated. The MPT and S-R curve measurements were done with the two different techniques at three sites: on the skin of the right cheek (face), on the buccal gingival mucosa of the right upper premolar region (gingiva), and on the tip of the tongue (tongue). The same protocol was repeated 1 to 2 weeks later to determine test-retest reliability. Results: The MPT measurements with the EvF device were significantly faster (74.4 ± 20.8 seconds) than those with the pinprick stimulators (196.1 ± 33.0 seconds; P < .001). The absolute MPT values obtained with the EvF device were significantly higher than the values obtained with the pinprick stimulators at all test sites (P < .001). MPTs assessed with the EvF device showed higher reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.77–0.94) than MPTs assessed with the pinprick stimulators (ICC = 0.57–0.84; P = .041). The reliability of the S-R curves was excellent for both methods with no significant differences between the methods (P = .403). Conclusion: This study indicates that MPTs tested in the orofacial region with the EvF device were significantly higher than MPTs tested with the pinprick stimulators. However, the EvF device can be used with higher reliability and less time consumption for assessment of MPTs in the orofacial region than the pinprick stimulator technique, and also allows comparable construction of S-R curves.
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2.
  • Pigg, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Reliability of intraoral quantitative sensory testing (QST)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Pain. - Elsevier. - 0304-3959. ; 148:2, s. 220-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) has recommended a protocol with 13 quantitative sensory testing (QST) measures for detecting somatosensory abnormalities. Reliability is an important scientific property and has been adequately tested for cutaneous QST. This study evaluates intraoral sites for which no reliability trials have yet been published. Inter- and intra-examiner reliability of 13 QST measures at intra- and extraoral trigeminal sites were investigated. Twenty-one healthy volunteers from Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden (13 women and 8 men, mean age 40.4 years, range 24–71) participated. Two independent examiners previously trained in the DFNS QST protocol examined the participants using the entire protocol. Each participant was examined twice on the same day, once by each examiner (inter-examiner reliability). After 1–3 weeks, one examiner re-examined all participants (intra-examiner reliability). The measurements were made on the skin of the right cheek, the tip of the tongue, and bilaterally on the gingival mucosa of the upper premolar region. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) or kappa was used to calculate variations. Most tests had acceptable to excellent inter-examiner (ICC 0.41–0.89) and intra-examiner (ICC 0.43–0.87) reliability. For each test, inter- and intra-examiner reliabilities at intra- and extraoral sites were similar. No significant differences between right and left sides were found intraorally. We conclude that inter- and intra-examiner reliabilities of most QST measures are acceptable for assessing somatosensory function in the orofacial region.
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3.
  • Baad-Hansen, Lene, et al. (författare)
  • Chairside intraoral qualitative somatosensory testing: reliability and comparison between patients with atypical odontalgia and healthy controls
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Orofacial Pain. - Quintessence. - 1064-6655. ; 27:2, s. 165-170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: To assess intraoral inter- and intraexaminer reliability of three qualitative measures of intraoral somatosensory function and to compare these measures between patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) and healthy controls. METHODS: Thirty-one AO patients and 47 healthy controls participated. Inter- and intraexaminer reliability was tested on a subgroup of 46 subjects (25 AO; 21 healthy). Sensitivity to touch, cold, and pinprick stimuli was evaluated on the painful gingival site and the corresponding contralateral site in AO patients, and bilaterally on the gingiva of the first maxillary premolars in controls. Patients were asked to report hypersensitivity, hyposensitivity, or normal sensitivity to stimuli on the painful site compared with the nonpainful site. Kappa values were calculated, and chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare frequencies between groups. RESULTS: Kappa values ranged between 0.63 and 0.75. The frequency of hypersensitivity to either modality was significantly higher in patients (29% to 61%) than in controls (9% to 17%) (P < .015), whereas reports of hyposensitivity were similar between groups (2% to 16%) (P > .057). Only 3.2% of the AO patients had no reports of abnormal sensitivity on any of the tests, compared with 59.6% of the healthy subjects (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Intraoral qualitative somatosensory testing can detect intraoral sensory disturbances in AO patients, and the reliability is sufficient for initial screening of orofacial somatosensory function.
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4.
  • Baad-Hansen, Lene, et al. (författare)
  • Intraoral somatosensory abnormalities in patients with atypical odontalgia : a controlled multicenter quantitative sensory testing study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Pain. - Elsevier. - 0304-3959. ; 154:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intraoral somatosensory sensitivity in patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) has not been investigated systematically according to the most recent guidelines. The aims of this study were to examine intraoral somatosensory disturbances in AO patients using healthy subjects as reference, and to evaluate the percent agreement between intraoral quantitative sensory testing (QST) and qualitative sensory testing (QualST). Forty-seven AO patients and 69 healthy control subjects were included at Universities of Washington, Malmö, and Aarhus. In AO patients, intraoral somatosensory testing was performed on the painful site, the corresponding contralateral site, and at thenar. In healthy subjects, intraoral somatosensory testing was performed bilaterally on the upper premolar gingiva and at thenar. Thirteen QST and 3 QualST parameters were evaluated at each site, z-scores were computed for AO patients based on the healthy reference material, and LossGain scores were created. Compared with control subjects, 87.3% of AO patients had QST abnormalities. The most frequent somatosensory abnormalities in AO patients were somatosensory gain with regard to painful mechanical and cold stimuli and somatosensory loss with regard to cold detection and mechanical detection. The most frequent LossGain code was L0G2 (no somatosensory loss with gain of mechanical somatosensory function) (31.9% of AO patients). Percent agreement between corresponding QST and QualST measures of thermal and mechanical sensitivity ranged between 55.6% and 70.4% in AO patients and between 71.1% and 92.1% in control subjects. In conclusion, intraoral somatosensory abnormalities were commonly detected in AO patients, and agreement between quantitative and qualitative sensory testing was good to excellent.
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5.
  • Drangsholt, Mark, et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative Sensory Testing of Chronic Continuous Dentoalveolar Pain
  • 2010
  • Annan publikation (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Objectives: Chronic continuous dentoalveolar pain (CCDAP) is a new term for chronic pain around teeth. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) has shown promise as a tool for studying mechanisms of pain conditions. Aims: 1) compare sensory parameter values in CCDAP patients and symptom-free controls; and 2) characterize the somatosensory profile of patients with CCDAP. Methods: The German Neuropathic Pain QST protocol of 13 somatosensory function tests was adapted for intraoral use. Cases with CCDAP from tertiary care clinics were tested along with symptom-free controls. QST was performed intra-orally on symptomatic facial gingiva, asymptomatic contralateral site, and non-trigeminal site (thumb). Means and standard deviations were compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic sites within cases and with controls. Results: Interim analyses of 17 controls and 13 cases showed a mean age of 37 years for controls and 55 for cases. At the thumb, significant differences (p < 0.05) between cases/controls were apparent for pressure pain threshold (PPT) 353 vs. 453 kPa; mechanical pain threshold (MPT) 75 vs. 161 mN; and cold pain threshold (CPT) 8.4 vs. 2.8 C, all showing cases more sensitive. At the painful gingival site, significant differences between cases/controls existed for: CPT 17.4 vs. 8.1 C; HPT 44 vs. 49 C; MPT 55 vs. 154 mN; and PPT 106 vs. 172 kPa. Non-painful parameters, such as cold and warm detection threshold were generally not significantly different between cases/controls at thumb and painful gingival sites. Among cases only, comparing painful to nonpainful side, MPT was 55 vs. 96 mN; mechanical pain sensitivity 4.7 vs. 3.0; PPT 106 vs. 122 kPa, all more sensitive on the painful site. Conclusions: These results suggest that CCDAP patients are more sensitive to multiple modalities of painful stimulation at both non-trigeminal and trigeminal sites, and may be exhibiting a trigeminal neuropathy with gain in function. Grant: NIHR21DE018768.
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6.
  • Engfalk, Paul, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of intra- and extraoral sites and size of stimulation area on thermal detection and pain threholds. A methodological study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Swedish Dental Journal. - 0347-9994. ; 31:4
  • Annan publikation (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Aim: This study compared cool detection thresholds, warm detection thresholds and heat pain thresholds at intra- and extraoral locations and measured the influence of spatial summation. Material and Methods: Thirty healthy individuals (15 females and 15 males), mean age 24.9 years, range 20-31 years) participated in the study. Thresholds for warm detection (WDT), cool detection (CDT) and heat pain threshold (HPT) were measured using a thermotester (MSA–Modular sensory Analyzer, Somedic). The intraoral thermode was custom-made with a 9x9mm square surface. The average of three measurements was recorded. Four intraoral sites (gingival regions 24 and 34, tip of the tongue, lower lip) and two extraoral sites (infraorbitalis, thenar) were measured in each participant. To measure spatial summation, five acrylic covers (tip areas: 0.81 cm2, 0.50 cm2, 0.28cm2, 0.125cm2, 0 cm2) were made to fit the thermode. Five measurements on the tip of the tongue were averaged for each acrylic cover. Results: Of the extraoral sites, the cold detection threshold was significantly higher and the heat pain threshold was significantly lower at the infraorbitalis than at the thenar. Of the intraoral sites, the cold detection threshold was significantly lower at the tongue than at any of the other intraoral locations; the heat pain threshold was significantly lower on the tip of the tongue than on the lower lip. Warm detection and heat pain thresholds rose slightly with increasing thermode size, and this association was more pronounced than for cold detection thresholds. Conclusion: Temperature thresholds differed significantly between several anatomic sites, and the association between size of stimulation area and temperature thresholds was weak.
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7.
  • Närhi, Matti, et al. (författare)
  • Acute dental pain I : pulpal and dentinal pain
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Tandlaegebladet. - Tandlaegeforeningen. - 0039-9353. ; 120:2, s. 110-119
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Den specialiserede anatomi i pulpa-dentin-organet samt den rige pulpale innervation fra trigeminusnerven forklarer de forskellige typer af smertefølelser i en tand. En kort skarp smerte er typisk for en A-(nerve) fibermedieret smerte, imens en langvarig, bankende smerte indikerer C-(nerve) fiberaktivitet. A-fibre reagerer på termiske eller mekaniske stimuli, såsom kolde drikke eller tandbørstning, imens C-fibre hovedsagelig aktiveres ved inflammatoriske mediatorer. Således vil en dvælende smerte indikere en irreversibel pulpal inflammation. Ved pulpitis vil der opstå strukturelle ændringer i de pulpale nerver, der samtidig frigiver neuropeptider, som udløser et immunrespons: neurogen inflammation. Smertefornemmelser under pulpitis kan variere fra hypersensibilitet overfor termiske stimuli til svære dunkende og uudholdelige smerter. Smerterne kan være meddelte og ofte vanskelige at lokalisere, hvorfor diagnostik af inflammation i pulpa er en klinisk udfordring. En biofilm forstærker hypersensitivitet af eksponerede dentinoverflader, fordi de mikrobielle irritamenter kan nå pulpa gennem åbne dentintubuli, hvorved der fremkaldes inflammation. Fjernelse af biofilm reducerer isninger i tænderne, men supplerende behandling er ofte nødvendigt med det formål at opnå en reduktion af dentinens permeabilitet. Cariesekskavering samt fyldningsterapi er en tilstrækkelig behandling ved en klinisk bedømt reversibel pulpitis, hvorimod endodontisk behandling er nødvendigt, når pulpitis har nået et irreversibelt stadium.
8.
  • Pigg, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • A comparative analysis of magnetic resonance imaging and radiographic examinations of patients with atypical odontalgia
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of oral & facial pain and headache. - Quintessence. - 2333-0384. ; 28:3, s. 233-242
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: To examine (1) the occurrence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal changes in the painful regions of patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) and (2) the correlation of such findings to periapical bone defects detected with a comprehensive radiographic examination including cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODS: A total of 20 patients (mean age 52 years, range 34 to 65) diagnosed with AO participated. Mean pain intensity (± standard deviation) was 5.6 ± 1.8 on a 0-10 numerical rating scale, and mean pain duration was 4.3 ± 5.2 years. The inclusion criterion was chronic pain (> 6 months) located in a region with no clear pathologic cause identified clinically or in periapical radiographs. In addition to a clinical examination and a self-report questionnaire, the assessments included radiographic examinations (panoramic, periapical, and CBCT images), and an MRI examination. Changes in MRI signal in the painful region were recorded. Spearman's rank correlation between radiographic and MRI findings was calculated. RESULTS: Eight of the patients (40%) had MRI signal changes in the pain region. The correlation to radiographic periapical radiolucencies was 0.526 (P = .003). Of the eight teeth displaying changes in MRI signal, six showed periapical radiolucency in the radiographs. CONCLUSION: MRI examination revealed no changes in the painful region in a majority of patients with AO, suggesting that inflammation was not present. MRI findings were significantly correlated to radiographic findings
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9.
  • Pigg, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • A comparative analysis of MRI, CBCT and conventional radiography in patients with atypical odontalgia and symptomatic apical periodontitis: preliminary results
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Swedish Dental Journal. - 0347-9994. ; 30:4, s. 173-4
  • Annan publikation (populärvet., debatt m.m.)abstract
    • Aim: Atypical odontalgia(AO) is a chronic pain condition located in the teeth and jaws. It has been suggested, that AO is best regarded as a neuropathic pain condition, but knowledge regarding the etiology, diagnostics, and management of AO is not yet satisfactory. This pilot study evaluates the clinical usefulness of more recently developed imaging methods for intraoral pain conditions. The aim is to compare the diagnostic findings using magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) and cone beam computed tomography(CBCT) with the findings from conventional radiography in patients with atypical odontalgia(AO) and symptomatic apical periodontitis(SAP). Material and methods: 12 patients (9 F, 3 M) mean age 50,25 years, range 36 - 63 years participated in the study. The patients were referred to the Orofacial Pain Unit or the Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University. Inclusion criteria for AO were chronic pain (>6 months) located in a region where a tooth had been endodontically or surgically treated, pain with no pathological cause detectable in clinical or radiological examinations. For SAP, the inclusion criteria were recurrent pain from a tooth diagnosed with apical periodontitis in a clinical and radiographic examination. Ten of the patients in the study were diagnosed with AO and two with SAP. The patients were clinically assessed with a qualitative somatosensory examination, a dental examination, an examination of the masticatory system(RDC/TMD), and panoramic and intraoral radiographs. A questionnaire was used to gather information about pain characteristics, psychosocial status(SCL-90), and quality of life. Besides these measures, each patient underwent a CBCT(3D-Accuitomo, J Morita Co) examination and a MRI(Siemens Sonata Vision 1.5 T) examination with and without contrast enhancement. Contrast was enhanced by injections of Magnevist (469 mg/ml, Schering Nordiska). Bone destruction, sclerosis, and signs of inflammation were the main parameters studied. Results: In the preliminary results, average pain intensity was 6.3 on a numerical rating scale(NRS) and average pain duration was 3,6 years. 83% exhibited somatosensory abnormalities. Bone destruction not visible in the intraoral and panoramic radiographs was detected with CBCT in 40% (4/10) of the patients diagnosed with AO, and signs of inflammation were detected in the MRIs of 20% (2/10) of the patients diagnosed with AO. Conclusion: Preliminary findings indicate that CBCT and MRI can provide additional information to conventional radiography in the diagnosis of intraoral orofacial pain. Further studies with larger sample sizes of AO and SAP patients are necessary to determine the clinical relevance of these findings.
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10.
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