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  • Eriksson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Skeletal muscle morphology in power-lifters with and without anabolic steroids
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology. - 0948-6143. ; 124:2, s. 167-175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The morphological appearance of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle from high-level power-lifters on long-term anabolic steroid supplementation (PAS) and power-lifters never taking anabolic steroids (P) was compared. The effects of long- and short-term supplementation were compared. Enzyme-immunohistochemical investigations were performed to assess muscle fiber type composition, fiber area, number of myonuclei per fiber, internal myonuclei, myonuclear domains and proportion of satellite cells. The PAS group had larger type I, IIA, IIAB and IIC fiber areas (p<0.05). The number of myonuclei/fiber and the proportion of central nuclei were significantly higher in the PAS group (p<0.05). Similar results were seen in the trapezius muscle (T) but additionally, in T the proportion of fibers expressing developmental myosin isoforms was higher in the PAS group compared to the P group. Further, in VL, the PAS group had significantly larger nuclear domains in fibers containing > or = 5 myonuclei. The results of AS on VL morphology in this study were similar to previously reported short-term effects of AS on VL. The initial effects from AS appear to be maintained for several years.
  • Ponten, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Higher amount of MyHC IIX in a wrist flexor in tetraplegic compared to hemiplegic cerebral palsy
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of the Neurological Sciences. - 0022-510X. ; 266:1-2, s. 51-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Spastic cerebral palsy can be divided into diagnostic groups by the relative severity of the arm impairment. This study investigates if hemiplegic, tetraplegic or diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) results in different patterns of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression in the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle from 17 young patients with CP. Using enzyme-immunohistochemistry and gel electrophoresis techniques we found a higher percentage of fibers expressing fast MyHC IIx (52%) in tetraplegic CP compared to hemiplegic patients (32%), (p < 0.05). Tetraplegic CP also resulted in a lower amount of fibers expressing slow MyHC I (18%) compared to hemiplegic CP (40%), (p < 0.005). The proportion of muscle fibers containing fetal MyHC was higher in tetraplegic CP compared to other groups, (p < 0.005). Taken together theses results indicate that tetraplegic CP is associated with a shift from slow to fast myosins and that regenerative events are more prominent in tetraplegic CP compared with milder brain damage.
  • Larsson, Britt, et al. (författare)
  • Blood supply and oxidative metabolism in muscle biopsies of female cleaners with and without myalgia
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: The Clinical Journal of Pain. - 0749-8047. ; 20:6, s. 440-446
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Pathomechanisms of work-related myalgia are poorly understood. Myalgia is thought to be caused by excitation of nociceptors present in the muscular tissue but not in the muscle fiber itself. Muscle contraction in combination with hypoxia is known to excite nociceptors. Morphologic analysis can contribute to the knowledge of the excitation of nociceptors. This study thoroughly examines the morphology of the trapezius muscle's capillary supply and signs of disturbed oxidative metabolism to understand their role in work-related myalgia. METHODS: Surgical trapezius muscle biopsies were obtained from 25 female cleaners with long-standing work-related myalgia, 25 female cleaners without trapezius myalgia, and 21 healthy teachers. Enzyme and immunohistochemical stainings were performed to highlight fibers with aberrant intermyofibrillar patterns, indicating a disturbed oxidative metabolism (also known as moth-eaten fibers) and a disturbed capillary supply of different fibers. RESULTS: A significantly lower number of capillaries per fiber area in cleaners suffering from myalgia compared with cleaners without trapezius myalgia was found. Moth-eaten fibers were found in the 3 groups, but these fibers were significantly more prevalent in the groups of cleaners than in the healthy teacher group. CONCLUSION: This work indicates that the capillary supply of trapezius is affected in work-related trapezius myalgia. More studies are needed to understand possible mechanisms that would explain the occurrence of moth-eaten fibers.
  • Aulin, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of combined lower body endurance and upper body resistance training on the satellite cell pool in elderly subjects
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Muscle and Nerve. - 0148-639X. ; 38:3, s. 1147-1154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To distinguish the respective potential of endurance and resistance training to increase the satellite cell pool, we investigated the effects of 14 weeks of concurrent lower body endurance and upper body resistance training (3 sessions/week) on vastus lateralis (VLat) and deltoid (Del) muscles of 10 active elderly men. NCAM+ satellite cells and myonuclear number were assessed in VLat and Del. After 14 weeks of training the NCAM+ satellite cell pool increased similarly (+38%) in both muscles, mainly in type II muscle fibers (P < 0.05). There was no significant change in myonuclear number or myonuclear domain in either muscle. Combining resistance training in the upper limbs with endurance training in the lower limbs is an efficient strategy to enhance the satellite cell pool in upper and lower body muscles in elderly subjects. Our results provide a practical reference for the determination of optimal exercise protocols to improve muscle function and regeneration in the elderly.
  • Aulin, Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Physical performance and muscular characteristics in different stages of COPD
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. - 0905-7188. ; 19:6, s. 865-870
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study has examined exercise capacity and muscle morphology in patients with different severities of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Twenty-three patients and 12 healthy matched controls were recruited. Based on the severity of airflow obstruction, patients were divided into two subgroups. Exercise capacity was determined using a 6-min walk test. Muscle fiber composition, fiber area and number of satellite cells/muscle fiber were determined in muscle biopsies using immunohistochemistry. A progressive decline in exercise capacity was noted with ascending disease severity. Furthermore, a correlation between reduction in exercise capacity and changes in muscle fiber composition was observed in COPD. The group with severe and very severe COPD had a lower proportion of type I and a higher proportion of type IIa fibers compared with the other groups. In severe and very severe COPD, a reduction in fiber area of type IIa fibers was also seen. The number of satellite cells/muscle fiber did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, a decline in exercise capacity occurs already in mild and moderate COPD, indicating that the 6-min walk test is a reliable indicator of disease severity. Furthermore, changes in skeletal muscle morphology are associated with disease severity while muscle regenerative capacity is not altered.
  • Folkesson, Mattias, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • The expression of heat shock protein in human skeletal muscle : effects of muscle fibre phenotype and trainingbackground
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica. - 1748-1708. ; 209:1, s. 26-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AimExercise-induced adaptations of skeletal muscle are related to training mode and can be muscle fibre type specific. This study aimed to investigate heat shock protein expression in type I and type II muscle fibres in resting skeletal muscle of subjects with different training backgrounds.MethodsThree groups of subjects were included: healthy active not engaged in any training programme (ACT, n = 12), resistance trained (RES, n = 6) and endurance trained (END, n = 8). Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis, and immunohistochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibodies against myosin heavy chain I and IIA, αB-crystallin, HSP27, HSP60 and HSP70.ResultsIn ACT and RES, but not in END, a fibre type–specific expression with higher staining intensity in type I than type II fibres was seen for αB-crystallin. The opposite (II > I) was found for HSP27 in subjects from ACT (6 of 12 subjects) and RES (3 of 6), whereas all subjects from END displayed uniform staining. HSP60 showed no fibre-specific expression. HSP70 displayed a fibre-specific expression pattern (I > II) in ACT (4 of 12), but not in END or RES.ConclusionThis study shows that the level of expression of the different HSPs in human skeletal muscle is influenced by muscle fibre phenotype. The fibre type–specific expression of HSP70 is influenced by resistance and endurance training, whereas those of αB-crystallin and HSP27 is influenced only by endurance training, suggesting the existence of a training-modality-specific action on the adaptive processes including heat shock proteins in human skeletal muscle.
  • Henriksson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Assessment of satellite cell number and activity status in human skeletal muscle biopsies
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Muscle and Nerve. - 0148-639X. ; 40:3, s. 455-465
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The primary aim of our study was to validate the assessment of myonuclear and satellite cell number in biopsies from human skeletal muscle. We found that 25 type I and 25 type II fibers are sufficient to estimate the mean number of myonuclei per fiber. In contrast, the assessment of satellite cells improved when more fibers were included. Second, we report that small differences in counting satellite cells using CD56 and Pax7 antibodies can be attributed to the different staining profiles. Third, we provide support for the use of Ki67 in evaluating the proportion of active satellite cells. We observed very few (up to 1.3%) active satellite cells in healthy adult skeletal muscle at rest, but they increased significantly (up to 7-fold) following muscle activity. This study provides valuable tools to assess the behavior of satellite cells, both in pathological conditions and in response to physiological stimuli.
  • Henriksson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of one bout of endurance exercise on the expression of myogenin in human quadriceps muscle
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology. - 0948-6143. ; 121:4, s. 329-334
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of this study was to investigate the cellular localisation of MyoD and myogenin in human skeletal muscle fibres as well as the possible alterations in the expression of MyoD and myogenin in response to a single bout of endurance exercise at 40% and 75% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2) max). Twenty-five biopsies (5 per subject) from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained before exercise, from the exercising leg at 40% and 75% of VO(2) max and from the resting leg following these exercise bouts. The tyramide signal amplification-direct and the Vectastain ABC methods using specific monoclonal antibodies were used to determine the exact location of myogenin and MyoD, to identify muscle satellite cells and to determine myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition. At rest, myonuclei did not express MyoD or myogenin. Following a single bout of exercise at 40% and 75% of VO(2) max, an accumulation of myogenin in myonuclei and not in satellite cells was observed in biopsies from the exercised leg but not in biopsies before exercise and from the resting leg. The number of myogenin-positive myonuclei varied among individuals indicating differences in the response to a single exercise bout. In conclusion, this immunohistochemical study showed that a rapid rearrangement of myogenin expression occurs in exercised human skeletal muscles in response to a single bout of exercise.
  • Henriksson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Immunohistochemical changes in the expression of HSP27 in exercised human vastus lateralis muscle
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica. - 1748-1708. ; 194:3, s. 215-222
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: The role of HSP27 in the adaptive process of skeletal muscle to exercise, especially in humans, is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate immunohistochemical changes in HSP27 expression in human vastus lateralis muscle following resistance and endurance exercises.METHODS: Two different exercise protocols were used: (1) one-leg ergometer cycling (EC, n = 6) consisting of two 30-min bouts at 40% and 75% of peak oxygen uptake, respectively, and (2) leg extension resistance exercise (RE, n = 9) including 10 sets of eight repetitions at a load corresponding to 70% of one maximal repetition (1RM). Immunohistochemistry using specific monoclonal antibodies was used to determine the location of HSP27 protein in muscle biopsies from human vastus lateralis.RESULTS: Our results show that RE, but not EC, induced a significant appearance of scattered accumulations of HSP27 protein in muscle fibres from five of nine subjects. The number of fibres with accumulation of HSP27 in RE ranged from 0% to 32% with a mean of 6.3% of the total number of fibres.CONCLUSION: We conclude that this rapid HSP27 protein relocation after RE is an important player in the cellular remodelling of human muscle fibres in response to exercise involving high-force contractions, but not in response to endurance exercises.
  • Henriksson, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • The number of satellite cells in slow and fast fibres from human vastus lateralis muscle
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology. - 0948-6143. ; 126:1, s. 83-87
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this investigation was to study the distribution of satellite cells in slow (type I fibres) and fast (type II fibres) fibres from human vastus lateralis muscle. This muscle is characterised by a mixed fibre type composition and is considered as the site of choice for biopsies in research work and for clinical diagnosis. Biopsy samples were obtained from five healthy young volunteers and a total of 1,747 type I fibres and 1,760 type II fibres were assessed. Satellite cells and fibre type composition were studied on serial muscle cross-sections stained with specific monoclonal antibodies. From a total of 218 satellite cells, 116 satellite cells were found in contact with type I fibres (53.6+/-8% of the satellite cells associated to type I fibres) and 102 satellite cells in contact with type II fibres (46.4+/-8% of the satellite cells associated to type II fibres). There was no significant difference (P=0.4) between the percentages of satellite cells in contact with type I and with type II fibres. Additionally, there was no relationship between the mean number of satellite cells per fibre and the mean cross-sectional area of muscle fibres. In conclusion, our results show that there is no fibre type-specific distribution of satellite cells in a human skeletal muscle with mixed fibre type composition.
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