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  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Fermi/LAT observations of LS 5039
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 05717248. - 0004-637X ; 706:1, s. L56-L61
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first results from observations of the high-mass X-ray binary LS 5039 using the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope data between 2008 August and 2009 June are presented. Our results indicate variability that is consistent with the binary period, with the emission being modulated with a period of 3.903 ± 0.005 days; the first detection of this modulation at GeV energies. The light curve is characterized by a broad peak around superior conjunction in agreement with inverse Compton scattering models. The spectrum is represented by a power law with an exponential cutoff, yielding an overall flux (100 MeV-300 GeV) of 4.9 ± 0.5(stat) ± 1.8(syst) ×10–7 photon cm–2 s–1, with a cutoff at 2.1 ± 0.3(stat) ± 1.1(syst) GeV and photon index ? = 1.9 ± 0.1(stat) ± 0.3(syst). The spectrum is observed to vary with orbital phase, specifically between inferior and superior conjunction. We suggest that the presence of a cutoff in the spectrum may be indicative of magnetospheric emission similar to the emission seen in many pulsars by Fermi.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • A limit on the variation of the speed of light arising from quantum gravity effects
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 462:7271, s. 331-334
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A cornerstone of Einstein’s special relativity is Lorentz invariance—the postulate that all observers measure exactly the same speed of light in vacuum, independent of photon-energy. While special relativity assumes that there is no fundamental length-scale associated with such invariance, there is a fundamental scale (the Planck scale, lPlanck~1.62×10-33cm or EPlanck = MPlanckc2~1.22×1019GeV), at which quantum effects are expected to strongly affect the nature of space–time. There is great interest in the (not yet validated) idea that Lorentz invariance might break near the Planck scale. A key test of such violation of Lorentz invariance is a possible variation of photon speed with energy. Even a tiny variation in photon speed, when accumulated over cosmological light-travel times, may be revealed by observing sharp features in ?-ray burst (GRB) light-curves. Here we report the detection of emission up to ~31GeV from the distant and short GRB090510. We find no evidence for the violation of Lorentz invariance, and place a lower limit of 1.2EPlanck on the scale of a linear energy dependence (or an inverse wavelength dependence), subject to reasonable assumptions about the emission (equivalently we have an upper limit of lPlanck/1.2 on the length scale of the effect). Our results disfavour quantum-gravity theories in which the quantum nature of space–time on a very small scale linearly alters the speed of light.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • A Population of Gamma-Ray Millisecond Pulsars Seen with the Fermi Large Area Telescope
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 325:5942, s. 848-852
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pulsars are born with subsecond spin periods and slow by electromagnetic braking for several tens of millions of years, when detectable radiation ceases. A second life can occur for neutron stars in binary systems. They can acquire mass and angular momentum from their companions, to be spun up to millisecond periods and begin radiating again. We searched Fermi Large Area Telescope data for pulsations from all known millisecond pulsars (MSPs) outside of globular clusters, using rotation parameters from radio telescopes. Strong gamma-ray pulsations were detected for eight MSPs. The gamma-ray pulse profiles and spectral properties resemble those of young gamma-ray pulsars. The basic emission mechanism seems to be the same for MSPs and young pulsars, with the emission originating in regions far from the neutron star surface.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Detection of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae with Fermi
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 325:5942, s. 845-848
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the detection of gamma-ray emissions above 200 megaelectron volts at a significance level of 17 sigma from the globular cluster 47 Tucanae, using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Globular clusters are expected to emit gamma rays because of the large populations of millisecond pulsars that they contain. The spectral shape of 47 Tucanae is consistent with gamma-ray emission from a population of millisecond pulsars. The observed gamma-ray luminosity implies an upper limit of 60 millisecond pulsars present in 47 Tucanae.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - 2041-8205. ; 699:2, s. L102-L107
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations (>= 0.1 GeV) from the young radio and X-ray pulsar PSR J0205 + 6449 located in the Galactic supernova remnant 3C 58. Data in the gamma-ray band were acquired by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST), while the radio rotational ephemeris used to fold gamma-rays was obtained using both the Green Bank Telescope and the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank. The light curve consists of two peaks separated by 0.49 +/- 0.01 +/- 0.01 cycles which are aligned with the X-ray peaks. The first gamma-ray peak trails the radio pulse by 0.08 +/- 0.01 +/- 0.01, while its amplitude decreases with increasing energy as for the other gamma-ray pulsars. Spectral analysis of the pulsed gamma-ray emission suggests a simple power law of index -2.1 +/- 0.1 +/- 0.2 with an exponential cutoff at 3.0(-0.7)(+1.1) +/- 0.4 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral gamma-ray photon flux above 0.1 GeV is (13.7 +/- 1.4 +/- 3.0) x 10(-8) cm(-2) s(-1), which implies for a distance of 3.2 kpc and assuming a broad fan-like beam a luminosity of 8.3 x 10(34) erg s(-1) and an efficiency eta of 0.3%. Finally, we report a 95% upper limit on the flux of 1.7 x 10(-8) cm(-2) s(-1) for off-pulse emission from the object.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. ; 699:1, s. 817-823
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This is the first report of Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope observations of the quasar 3C 454.3, which has been undergoing pronounced long-term outbursts since 2000. The data from the Large Area Telescope, covering 2008 July 7-October 6, indicate strong, highly variable.-ray emission with an average flux of similar to 3 x 10 (6) photons cm(-2) s(-1), for energies > 100 MeV. The gamma-ray flux is variable, with strong, distinct, symmetrically shaped flares for which the flux increases by a factor of several on a timescale of about 3 days. This variability indicates a compact emission region, and the requirement that the source is optically thin to pair production implies relativistic beaming with Doppler factor delta > 8, consistent with the values inferred from Very Long Baseline Interferometry observations of superluminal expansion (delta similar to 25). The observed gamma-ray spectrum is not consistent with a simple power law, but instead steepens strongly above similar to 2 GeV, and is well described by a broken power law with photon indices of similar to 2.3 and similar to 3.5 below and above the break, respectively. This is the first direct observation of a break in the spectrum of a high-luminosity blazar above 100 MeV, and it is likely direct evidence for an intrinsic break in the energy distribution of the radiating particles. Alternatively, the spectral softening above 2 GeV could be due to gamma-ray absorption via photon-photon pair production on the soft X-ray photon field of the host active galactic nucleus, but such an interpretation would require the dissipation region to be located very close (less than or similar to 100 gravitational radii) to the black hole, which would be inconsistent with the X-ray spectrum of the source.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. - 0067-0049. ; 183:1, s. 46-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the gamma-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than similar to 10 sigma) gamma-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) gamma-ray sources in the early mission data.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Fermi Large Area Telescope Detection of Pulsed ?-rays from the Vela-like Pulsars PSR J1048–5832 and PSR J2229+6114
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. - 0004-637X ; 706:2, s. 1331-1340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the detection of ?-ray pulsations (>=0.1 GeV) from PSR J2229+6114 and PSR J1048–5832, the latter having been detected as a low-significance pulsar by EGRET. Data in the ?-ray band were acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, while the radio rotational ephemerides used to fold the ?-ray light curves were obtained using the Green Bank Telescope, the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank, and the Parkes Telescope. The two young radio pulsars, located within the error circles of the previously unidentified EGRET sources 3EG J1048–5840 and 3EG J2227+6122, present spin-down characteristics similar to the Vela pulsar. PSR J1048–5832 shows two sharp peaks at phases 0.15 ± 0.01 and 0.57 ± 0.01 relative to the radio pulse confirming the EGRET light curve, while PSR J2229+6114 presents a very broad peak at phase 0.49 ± 0.01. The ?-ray spectra above 0.1 GeV of both pulsars are fit with power laws having exponential cutoffs near 3 GeV, leading to integral photon fluxes of (2.19 ± 0.22 ± 0.32) × 10–7 cm–2 s–1 for PSR J1048–5832 and (3.77 ± 0.22 ± 0.44) × 10–7 cm–2 s–1 for PSR J2229+6114. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. PSR J1048–5832 is one of the two LAT sources which were entangled together as 3EG J1048–5840. These detections add to the growing number of young ?-ray pulsars that make up the dominant population of GeV ?-ray sources in the Galactic plane.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Fermi Large Area Telescope Gamma-Ray Detection of the Radio Galaxy M87
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X. - 0004-637X ; 707:1, s. 55-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) discovery of high-energy (MeV/GeV) ?-ray emission positionally consistent with the center of the radio galaxy M87, at a source significance of over 10? in 10 months of all-sky survey data. Following the detections of Cen A and Per A, this makes M87 the third radio galaxy seen with the LAT. The faint point-like ?-ray source has a >100 MeV flux of 2.45 (±0.63) × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1 (photon index = 2.26 ± 0.13) with no significant variability detected within the LAT observation. This flux is comparable with the previous EGRET upper limit (<2.18 × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1, 2?), thus there is no evidence for a significant MeV/GeV flare on decade timescales. Contemporaneous Chandra and Very Long Baseline Array data indicate low activity in the unresolved X-ray and radio core relative to previous observations, suggesting M87 is in a quiescent overall level over the first year of Fermi-LAT observations. The LAT ?-ray spectrum is modeled as synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from the electron population producing the radio-to-X-ray emission in the core. The resultant SSC spectrum extrapolates smoothly from the LAT band to the historical-minimum TeV emission. Alternative models for the core and possible contributions from the kiloparsec-scale jet in M87 are considered, and cannot be excluded.
  • Abdo, A. A., et al. (författare)
  • Fermi LAT Observation of Diffuse Gamma Rays Produced Through Interactions Between Local Interstellar Matter and High-energy Cosmic Rays
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. - 0067-0049. - 0004-637X ; 703:2, s. 1249-1256
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi mission of diffuse ?-rays in a mid-latitude region in the third quadrant (Galactic longitude l from 200° to 260° and latitude |b| from 22° to 60°) are reported. The region contains no known large molecular cloud and most of the atomic hydrogen is within 1 kpc of the solar system. The contributions of ?-ray point sources and inverse Compton scattering are estimated and subtracted. The residual ?-ray intensity exhibits a linear correlation with the atomic gas column density in energy from 100 MeV to 10 GeV. The measured integrated ?-ray emissivity is (1.63 ± 0.05) × 10-26 photons s-1sr-1 H-atom-1 and (0.66 ± 0.02) × 10-26 photons s-1sr-1 H-atom-1 above 100 MeV and above 300 MeV, respectively, with an additional systematic error of ~10%. The differential emissivity from 100 MeV to 10 GeV agrees with calculations based on cosmic ray spectra consistent with those directly measured, at the 10% level. The results obtained indicate that cosmic ray nuclei spectra within 1 kpc from the solar system in regions studied are close to the local interstellar spectra inferred from direct measurements at the Earth within ~10%.
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