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Sökning: swepub > Örebro universitet > Kadi Fawzi > Tidskriftsartikel

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  • Eriksson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Skeletal muscle morphology in power-lifters with and without anabolic steroids
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Histochemistry and Cell Biology. - 0948-6143. ; 124:2, s. 167-175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The morphological appearance of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle from high-level power-lifters on long-term anabolic steroid supplementation (PAS) and power-lifters never taking anabolic steroids (P) was compared. The effects of long- and short-term supplementation were compared. Enzyme-immunohistochemical investigations were performed to assess muscle fiber type composition, fiber area, number of myonuclei per fiber, internal myonuclei, myonuclear domains and proportion of satellite cells. The PAS group had larger type I, IIA, IIAB and IIC fiber areas (p<0.05). The number of myonuclei/fiber and the proportion of central nuclei were significantly higher in the PAS group (p<0.05). Similar results were seen in the trapezius muscle (T) but additionally, in T the proportion of fibers expressing developmental myosin isoforms was higher in the PAS group compared to the P group. Further, in VL, the PAS group had significantly larger nuclear domains in fibers containing > or = 5 myonuclei. The results of AS on VL morphology in this study were similar to previously reported short-term effects of AS on VL. The initial effects from AS appear to be maintained for several years.
  • Larsson, Britt, et al. (författare)
  • Blood supply and oxidative metabolism in muscle biopsies of female cleaners with and without myalgia
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: The Clinical Journal of Pain. - 0749-8047. ; 20:6, s. 440-446
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Pathomechanisms of work-related myalgia are poorly understood. Myalgia is thought to be caused by excitation of nociceptors present in the muscular tissue but not in the muscle fiber itself. Muscle contraction in combination with hypoxia is known to excite nociceptors. Morphologic analysis can contribute to the knowledge of the excitation of nociceptors. This study thoroughly examines the morphology of the trapezius muscle's capillary supply and signs of disturbed oxidative metabolism to understand their role in work-related myalgia. METHODS: Surgical trapezius muscle biopsies were obtained from 25 female cleaners with long-standing work-related myalgia, 25 female cleaners without trapezius myalgia, and 21 healthy teachers. Enzyme and immunohistochemical stainings were performed to highlight fibers with aberrant intermyofibrillar patterns, indicating a disturbed oxidative metabolism (also known as moth-eaten fibers) and a disturbed capillary supply of different fibers. RESULTS: A significantly lower number of capillaries per fiber area in cleaners suffering from myalgia compared with cleaners without trapezius myalgia was found. Moth-eaten fibers were found in the 3 groups, but these fibers were significantly more prevalent in the groups of cleaners than in the healthy teacher group. CONCLUSION: This work indicates that the capillary supply of trapezius is affected in work-related trapezius myalgia. More studies are needed to understand possible mechanisms that would explain the occurrence of moth-eaten fibers.
  • Lexell, Jan, et al. (författare)
  • Satellite cells and myonuclei in young and elderly women and men
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Muscle and Nerve. - 0148-639X. ; 29:1, s. 120-127
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The overall aim of this study was to assess the effects of aging on the satellite cell population. Muscle biopsies were taken from the tibialis anterior muscle of healthy, moderately active young (age range, 20-32 years; n = 31) and elderly (age range, 70-83 years; n = 27) women and men with comparable physical activity pattern. Satellite cells and myonuclei were visualized using a monoclonal antibody against neural cell adhesion molecule and counterstained with Mayer's hematoxylin. An average of 211 (range, 192-241) muscle fibers were examined for each individual. Compared with the young women and men, the elderly subjects had a significantly lower (P < 0.011) number of satellite cells per muscle fiber but a significantly higher (P < 0.004) number of myonuclei per muscle fiber. The number of satellite cells relative to the total number of nuclei [satellite cells/(myonuclei + satellite cells)] was significantly lower in the elderly than in the young women and men. These results imply that a reduction in the satellite cell population occurs as a result of increasing age in healthy men and women.
  • Ponsot, Elodie, et al. (författare)
  • Skeletal muscle telomere length is not impaired in healthy physically active old women and men
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Muscle and Nerve. - 0148-639X. ; 37:4, s. 467-472
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We have previously shown that the number of satellite cells is lower in old than young men and women. The aim of this study was to further explore the effects of aging on the regenerative potential of skeletal muscle in 16 young and 26 old men and women with comparable physical activity level (young, 25 +/- 4 years; old, 75 +/- 4 years). Mean and minimum telomere lengths were determined using Southern blot analyses on biopsies obtained from the tibialis anterior muscle. There were no significant age or gender effects on mean and minimal telomeric lengths, suggesting that the replicative potential in the remaining satellite cells in the tibialis anterior muscle is not impaired with increasing age and the existence of in vivo regulatory mechanisms allowing the maintenance of telomere length. These results imply that moderate physical activity regularly performed by old subjects is not associated with accelerated telomere loss.
  • Folkesson, Mattias, 1972-, et al. (författare)
  • The expression of heat shock protein in human skeletal muscle : effects of muscle fibre phenotype and trainingbackground
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Acta Physiologica. - 1748-1708. ; 209:1, s. 26-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AimExercise-induced adaptations of skeletal muscle are related to training mode and can be muscle fibre type specific. This study aimed to investigate heat shock protein expression in type I and type II muscle fibres in resting skeletal muscle of subjects with different training backgrounds.MethodsThree groups of subjects were included: healthy active not engaged in any training programme (ACT, n = 12), resistance trained (RES, n = 6) and endurance trained (END, n = 8). Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis, and immunohistochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibodies against myosin heavy chain I and IIA, ?B-crystallin, HSP27, HSP60 and HSP70.ResultsIn ACT and RES, but not in END, a fibre type–specific expression with higher staining intensity in type I than type II fibres was seen for ?B-crystallin. The opposite (II > I) was found for HSP27 in subjects from ACT (6 of 12 subjects) and RES (3 of 6), whereas all subjects from END displayed uniform staining. HSP60 showed no fibre-specific expression. HSP70 displayed a fibre-specific expression pattern (I > II) in ACT (4 of 12), but not in END or RES.ConclusionThis study shows that the level of expression of the different HSPs in human skeletal muscle is influenced by muscle fibre phenotype. The fibre type–specific expression of HSP70 is influenced by resistance and endurance training, whereas those of ?B-crystallin and HSP27 is influenced only by endurance training, suggesting the existence of a training-modality-specific action on the adaptive processes including heat shock proteins in human skeletal muscle.
  • Kadi, Fawzi, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of regular strength training on telomere length in human skeletal muscle
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. - 0195-9131. ; 40:1, s. 82-87
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: The length of DNA telomeres is an important parameter of the proliferative potential of tissues. A recent study has reported abnormally short telomeres in skeletal muscle of athletes with exercise-associated fatigue. This important report raises the question of whether long-term practice of sports might have deleterious effects on muscle telomeres. Therefore, we aimed to compare telomere length of a group of power lifters (PL; N = 7) who trained for 8 +/- 3 yr against that of a group of healthy, active subjects (C; N = 7) with no history of strength training. METHODS: Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis, and the mean and minimum telomeric restriction fragments (TRF) (telomere length) were determined, using the Southern blot protocol previously used for the analysis of skeletal muscle. RESULTS: There was no abnormal shortening of telomeres in PL. On the contrary, the mean (P = 0.07) and the minimum (P = 0.09) TRF lengths in PL tended to be higher than in C. In PL, the minimum TRF length was inversely correlated to the individual records in squat (r = -0.86; P = 0.01) and deadlift (r = -0.88; P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: These results show for the first time that long-term training is not associated with an abnormal shortening of skeletal muscle telomere length. Although the minimum telomere length in PL remains within normal physiological ranges, a heavier load put on the muscles means a shorter minimum TRF length in skeletal muscle.
  • Verney, Julien, et al. (författare)
  • Combined lower body endurance and upper body resistance training improves performance and health parameters in healthy active elderly
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Applied Physiology. - 1439-6319. ; 97:3, s. 288-297
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • We investigated the effects of combined lower body (LB) endurance and upper body (UB) resistance training on endurance, strength, blood lipid profile and body composition in active older men. Ten healthy still active men (73+/-4 years, V(O2) peak: 36 (31-41) ml min-1 kg-1) were tested before and after 14 weeks of combined training (3 times week-1). Training consisted of 3x12 min of high intensity interval training on a bicycle for endurance interspersed by 3x12 min of UB resistance exercises. V(O2) peak during leg cycling and arm cranking, isokinetic torque of knee extensor and shoulder abductor and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of several muscles from UB and LB were measured. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and abdominal fat area were measured on MRI scans. Total body composition was assessed by hydrostatic weighing (HW) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Blood lipid profile was assessed before and after training. By the end of the training period, V(O2) peak (l min-1) increased significantly by 9 and 16% in leg cycling and arm cranking tests, respectively. Maximal isokinetic torque increased both for the knee extensor and shoulder abductor muscle groups. CSA increased significantly in deltoid muscle. Percentage of body fat decreased by 1.3% (P<0.05) and abdominal fat and SAD decreased by 12 and 6%, respectively (P<0.01). There was also a significant decrease in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein. Thus, combined LB endurance and UB resistance training can improve endurance, strength, body composition and blood lipid profile even in healthy active elderly.
  • Ambrosio, Fabrisia, et al. (författare)
  • The effect of muscle loading on skeletal muscle regenerative potential : an update of current research findings relating to aging and neuromuscular pathology
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. - Baltimore : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0894-9115. ; 88:2, s. 145-155
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue with a remarkable ability to continuously respond to environmental stimuli. Among its adaptive responses is the widely investigated ability of skeletal muscle to regenerate after loading or injury or both. Although significant basic science efforts have been dedicated to better understand the underlying mechanism controlling skeletal muscle regeneration, there has been relatively little impact in the clinical approaches used to treat skeletal muscle injuries and wasting. The purpose of this review article is to provide an overview of the basic biology of satellite cell function in response to muscle loading and to relate these findings in the context of aging and neuromuscular pathology for the rehabilitation medicine specialist.
  • Andersson, Helena M., et al. (författare)
  • Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer effects of active recovery
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. - 0195-9131. ; 40:2, s. 372-380
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: To investigate the time course of recovery from neuromuscular fatigue and some biochemical changes between two female soccer matches separated by an active or passive recovery regime. METHODS: Countermovement jump (CMJ), sprint performance, maximal isokinetic knee flexion and extension, creatine kinase (CK), urea, uric acid, and perceived muscle soreness were measured in 17 elite female soccer players before, immediately after, 5, 21, 45, 51, and 69 h after a first match, and immediately after a second match. Eight players performed active recovery (submaximal cycling at 60% of HRpeak and low-intensity resistance training at < 50% 1RM) 22 and 46 h after the first match. RESULTS: In response to the first match, a significant decrease in sprint performance (-3.0 +/- 0.5%), CMJ (-4.4 +/- 0.8%), peak torque in knee extension (-7.1 +/- 1.9%) and flexion (-9.4 +/- 1.8%), and an increase in CK (+ 152 +/- 28%), urea (15 +/- 2), uric acid (+ 11 +/- 2%), and muscle soreness occurred. Sprint ability was first to return to baseline (5 h) followed by urea and uric acid (21 h), isokinetic knee extension (27 h) and flexion (51 h), CK, and muscle soreness (69 h), whereas CMJ was still reduced at the beginning of the second match. There were no significant differences in the recovery pattern between the active and passive recovery groups. The magnitude of the neuromuscular and biochemical changes after the second match was similar to that observed after the first match. CONCLUSION: The present study reveals differences in the recovery pattern of the various neuromuscular and biochemical parameters in response to a female soccer match. The active recovery had no effects on the recovery pattern of the four neuromuscular and three biochemical parameters.
  • Eliason, Gabriella, et al. (författare)
  • Alterations in the muscle-to-capillary interface in patients with different degrees of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Respiratory research (Online). - 1465-993X. ; 11, s. 97
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: It is hypothesized that decreased capillarization of limb skeletal muscle is implicated in the decreased exercise tolerance in COPD patients. We have recently demonstrated decreased number of capillaries per muscle fibre (CAF) but no changes in CAF in relation to fibre area (CAFA), which is based on the diffusion distance between the capillary and muscle fibre. The aim of the current study is to investigate the muscle-to-capillary interface which is an important factor involved in oxygen supply to the muscle that has previously been suggested to be a more sensitive marker for changes in the capillary bed compared to CAF and CAFA. Methods: 23 COPD patients and 12 age-matched healthy subjects participated in the study. Muscle-to-capillary interface was assessed in muscle biopsies from the tibialis anterior muscle using the following parameters:1) The capillary-to-fibre ratio (C:Fi) which is defined as the sum of the fractional contributions of all capillary contacts around the fibre2) The ratio between C:Fi and the fibre perimeter (CFPE-index)3) The ratio between length of capillary and fibre perimeter (LC/PF) which is also referred to as the index of tortuosity.Exercise capacity was determined using the 6-min walking test.  Results A positive correlation was found between CFPE-index and ascending disease severity with CFPE-index for type I fibres being significantly lower in patients with moderate and severe COPD. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between exercise capacity and CFPE-index for both type I and type IIa fibres..Conclusion: It can be concluded that the muscle-to-capillary interface is disturbed in the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with COPD and that interface is strongly correlated to increased disease severity and to decreased exercise capacity in this patient group. 
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