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Sökning: swepub > Örebro universitet > Tysk Curt > Tidskriftsartikel

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1.
  • Sjoberg, Mats, et al. (författare)
  • Infliximab or cyclosporine as rescue therapy in hospitalized patients with steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis : a retrospective observational study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. - John Wiley & Sons. - 1078-0998. ; 18:2, s. 212-218
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Cyclosporine (CsA) or infliximab (IFX) are used as rescue therapies in steroid-refractory, severe attacks of ulcerative colitis (UC). There are no data comparing the efficacy of these two alternatives. Methods: Outcome of rescue therapy was retrospectively studied in two cohorts of patients hospitalized due to steroid-refractory moderate to severe UC: 1) a Swedish-Danish cohort (n 49) treated with a single infusion of IFX; 2) an Austrian cohort (n 43) treated with intravenous CsA. After successful rescue therapy, maintenance immunomodulator treatment was given to 27/33 (82%) of IFX patients and to 31/40 (78%) of CsA patients. Endpoints were colectomy-free survival at 3 and 12 months. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used to evaluate the association between treatment groups and colectomy. Results: At 15 days, colectomy-free survival in the IFX cohort was 36/49 (73%) versus 41/43 (95%) in the CsA cohort (P = 0.005), at 3 months 33/49 (67%) versus 40/43 (93%) (P = 0.002), and at 12 months 28/49 (57%) versus 33/43 (77%) (P = 0.034). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, Cox regression analysis yielded adjusted hazard ratios for risk of colectomy in IFX-treated patients of 11.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-53.1, P = 0.002) at 3 months and of 3.0 (95% CI 1.1-8.2, P = 0.030) at 12 months in comparison with CsA-treated patients. There were no opportunistic infections or mortality. Conclusions: Colectomy frequencies were significantly lower after rescue therapy with CsA than with a single infusion of IFX both at 3 and 12 months' follow-up. The superiority of CsA was seen principally during the first 15 days.
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2.
  • Dicksved, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular analysis of the gut microbiota of identical twins with Crohn's disease
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: The ISME journal. - 1751-7370. ; 2:7, s. 716-727
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increasing evidence suggests that a combination of host genetics and the composition of the gut microbiota are important for development of Crohn's disease (CD). Our aim was to study identical twins with CD to determine microbial factors independent of host genetics. Fecal samples were studied from 10 monozygotic twin pairs with CD (discordant n=6 and concordant n=4) and 8 healthy twin pairs. DNA was extracted, 16S rRNA genes were PCR amplified and T-RFLP fingerprints generated using general bacterial and Bacteroides group-specific primers. The microbial communities were also profiled based on their percentage G+C contents. Bacteroides 16S rRNA genes were cloned and sequenced from a subset of the samples. The bacterial diversity in each sample and similarity indices between samples were estimated based on the T-RFLP data using a combination of statistical approaches. Healthy individuals had a significantly higher bacterial diversity compared to individuals with CD. The fecal microbial communities were more similar between healthy twins than between twins with CD, especially when these were discordant for the disease. The microbial community profiles of individuals with ileal CD were significantly different from healthy individuals and those with colonic CD. Also, CD individuals had a lower relative abundance of B. uniformis and higher relative abundances of B. ovatus and B. vulgatus. Our results suggest that genetics and/or environmental exposure during childhood, in part, determine the gut microbial composition. However, CD is associated with dramatic changes in the gut microbiota and this was particularly evident for individuals with ileal CD.
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3.
  • Willing, Ben P., et al. (författare)
  • A pyrosequencing study in twins shows that gastrointestinal microbial profiles vary with inflammatory bowel disease phenotypes
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Gastroenterology. - Elsevier. - 0016-5085. ; 139:6, s. 1844-1854.e1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: The composition of the gastrointestinal microbiota is thought to have an important role in the etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Interindividual variation and an inability to detect less abundant bacteria have made it difficult to correlate specific bacteria with disease.METHODS: We used 454 pyrotag sequencing to determine the compositions of microbial communities in feces samples collected from a cohort of 40 twin pairs who were concordant or discordant for CD or UC, and in mucosal samples from a subset of the cohort. The cohort primarily comprised patients who were in remission, but also some with active disease.RESULTS: The profiles of the microbial community differed with disease phenotypes; relative amounts of bacterial populations correlated with IBD phenotypes. The microbial compositions of individuals with CD differed from those of healthy individuals, but were similar between healthy individuals and individuals with UC. Profiles from individuals with CD that predominantly involved the ileum differed from those with CD that predominantly involved the colon; several bacterial populations increased or decreased with disease type. Changes specific to patients with ileal CD included the disappearance of core bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium and Roseburia, and increased amounts of Enterobacteriaceae and Ruminococcus gnavus.CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial populations differ in abundance among individuals with different phenotypes of CD. Specific species of bacteria are associated with ileal CD; further studies should investigate their role in pathogenesis.
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4.
  • Willing, Ben, et al. (författare)
  • Twin studies reveal specific imbalances in the mucosa-associated microbiota of patients with ileal Crohn's disease
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. - New York : Wiley. - 1078-0998. ; 15:5, s. 653-660
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Large interindividual variation in the composition of the intestinal microbiota between unrelated individuals has made it challenging to identify specific aspects of dysbiosis that lead to Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: To reduce variations in exposure during establishment of the gut flora and the influence of genotype, we studied the mucosa-associated microbiota of monozygotic twin pairs that were discordant (n = 6) or concordant (n = 4) for CD. DNA was extracted from biopsies collected from 5 locations between the ileum and rectum. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified and community composition assessed by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, cloning and sequencing, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The microbial compositions at all biopsy locations for each individual were similar, regardless of disease state, but there were differences between individuals. In particular, individuals with predominantly ileal CD had a dramatically lower abundance (P < 0.001) of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and increased abundance (P < 0.03) of Escherichia coli compared to healthy co-twins and those with CD localized in the colon. This dysbiosis was significantly correlated to the disease phenotype rather than genotype. CONCLUSIONS: The reduced abundance of F. prausnitzii and increased abundance of E. coli are indicative of an ileal CD phenotype, distinct from colonic CD, and the relative abundances of these specific bacterial populations are promising biomarker candidates for differential diagnosis of CD and eventually customized treatment.
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5.
  • Hjortswang, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Health-related quality of life is impaired in active collagenous colitis
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: DIGESTIVE AND LIVER DISEASE. - Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. - 1590-8658. ; 43:2, s. 102-109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The characteristic clinical symptoms of collagenous colitis are non-bloody diarrhoea, urgency and abdominal pain. Treatment is aimed at reducing the symptom burden and the disease impact on patients health-related quality of life. The objective of this study was to analyse health-related quality of life in patients with collagenous colitis. Methods: In a cross-sectional, postal HRQL survey, 116 patients with collagenous colitis at four Swedish hospitals completed four health-related quality of life questionnaires, two disease-specific (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire and Rating Form of IBD Patient Concerns), and two generic (Short Form 36, SF-36, and Psychological General Well-Being, PGWB), and a one-week symptom diary. Demographic and disease-related data were collected. Results for the collagenous colitis population were compared with a background population controlled for age and gender (n = 8931). Results: Compared with a Swedish background population, patients with collagenous colitis scored significantly worse in all Short Form 36 dimensions (p andlt; 0.01), except physical function. Patients with active disease scored worse health-related quality of life than patients in remission. Co-existing disease had an impact on health-related quality of life measured with the generic measures. Lower education level and shorter disease duration were associated with decreased well-being. Conclusion: Health-related quality of life was impaired in patients with collagenous colitis compared with a background population. Disease activity is the most important factor associated with impairment of health-related quality of life. Patients in remission have a health-related quality of life similar to a background population.
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6.
  • Ljung, Tryggve, et al. (författare)
  • Granulocyte, monocyte/macrophage apheresis for inflammatory bowel disease : the first 100 patients treated in Scandinavia
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - Oslo : Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5521. ; 42:2, s. 221-227
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Selective leukocyte apheresis is a new type of non-pharmacological treatment for patients with active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Preliminary data have indicated that this type of therapy is safe and efficacious, and large sham-controlled studies are currently in progress. In Scandinavia, a substantial number of patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease have already received leukocyte apheresis on a compassionate use basis and the aim of this study was to report the clinical outcome and adverse events in the first patients treated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical details of the first consecutive 100 patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with granulocyte, monocyte/macrophage (Adacolumn) apheresis in Scandinavia were prospectively registered. Median length of follow-up was 17 months, (range 5-30). RESULTS: The study population comprised 52 patients with ulcerative colitis, 44 patients with Crohn's disease and 4 patients with indeterminate colitis. In 97 patients the indication for Adacolumn treatment was steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent disease. Clinical remission was attained in 48% of the patients with ulcerative colitis, and an additional 27% had a clinical response to the apheresis treatment. The corresponding figures for patients with Crohn's disease were 41% and 23%, respectively. Complete steroid withdrawal was achieved in 27 out of the 50 patients taking corticosteroids at baseline. Adverse events were reported in 15 patients and headache was most frequently reported (n=7). CONCLUSIONS: Granulocyte, monocyte/macrophage apheresis treatment seems to be a valuable adjuvant therapy in selected patients with refractory inflammatory bowel disease. The risk for toxicity or severe adverse events appears to be low.
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7.
8.
  • Zhulina, Yaroslava, et al. (författare)
  • Subclinical Inflammation with Increased Neutrophil Activity in Healthy Twin Siblings Reflect Environmental Influence in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. - Philadelphia, USA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1078-0998. ; 19:8, s. 1725-1731
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The mechanisms behind increased fecal calprotectin (FC) in healthy relatives of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are unknown. Our aims were to explore if there is a subclinical inflammation with increased neutrophil activity in healthy twin siblings in discordant twin pairs with IBD and to assess the influence of genetics in this context.Methods: Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-B) and neutrophil activity, based on myeloperoxidase (MPO) and FC, were analyzed in healthy twin siblings in discordant twin pairs with IBD and compared with healthy controls. NF-B and MPO were assessed by immunohistochemistry and FC by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: In total, 33 of 34 healthy twin siblings were histologically normal. Increased NF-B was more often observed in healthy twin siblings in discordant twin pairs with Crohn's disease (13/18 [73%]) and with ulcerative colitis (12/16 [75%]) than in healthy controls (8/45 [18%]). MPO was more often increased in healthy twin siblings in discordant pairs with Crohn's disease (12/18 [67%]) than in healthy controls (11/45 [24%]) and FC more often in healthy twin siblings in discordant pairs with ulcerative colitis (14/21 [67%]) than in healthy controls (6/31 [19%]). Interestingly, the observed differences remained when healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twin siblings were analyzed separately.Conclusions:We observed increased NF-B, MPO, and FC in healthy twins in both monozygotic and dizygotic discordant pairs with IBD. These novel findings speak for an ongoing subclinical inflammation with increased neutrophil activity in healthy first-degree relatives.
9.
  • Stenberg, Reidun, et al. (författare)
  • Increased prevalence of antibodies against dietary proteins in children and young adults with cerebral palsy.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN. - 0277-2116. ; 56:2, s. 233-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Undernourishment is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but the reasons are unknown. We previously reported elevated levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) A and IgG antibodies against gliadin (AGA) and tissue transglutaminase (tTG) in 99 children and young adults with CP without characteristic findings of gluten enteropathy in small bowel biopsies. Our aim was to perform a case-control study of IgG antibodies against other dietary antigens, AGA, anti-tTG, and IgE antibodies against wheat and gluten.METHODS: Sera from 99 cases with CP and 99 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls were analysed with fluorescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of IgG antibodies against β-lactoglobulin, casein, egg white, IgG- and IgA-AGA, IgA-anti-tTG, and IgE antibodies against gluten and wheat.RESULTS: Compared with controls, the odds ratio in cases with CP for having elevated levels of IgG antibodies against β-lactoglobulin was 17.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-128), against casein 11.0 (95% CI 2.6-46.8), and against egg white 7.0 (95% CI 1.6-30.8). The IgE responses for wheat/gluten were generally low. The tetraplegic and dyskinetic CP subtypes had significantly higher frequencies of elevated levels for all of the tested antibodies except IgG against egg white, and IgA-anti-tTG. A significantly lower weight was seen in cases with CP with positive versus negative serology.CONCLUSIONS: Elevated levels of IgG against dietary antigens were more frequent in the CP group compared with controls, and particularly in the tetraplegic and dyskinetic CP subtypes with the most severe neurologic handicap and undernourishment. Hypothetically, malnourishment may cause increased intestinal permeability and thus immunization against dietary antigens.
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10.
  • Hjortswang, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Defining Clinical Criteria for Clinical Remission and Disease Activity in Collagenous Colitis
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. - 1078-0998. ; 15:12, s. 1875-1881
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Collagenous colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease accompanied mainly by nonbloody diarrhea. The objectives of treatment are to alleviate the symptoms and minimize the deleterious effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). There is still no generally accepted clinical definition of remission or relapse. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of bowel symptoms on HRQOL and accordingly suggest criteria for remission and disease activity based on impact of patient symptoms on HRQOL. Methods: The design was a cross-sectional postal survey of 116 patients with collagenous colitis. The main outcome measures were 4 HRQOL questionnaires: the Short Health Scale, the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire, the Rating Form of IBD Patient Concerns, and the Psychological General Well-Being Index, and a 1-week symptom diary recording number of stools/day and number of watery stools/day. Results: Severity of bowel symptoms had a deleterious impact on patients HRQOL. Patients with a mean of greater than= 3 stools/day or a mean of greater than= 1 watery stool/day had a significantly impaired HRQOL compared to those with less than3 stools/day and less than 1 watery stool/day. Conclusions: We propose that clinical remission in collagenous colitis is defined as a mean of less than3 stools/day and a mean of less than 1 watery stool per clay and disease activity to be a daily mean of greater than= 3 stools or a mean of greater than= 1 watery stool.
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