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  • Eriksson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Skeletal muscle morphology in power-lifters with and without anabolic steroids
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology. - 0948-6143. ; 124:2, s. 167-175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The morphological appearance of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle from high-level power-lifters on long-term anabolic steroid supplementation (PAS) and power-lifters never taking anabolic steroids (P) was compared. The effects of long- and short-term supplementation were compared. Enzyme-immunohistochemical investigations were performed to assess muscle fiber type composition, fiber area, number of myonuclei per fiber, internal myonuclei, myonuclear domains and proportion of satellite cells. The PAS group had larger type I, IIA, IIAB and IIC fiber areas (p<0.05). The number of myonuclei/fiber and the proportion of central nuclei were significantly higher in the PAS group (p<0.05). Similar results were seen in the trapezius muscle (T) but additionally, in T the proportion of fibers expressing developmental myosin isoforms was higher in the PAS group compared to the P group. Further, in VL, the PAS group had significantly larger nuclear domains in fibers containing > or = 5 myonuclei. The results of AS on VL morphology in this study were similar to previously reported short-term effects of AS on VL. The initial effects from AS appear to be maintained for several years.
  • Larsson, Britt, et al. (författare)
  • Blood supply and oxidative metabolism in muscle biopsies of female cleaners with and without myalgia
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: The Clinical Journal of Pain. - 0749-8047. ; 20:6, s. 440-446
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Pathomechanisms of work-related myalgia are poorly understood. Myalgia is thought to be caused by excitation of nociceptors present in the muscular tissue but not in the muscle fiber itself. Muscle contraction in combination with hypoxia is known to excite nociceptors. Morphologic analysis can contribute to the knowledge of the excitation of nociceptors. This study thoroughly examines the morphology of the trapezius muscle's capillary supply and signs of disturbed oxidative metabolism to understand their role in work-related myalgia. METHODS: Surgical trapezius muscle biopsies were obtained from 25 female cleaners with long-standing work-related myalgia, 25 female cleaners without trapezius myalgia, and 21 healthy teachers. Enzyme and immunohistochemical stainings were performed to highlight fibers with aberrant intermyofibrillar patterns, indicating a disturbed oxidative metabolism (also known as moth-eaten fibers) and a disturbed capillary supply of different fibers. RESULTS: A significantly lower number of capillaries per fiber area in cleaners suffering from myalgia compared with cleaners without trapezius myalgia was found. Moth-eaten fibers were found in the 3 groups, but these fibers were significantly more prevalent in the groups of cleaners than in the healthy teacher group. CONCLUSION: This work indicates that the capillary supply of trapezius is affected in work-related trapezius myalgia. More studies are needed to understand possible mechanisms that would explain the occurrence of moth-eaten fibers.
  • Kadi, Fawzi, et al. (författare)
  • Satellite cells and myonuclei in young and elderly women and men
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Muscle and Nerve. - 0148-639X. ; 29:1, s. 120-127
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The overall aim of this study was to assess the effects of aging on the satellite cell population. Muscle biopsies were taken from the tibialis anterior muscle of healthy, moderately active young (age range, 20-32 years; n = 31) and elderly (age range, 70-83 years; n = 27) women and men with comparable physical activity pattern. Satellite cells and myonuclei were visualized using a monoclonal antibody against neural cell adhesion molecule and counterstained with Mayer's hematoxylin. An average of 211 (range, 192-241) muscle fibers were examined for each individual. Compared with the young women and men, the elderly subjects had a significantly lower (P < 0.011) number of satellite cells per muscle fiber but a significantly higher (P < 0.004) number of myonuclei per muscle fiber. The number of satellite cells relative to the total number of nuclei [satellite cells/(myonuclei + satellite cells)] was significantly lower in the elderly than in the young women and men. These results imply that a reduction in the satellite cell population occurs as a result of increasing age in healthy men and women
  • Ponsot, Elodie, et al. (författare)
  • Skeletal muscle telomere length is not impaired in healthy physically active old women and men
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Muscle and Nerve. - 0148-639X. ; 37:4, s. 467-472
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have previously shown that the number of satellite cells is lower in old than young men and women. The aim of this study was to further explore the effects of aging on the regenerative potential of skeletal muscle in 16 young and 26 old men and women with comparable physical activity level (young, 25 +/- 4 years; old, 75 +/- 4 years). Mean and minimum telomere lengths were determined using Southern blot analyses on biopsies obtained from the tibialis anterior muscle. There were no significant age or gender effects on mean and minimal telomeric lengths, suggesting that the replicative potential in the remaining satellite cells in the tibialis anterior muscle is not impaired with increasing age and the existence of in vivo regulatory mechanisms allowing the maintenance of telomere length. These results imply that moderate physical activity regularly performed by old subjects is not associated with accelerated telomere loss
  • Andersson, Helena M., et al. (författare)
  • Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. - 0195-9131. ; 40:2, s. 372-380
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To investigate the time course of recovery from neuromuscular fatigue and some biochemical changes between two female soccer matches separated by an active or passive recovery regime. METHODS: Countermovement jump (CMJ), sprint performance, maximal isokinetic knee flexion and extension, creatine kinase (CK), urea, uric acid, and perceived muscle soreness were measured in 17 elite female soccer players before, immediately after, 5, 21, 45, 51, and 69 h after a first match, and immediately after a second match. Eight players performed active recovery (submaximal cycling at 60% of HRpeak and low-intensity resistance training at &lt; 50% 1RM) 22 and 46 h after the first match. RESULTS: In response to the first match, a significant decrease in sprint performance (-3.0 +/- 0.5%), CMJ (-4.4 +/- 0.8%), peak torque in knee extension (-7.1 +/- 1.9%) and flexion (-9.4 +/- 1.8%), and an increase in CK (+ 152 +/- 28%), urea (15 +/- 2), uric acid (+ 11 +/- 2%), and muscle soreness occurred. Sprint ability was first to return to baseline (5 h) followed by urea and uric acid (21 h), isokinetic knee extension (27 h) and flexion (51 h), CK, and muscle soreness (69 h), whereas CMJ was still reduced at the beginning of the second match. There were no significant differences in the recovery pattern between the active and passive recovery groups. The magnitude of the neuromuscular and biochemical changes after the second match was similar to that observed after the first match. CONCLUSION: The present study reveals differences in the recovery pattern of the various neuromuscular and biochemical parameters in response to a female soccer match. The active recovery had no effects on the recovery pattern of the four neuromuscular and three biochemical parameters.
  • Eliason, Gabriella, et al. (författare)
  • Alterations in the muscle-to-capillary interface in patients with different degrees of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Respiratory research (Online). - 1465-993X. ; 11, s. 97
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It is hypothesized that decreased capillarization of limb skeletal muscle is implicated in the decreased exercise tolerance in COPD patients. We have recently demonstrated decreased number of capillaries per muscle fibre (CAF) but no changes in CAF in relation to fibre area (CAFA), which is based on the diffusion distance between the capillary and muscle fibre. The aim of the current study is to investigate the muscle-to-capillary interface which is an important factor involved in oxygen supply to the muscle that has previously been suggested to be a more sensitive marker for changes in the capillary bed compared to CAF and CAFA. Methods: 23 COPD patients and 12 age-matched healthy subjects participated in the study. Muscle-to-capillary interface was assessed in muscle biopsies from the tibialis anterior muscle using the following parameters:1) The capillary-to-fibre ratio (C:Fi) which is defined as the sum of the fractional contributions of all capillary contacts around the fibre2) The ratio between C:Fi and the fibre perimeter (CFPE-index)3) The ratio between length of capillary and fibre perimeter (LC/PF) which is also referred to as the index of tortuosity.Exercise capacity was determined using the 6-min walking test.  Results A positive correlation was found between CFPE-index and ascending disease severity with CFPE-index for type I fibres being significantly lower in patients with moderate and severe COPD. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between exercise capacity and CFPE-index for both type I and type IIa fibres..Conclusion: It can be concluded that the muscle-to-capillary interface is disturbed in the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with COPD and that interface is strongly correlated to increased disease severity and to decreased exercise capacity in this patient group. 
  • Larsson, Barbro, et al. (författare)
  • Surface electromyography and peak torque of repetitive maximum isokinetic plantar flexions in relation to aspects of muscle morphology
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology. - 1050-6411. ; 16:3, s. 281-290
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigates the relationships between surface electromyography (EMG [Mean frequency of the power spectrum (MNF)]) and peak torque variables obtained during 100 maximum concentric plantar flexions with the right limb at 60 degrees s(-1) and different muscle morphological variables. Surface EMG was recorded from the right gastrocnemius lateralis and muscle biopsies were taken from the same site as the EMG electrodes were positioned. Muscle fibre area and fibre type composition were determined on serial muscle cross sections using both histochemistry (myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase) and immunohistochemistry (monoclonal antibodies against specific myosin heavy chain isoforms). Forty-three female and nine male students participated in the study. Gastrocnemius lateralis contained predominantly type I fibres (50%) and type IIA fibres (40%) in both sexes and large individual differences were found. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for the intercorrelation analyses, and projection to latent structures (PLS) was used for the multivariate regression analysis. MNF correlated positively with different fibre areas and with the proportion of type I fibres. Fibre areas and sex were the most important factors in the regression of maximum peak torque. High proportion of type I fibres and sex were the most important regressors of peak torque endurance normalised for lean body mass. More studies are needed to understand the complex interrelationships between intrinsic muscle properties and the frequency content of the surface EMG before theoretical models can be formulated that incorporate both fibre areas and fibre type proportions.
  • Marklund, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Extensive inflammatory cell infiltration in human skeletal muscle in response to an ultra-endurance exercise bout in experienced athletes.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of applied physiology. - 8750-7587. ; 114:1, s. 66-72
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The impact of a 24h ultra-endurance exercise bout on systemic and local muscle inflammatory reactions was investigated in nine experienced athletes. Blood and muscle biopsies were collected before (PRE), immediately after the exercise (POST) and after 28h of recovery (POST28). Circulating blood levels of leukocytes, CK, CRP and selected inflammatory cytokines were assessed together with the evaluation of the occurrence of inflammatory cells (CD3(+), CD8(+), CD68(+)) and the expression of major histocompatibility complex class-I (MHC class-I) in skeletal muscle. An extensive inflammatory cell infiltration occurred in all athletes and the number of CD3(+), CD8(+) and CD 68(+) cells were 2-3 fold higher at POST28 compared to PRE (P&lt;0.05). The inflammatory cell infiltration was associated with a significant increase in the expression of MHC class-I in muscle fibers. There was a significant increase in blood leukocyte count, IL-6, IL-8, CRP and CK at POST. At POST28 total leukocytes, IL-6 and CK had declined, whereas IL-8 and CRP continued to increase. Increases in IL-1β and TNF-α were not significant. There were no significant associations between the magnitude of the systemic and local muscle inflammatory reactions. Signs of muscle degenerative and regenerative events were observed in all athletes with various degrees of severity and were not affected by the ultra-endurance exercise bout. In conclusion, a low-intensity but very prolonged single endurance exercise bout can generate a strong inflammatory cell infiltration in skeletal muscle of well-trained experienced ultra-endurance athletes, and the amplitude of the local reaction is not proportional to the systemic inflammatory response.
  • Pontén, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Higher amount of MyHC IIX in a wrist flexor in tetraplegic compared to hemiplegic cerebral palsy
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of the Neurological Sciences. - 0022-510X. ; 266:1-2, s. 51-56
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Spastic cerebral palsy can be divided into diagnostic groups by the relative severity of the arm impairment. This study investigates if hemiplegic, tetraplegic or diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) results in different patterns of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression in the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle from 17 young patients with CP. Using enzyme-immunohistochemistry and gel electrophoresis techniques we found a higher percentage of fibers expressing fast MyHC IIx (52%) in tetraplegic CP compared to hemiplegic patients (32%), (p &lt; 0.05). Tetraplegic CP also resulted in a lower amount of fibers expressing slow MyHC I (18%) compared to hemiplegic CP (40%), (p &lt; 0.005). The proportion of muscle fibers containing fetal MyHC was higher in tetraplegic CP compared to other groups, (p &lt; 0.005). Taken together theses results indicate that tetraplegic CP is associated with a shift from slow to fast myosins and that regenerative events are more prominent in tetraplegic CP compared with milder brain damage.
  • Wåhlin-Larsson, Britta, et al. (författare)
  • Skeletal muscle morphology and aerobic capacity in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Respiration. - 0025-7931. ; 76:1, s. 21-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Despite the fact that patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) often have symptoms at the level of skeletal muscle such as fatigue, the question of whether the structural, cellular and functional properties of limb skeletal muscles are affected has not been fully examined. Objective: The aim was to examine physiological and muscular parameters in patients with OSAS and to assess the relationship between these parameters and the clinical symptoms. Method: Eighteen patients with OSAS and 16 controls participated. Aerobic capacity was assessed using a submaximal test. Fibre type distribution and fibre area were analyzed on muscle biopsies taken from the tibialis anterior. The microvascularization was assessed using the following parameters: (1) the number of capillaries per fibre (CAF), (2) CAF per fibre area (CAFA), (3) capillary to fibre perimeter exchange (CFPE) index, which represents the interface between muscle fibre and capillaries, and (4) length of capillary/perimeter of the fibre (LC/PF) index or capillary tortuosity, which represents the percent of muscle fibre perimeter in contact with the wall of the microvessel. Results: The OSAS group had significantly lower predicted relative maximal oxygen uptake (p = 0.0047) which was inversely correlated to the apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI; r = –0.6, p = 0.017). There was a significantly higher CFPE index for slow type I fibres (p = 0.007) and fast type II fibres (p = 0.0126) and a significantly higher LC/PF index for type I fibres (p = 0.0003) and type II fibres (p = 0.0285) in OSAS patients compared to controls. Conclusion: OSAS patients have a higher muscle microvascularization and a lower aerobic capacity than controls. Furthermore the aerobic capacity was inversely correlated to AHI.
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