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Sökning: swepub > Umeå universitet > Refereegranskat > Norberg Astrid > Nygren Björn

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1.
  • von Heideken Wågert, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Morale in the oldest old : the Umeå 85+ study
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Age and Ageing. - 0002-0729. ; 34:3, s. 249-255
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: to describe morale among the oldest old, and to investigate       which social, functional and medical factors are associated with morale in       this population. DESIGN: a cross-sectional study. SETTING: a       population-based study in the municipality of Umea, a city in Northern       Sweden. SUBJECTS: half of the 85-year-old population, and the total       population of 90-year-olds and > or = 95-year-olds (95-103) were asked to       participate (n = 319) and 238 were interviewed. METHODS: structured       interviews and assessments during home visits, interviews with relatives       and caregivers and review of medical charts. The 17-item Philadelphia       Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) was used to measure morale.       Participants were assessed with the Barthel Activities of Daily Living       (ADL) Index, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), Mini-Mental State       Examination (MMSE), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and a symptom       questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to find       independent factors to explain the variation in the PGCMS score. RESULTS:       eighty-four per cent (n = 199) of those interviewed answered the PGCMS.       Three-quarters had middle range or high morale. GDS score, type of       housing, previous stroke, loneliness and number of symptoms, adjusted for       age group and sex, explained 49.3% of the variance of total PGCMS score.       CONCLUSIONS: a large proportion of the oldest old had high morale. The       most important factors for high morale were the absence of depressive       symptoms, living in ordinary housing, having previously had a stroke and       yet still living in ordinary housing, not feeling lonely and low number of       symptoms. The PGCMS seems applicable in the evaluation of morale among the       oldest old.
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2.
  • von Heideken Wågert, Petra, et al. (författare)
  • Health status in the oldest old : Age and sex differences in the Umeå 85+ Study.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. - 1594-0667. ; 18:2, s. 116-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: With an increasing population aged 85 years and over, the aim of this study was to describe health status and living conditions in the oldest old and to estimate age and sex differences in a Northern European population. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study, The Umeå 85+ Study, was carried out in the municipality of Umeå in northern Sweden. Out of 319 eligible participants aged 85, 90 and 95 years and over, 253 participated. Structured interviews and assessments were conducted with the participants in their homes, and data were also collected from relatives, caregivers and medical charts. Cognition was screened with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), depressive symptoms with the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15) and nutritional status with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Activities of daily living (ADL) were assessed applying the Staircase of ADL (including Katz' Index of ADL) and morale with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS). Participants also rated their own health. RESULTS: Over half of the participants had hypertension, one out of four was depressed, and the same proportion had had a hip fracture; the mean number of drugs taken was 6.4+/-4.0. Younger participants had lower rates of diagnoses and prescribed drugs, and were less dependent in ADL and other functional variables; men had lower rates of diagnoses and reported symptoms. The majority of participants rated their general health and morale as good. CONCLUSIONS: There were large variations in social, medical and functional variables within and between age and sex groups. This northern population of the oldest old seems to have a very high prevalence of hypertension, depression, hip fractures, and many prescribed drugs.
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3.
  • Choowattanapakorn, Tassana, et al. (författare)
  • Resilience among women and men aged 60 years and over in Sweden and in Thailand.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nursing and Health Sciences. - 1441-0745. ; 12:3, s. 329-335
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose of this study was to compare the level of resilience of people aged > or = 60 years in Sweden and Thailand. In a randomized sample of 422 people in Sweden and a convenience sample of 200 people in Thailand, the level of resilience was measured by using the Resilience Scale. A chi(2)-analysis was used for the differences between proportions. The relationships between the background variables and the resilience scores were analyzed by using stepwise multiple linear regression. The mean scores of resilience were 144 for the Swedish participants and 146 for the Thai participants. The two samples differed in their background characteristics. The Thai participants were more likely to be women, to be widowed, and to have more children, while among the Swedish participants, more women were married and more participants were aged > or = 80 years. Despite different background characteristics, the Swedish and the Thai participants' scores were almost the same on the Resilience Scale. More studies are necessary to address aspects of gender and ethnicity in relation to resilience.
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4.
  • Lundman, Berit, et al. (författare)
  • Development and psychometric properties of the Inner Strength Scale
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Studies. - Elsevier. - 0020-7489. ; 48:10, s. 1266-1274
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Four dimensions of inner strength were previously identified in a meta-theoretical analysis: firmness, creativity, connectedness, and flexibility.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop an Inner Strength Scale (ISS) based on those four dimensions and to evaluate its psychometric properties.METHOD: An initial version of ISS was distributed for validation purpose with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the resilience scale, and the sense of Coherence Scale. A convenience sample of 391 adults, aged 19-90 years participated. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used in the process of exploring, evaluating, and reducing the 63-item ISS to the 20-item ISS. Cronbach's alpha and test-retest were used to measure reliability.RESULTS: CFA showed satisfactory goodness-of-fit for the 20-item ISS. The analysis supported a fourfactor solution explaining 51% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha on the 20-item ISS was 0.86, and the test-retest showed stability over time (r=0.79).CONCLUSION: The ISS was found to be a valid and reliable instrument for capturing a multifaceted understanding of inner strength. Further tests of psychometric properties of the ISS will be performed in forthcoming studies.
5.
  • Lundman, Berit, et al. (författare)
  • Inner strength-A theoretical analysis of salutogenic concepts.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Studies. - 0020-7489. ; 47:2, s. 251-260
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Theoretical and empirical overlaps between the concepts of resilience, sense of coherence, hardiness, purpose in life, and self-transcendence have earlier been described as some kind of inner strength, but no studies have been found that focus on what attributes these concepts have in common. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to perform a theoretical analysis of the concepts of resilience, sense of coherence, hardiness, purpose in life, and self-transcendence, in order to identify their core dimensions in an attempt to get an overarching understanding of inner strength. PRINT METHOD: An analysis inspired by the procedure of meta-theory construction was performed. The main questions underlying the development of the concepts, the major paradigms and the most prominent assumptions, the critical attributes and the characteristics of the various concepts were identified. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in the identification of four core dimensions of inner strength and the understanding that inner strength relies on the interaction of these dimensions: connectedness, firmness, flexibility, and creativity. These dimensions were validated through comparison with the original descriptions of the concepts. CONCLUSION: An overarching understanding of inner strength is that it means both to stand steady, to be firm, with both feet on the ground and to be connected to; family, friends, society, nature and spiritual dimensions and to be able to transcend. Having inner strength is to be creative and stretchable, which is to believe in own possibilities to act and to make choices and influence life's trajectory in a perceived meaningful direction. Inner strength is to shoulder responsibility for oneself and others, to endure and deal with difficulties and adversities. This knowledge about inner strength will raise the awareness of the concept and, in turn, hopefully increase our potential to support people's inner strength.
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6.
  • Lundman, Berit, et al. (författare)
  • Inner strength in relation to functional status, disease, living arrangements, and social relationships among people aged 85 years and older
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Geriatric Nursing. - 0197-4572. ; 33:3, s. 167-176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inner strength is described as an important resource that promotes well-being. We used data from a sample of 185 people in the Umeå 85+ cohort study to relate inner strength and its attributes to objective health variables. The Resilience, Sense of Coherence, Purpose in Life, and Self-Transcendence scales were used to assess aspects of inner strength, and strong correlations between the scales were found. Prevalence of heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, osteoporosis, or diagnosed depression was associated with low inner strength. Significant relationships were also found between high inner strength and various measures of social relationships. Participants with a higher degree of inner strength had better physical health and more satisfying social relationships. The promotion of inner strength should be a major aim of geriatric nursing.
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7.
  • Nygren, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Inner strength as disclosed in narratives of the oldest old.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Qualitative Health Research. - 1049-7323. ; 17:8, s. 1060-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to illuminate the meaning of inner strength when very old as narrated by women and men 85 and 90 years old. The authors used a phenomenological hermeneutical method to analyze interviews from 11 women and 7 men, aged either 85 or 90, who scored high on scales measuring phenomena related to inner strength. The following themes emerged from the analysis: feeling competent in oneself yet having faith in others, looking on the bright side of life without hiding from the dark, feeling eased and also being active, being the same yet growing into a new garment, and living in a connected present but also in the past and the future. The authors understood the meaning as Life Goes On--Living It All. To illuminate this meaning further, the authors related the findings to the Aristotelian virtues and the golden mean, and to developmental theory.
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8.
  • Nygren, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Resilience, sense of coherence, purpose in life and self-transcendence in relation to perceived physical and mental health among the oldest old.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Aging & Mental Health. - 1360-7863. ; 9:4, s. 354-362
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Different concepts have been presented which denote driving forces and strengths that contribute to a person's ability to meet and handle adversities, and keep or regain health. The aim of this study, which is a part of The Umeå 85+ study, was to describe resilience, sense of coherence, purpose in life and self-transcendence in relation to perceived physical and mental health in a sample of the oldest old. The study sample consisted of 125 participants 85 years of age or older, who ranked themselves on the Resilience Scale, Sense of Coherence Scale, Purpose in Life Scale and Self-Transcendence Scale and answered the SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire. The findings showed significant correlations between scores on the Resilience Scale, the Sense of Coherence Scale, the Purpose in Life Test, and the Self-Transcendence Scale. Significant correlations were also found between these scales and the SF-36 Mental Health Summary among women but not among men. There was no significant correlation between perceived physical and mental health. The mean values of the different scales showed that the oldest old have the same or higher scores than younger age groups. Regression analyses also revealed sex differences regarding mental health. The conclusions are that, the correlation between scores on the different scales suggests that the scales measure some dimension of inner strength and that the oldest old have this strength at least in the same extent as younger adults. Another conclusion is that the dimensions that constitute mental health differ between women and men.
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9.
  • Santamäki-Fischer, Regina, et al. (författare)
  • Living Amidst Consolation in the Presence of God Perceptions of Consolation Among the Oldest Old : The Umeå 85+ Study.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging. - 1552-8030. ; 19:3, s. 3-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study describes how 90-year-olds and older people perceive consolation. Qualitative Content analysis of 49 interviews revealed four categories: consolation by God; consolation from others; consolation from self; and consolation from things, which were present in two themes. The theme "Living amidst consolation in the presence of God" was a core theme and expresses consolation as self-evident and based on a relation to God, others, self, and things. The theme "Seeking consolation," expresses consolation from self, others, things, or God. Interviewees in some cases regretted that they had no religious faith. Reasonably, most interviewees referred to religious consolation, as religion had been so closely connected with the word "consolation" all their lives. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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10.
  • Viglund, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the selection, optimization, compensation questionnaire.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. - 0283-9318. ; 27:2, s. 460-467
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the selection, optimization, compensation questionnaire Background:  The model of selection, optimization and compensation has been proposed as a model of adaptive management strategies throughout the lifespan. Aim:  The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of a translated Swedish version of the 12-item selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) questionnaire. Method:  The 12-item SOC questionnaire is composed of four subscales: elective selection (ES), loss-based selection, optimization and compensation. A convenience sample of 122 Swedish-speaking people, aged 19-85, participated in a study of the validity and reliability of the SOC questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha coefficient, corrected item-total correlation and Cronbach's alpha if item deleted were used for reliability testing. Two other scales, the ways of coping questionnaire and Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, were used to test convergent validity, and the geriatric depression scale was used to test discriminant validity. Stability over time was evaluated using a test-retest model with a 2-week interval. Results:  The 12-item SOC questionnaire showed a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.50, and the subscales ranged from α = 0.16 to α = 0.64. Two items in the ES subscale had negative values on the corrected item-total correlation and showed substantial improvement (>0.05) in Cronbach's alpha when item deleted. When these two items that influenced internal consistency were deleted, Cronbach's alpha rose to 0.68. Conclusion:  The Swedish version of the 12-item SOC questionnaire showed deficiencies in a test of internal consistency because of two items in the ES subscale, and these two items were deleted. A consequence of the reduction is a weakening of the ES subscale and thereby to some extent the SOC questionnaire in total. Further testing is advisable. However, the 10-item SOC questionnaire was acceptable in a test of validity and reliability.
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