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1.
  • Hedman, L, et al. (författare)
  • Factors related to tobacco use among teenagers.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Respiratory medicine. - 0954-6111. ; 101:3, s. 496-502
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To examine tobacco use among teenagers, identify factors related to tobacco use, as well as evaluate the outcome of a smoking prevention program.METHODS: From age 7/8 to 14/15, annual questionnaires about asthma and allergy have been completed in the OLIN paediatric study in Northern Sweden. From 12/13 years, questions about tobacco use, i.e. smoking and snuff, were added. A smoking prevention program was performed during 2 years.RESULTS: Any tobacco use increased from 5.0% at age 12/13 years, to 14.4% at age 14/15. At age 14/15 years, the prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher among boys than girls (16.7 and 12.0%, respectively). More girls than boys smoked (8.9 and 2.8%, respectively), while use of snuff was more common among the boys (15.6 and 4.2%, respectively). Significant risk factors for smoking were any of the family members currently smoking, OR 6.1 (95% CI 4.0-9.3) and a physician-diagnosed asthma at the age of 14/15 years, OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0). A protective factor against tobacco use was participation in sports, OR 0.3 (95% CI 0.2-0.4). The prevention program did not result in less tobacco use, although it may have delayed smoking initiation.CONCLUSION: The patterns of tobacco use differed significantly between boys and girls. Though any tobacco use was more common among boys, girls were more likely to smoke, and boys were more likely to use snuff. Having asthma did not prevent the teenagers from smoking. Since having a smoking family member was the major risk factor for tobacco use, prevention programs should be directed at smoking families in addition to the individuals.
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2.
  • Bjerg, Anders, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Higher Risk of Wheeze in Female than Male Smokers. Results from the Swedish GA(2)LEN Study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Women who smoke have higher risk of lung function impairment, COPD and lung cancer than smoking men. An influence of sex hormones has been demonstrated, but the mechanisms are unclear and the associations often subject to confounding. This was a study of wheeze in relation to smoking and sex with adjustment for important confounders. Methods: In 2008 the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) questionnaire was mailed to 45.000 Swedes (age 16-75 years), and 26.851 (60%) participated. "Any wheeze'': any wheeze during the last 12 months. "Asthmatic wheeze'': wheeze with breathlessness apart from colds. Results: Any wheeze and asthmatic wheeze was reported by 17.3% and 7.1% of women, vs. 15.8% and 6.1% of men (both p<0.001). Although smoking prevalence was similar in both sexes, men had greater cumulative exposure, 16.2 pack-years vs. 12.8 in women (p<0.001). Most other exposures and characteristics associated with wheeze were significantly overrepresented in men. Adjusted for these potential confounders and pack-years, current smoking was a stronger risk factor for any wheeze in women aged <53 years, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.85 (1.56-2.19) vs. 1.60 (1.30-1.96) in men. Cumulative smoke exposure and current smoking each interacted significantly with female sex, aOR 1.02 per pack-year (p<0.01) and aOR 1.28 (p = 0.04) respectively. Female compared to male current smokers also had greater risk of asthmatic wheeze, aOR 1.53 vs. 1.03, interaction aOR 1.52 (p = 0.02). These interactions were not seen in age >= 53 years. Discussion: In addition to the increased risk of COPD and lung cancer female, compared to male, smokers are at greater risk of significant wheezing symptoms in younger age. This became clearer after adjustment for important confounders including cumulative smoke exposure. Estrogen has previously been shown to increase the bioactivation of several compounds in tobacco smoke, which may enhance smoke-induced airway inflammation in fertile women.
3.
  • Jerning, Camilla, et al. (författare)
  • Asthma and physical activity - A population based study results from the Swedish GA(2)LEN survey
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine. - 0954-6111. ; 107:11, s. 1651-1658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Having asthma has in previous reports been related to a lower physical activity level. At the same time the prevalence of asthma among elite athletes is high. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity level and asthma.METHODS: A postal questionnaire was completed by 25,610 individuals in Sweden. Current asthma was defined as having had an asthma attack during the last 12 months or current use of asthma medication. The participants were asked how often and for how many hours a week they were physically active.RESULTS: In the population 1830 subjects (7.1%) had current asthma. There was no significant difference in the proportion of subjects that reported being inactive or slightly physically active between asthmatic and non-asthmatics (57 vs. 58%) while the proportion of subjects that were vigorously physically active (≥2 times a week and ≥7 h per week) was higher among the subjects with asthma (6.7 vs. 4.8%, p < 0.0001). Being vigorously physically active was independently related to current asthma (OR (95% CI)) 1.40 (1.11-1.77)), wheeze (1.39 (1.17-1.65)), wheeze and breathlessness (1.68 (1.38-2.04)), and wheezing without having a cold (1.39 (1.13-1.71)). The association between being vigorously physically active and wheeze was significantly stronger in women compared to men.CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in the proportion of subjects with a reported low level of physical activity between asthmatics and non-asthmatics. Health care professionals should, however, be aware of the increased prevalence of asthma and asthma-related symptoms in vigorously physically active subjects.
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4.
  • Bjerg, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Family history of asthma and atopy: in-depth analyses of the impact on asthma and wheeze in 7- to 8-year-old children.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Pediatrics. - 1098-4275. ; 120:4, s. 741-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Development of asthma in children is influenced by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. It is unclear whether paternal or maternal histories of disease confer different risks. Previous population-based studies have not stratified analyses by child gender and sensitization status. Our aim was to study in detail the hereditary component of childhood asthma. METHODS: A population-based cohort of 3430 (97% of invited) 7- to 8-year-old school children participated in an expanded International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood survey, and two thirds were skin-prick tested. Heredity was defined as a family history of (1) asthma and (2) atopy (allergic rhinitis or eczema). Multivariate analyses corrected for known risk factors for asthma. RESULTS: At ages 7 to 8, prevalence of asthma was 5.3% among the children and 9.0% among the parents. In children without parental asthma or parental atopy, the prevalence of asthma was 2.8%. Corrected for parental asthma, parental atopy was a weak but significant risk factor. There were minor differences in the impact of parental disease between sensitized and nonsensitized children and between boys and girls. CONCLUSIONS: As risk factors for childhood asthma, there were major differences between parental asthma and parental atopy. Sibling asthma was only a marker of parental disease. Interactions between parental disease and the child's allergic sensitization or gender were not statistically significant. Asthma in both parents conferred a multiplicative risk, whereas the effect of parental atopy was additive, however limited. Asthma and atopy, despite their causal relationship, are separate entities and could be inherited differently. This large, population-based, and well-characterized cohort study does not confirm parent-of-origin effects found in previous studies.
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5.
  • Ekerljung, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • No further increase of incidence of asthma: Incidence, remission and relapse of adult asthma in Sweden
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine. - 0954-6111. ; 102:12, s. 1730-1736
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Knowledge about time trends of disease patterns in society is essential for planning and prioritizing health care resources. Longitudinal population-based studies on asthma are scarce but provide an opportunity to assess incidence, remission and relapse of asthma, and their determinants, which were the objectives of the present study. METHODS: A postal questionnaire was sent on two occasions, 1996 and 2006, to a randomly selected sample of subjects aged 20-69 years in 1996. The response rates were 72% and 83%, respectively, and in total 4479 subjects participated in both surveys. The questionnaire included questions on asthma, respiratory symptoms and possible determinants. Logistic regression was used to assess determinants. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of asthma was 2.4% (men 1.9%; women 2.8%, p=0.06). Family histories of asthma (OR 2.31, CI 95% 1.42-3.76), rhinitis (OR 2.25, CI 95% 1.43-3.53) and being an ex-smoker (OR 2.17, CI 95% 1.27-3.71) were determinants for incident asthma. The 10-year remission of asthma was 14.6% and inversely associated with rhinitis. Relapse was found in 38% of eligible subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The current study with high participation rates concludes that the incidence of asthma among adults has been stable in Sweden for the past two decades. Remission was associated with mild disease at study start. Relapse in adults has rarely been reported previously and provide new insight in the course of asthma. Low remission and high relapse further support the view of asthma as a chronic disease; possibly representing fluctuations of the disease over time.
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6.
  • Rönmark, Eva, 1953-, et al. (författare)
  • Major increase in allergic sensitization in schoolchildren from 1996 to 2006 in northern Sweden.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. - 1097-6825. ; 124:2, s. 357-63631-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Time trends for allergic sensitization are poorly known. OBJECTIVE: To compare the trends in prevalence of allergic sensitization and associated risk factors in children. METHODS: Two cohorts of children (age 7-8 years) were invited for skin prick tests (SPTs) 10 years apart, 1996 and 2006. The participation rates were 2148 (88%) and 1700 (90%), respectively. The methods were identical, and 10 common airborne allergens were used. An expanded International Study of Allergy and Asthma in Children questionnaire about symptoms and possible risk factors for allergic conditions was completed by the parents. RESULTS: The prevalence of any positive SPT increased from 21% in 1996 to 30% in 2006 (P < .001). The pattern of sensitization remained similar, and sensitization to cat was most common both years, 13% and 19%, respectively. Sensitization to mites and mold was uncommon in both surveys. A family history of allergy was a significant risk factor for a positive SPT both years (odds ratio, 1.7). Factors that in 1996 had a protective effect, such as rural living and having several siblings, had lost this effect in 2006. The prevalence of most risk factors remained similar, but respiratory infections and smoking among parents decreased significantly. During the same period, there was no significant increase in the prevalence of current wheeze (11.9% to 12.4%, P = .636) or symptoms of rhinitis or eczema. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of allergic sensitization increased significantly from 1996 to 2006, whereas no increase in clinical symptoms was found. The parallel decrease in parental smoking and respiratory infections indicate a different influence of environmental factors on allergic sensitization and clinical symptoms, respectively.
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7.
  • Rönmark, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • The Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) longitudinal paediatric study I : the first 10 years
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Clinical Respiratory Journal. - Oxford : Blackwell Publishing. - 1752-6981. ; 2:Suppl 1, s. 26-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Prospective studies of asthma and allergic conditions based oil the general population are scare.Aim: To summarize the methods and main results from a prospective study among school children.Methods: In 1996, a cohort of 3525 children aged 7/8 years in Northern Sweden were invited to a questionnaire survey using an expanded ISAAC protocol, and 97% participated. The cohort has been followed up yearly with high participation rate. Skin prick tests were conducted 1996, 2000 and 2006/2007. Allergens in dust from homes and schools have been analyzed. Sub samples have participated in interviews, lung function tests, bronchial hyper reactivity test, and analyses of IgE and IgG antibodies in serum.Results: The prevalence of asthma was 6% at age 7-8 years and increased by age. The incidence of physician-diagnosed asthma after the age of 7-8 years was around 1/100/year. The prevalence of positive skin prick test increased from 21% at age 7-8 to 30% at age 11-12 years. Remission of allergic sensitization was rare, while asthma remission was 5% yearly. The main risk factor for asthma and allergic sensitization increased in importance with increasing age. Allergic and non-allergic asthma had different risk factor pattern. Environmental risk factors decreased in impact after the age of 7. Avoidance of pets at home did not protect from asthma or allergic sensitization.Conclusion: The study includes important sources of data for further longitudinal analyses that will contribute to the understanding of the development and the nature of asthma and allergic sensitization.
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8.
  • Bjerg, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • A population-based study of animal component sensitization, asthma, and rhinitis in schoolchildren
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology. - 0905-6157. ; 26:6, s. 557-563
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Animal sensitization is a major determinant of asthma in children. Component-resolved studies of unselected pediatric populations are lacking. The aim was to describe sensitization to animal components and the association with asthma and rhinitis in animal-sensitized schoolchildren. Methods: A random sample of 696 children (11-12years) from a Swedish population-based cohort was tested for sensitization to cat, dog, and horse dander using ImmunoCAP. Sera from animal-sensitized children were further analyzed by microarray including three allergen components from cat, four from dog, and two from horse. The parents completed an expanded ISAAC questionnaire. Results: Of 259 animal-sensitized children (0.1 kU(A)/l), 51% were sensitized to all three, 23% to two, and 25% to one species. Current asthma and asthma symptoms following contact with cats were associated with co-sensitization to Fel d 1 and Fel d 4. This association was seen already at moderate-level sensitization (1-15 ISU) to Fel d 4, at which level most children were sensitized to Fel d 1, as well. In dog-sensitized children, the majority was sensitized to more than one dog component, and co-sensitization to Can f 5 and Can f 1/f 2 conferred the greatest risk for asthma. Sensitization to the highly cross-reactive serum albumins was uncommon and not associated with asthma. Conclusions: Among schoolchildren in northern Sweden, where mite allergy is uncommon, furry animals were the primary perennial sensitizers. Asthma was associated with higher levels of component sensitization, and sensitization to more than one component from the same animal conferred the greatest risk.
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9.
  • Bjerg, Anders, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Increase in pollen sensitization in Swedish adults and protective effect of keeping animals in childhood.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 1365-2222. ; Epub ahead of print
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: To date, most studies of the "allergy epidemic" have been based on self-reported data. There is still limited knowledge on time trends in allergic sensitization, especially among adults.OBJECTIVE: To study allergic sensitization, its risk factors, and time trends in prevalence.METHODS: Within West Sweden Asthma Study (WSAS) a population-based sample of 788 adults (17-60y) underwent skin prick tests (SPT) for 11 aeroallergens 2009-2012. Specific IgE was analyzed in 750 of the participants. Those aged 20-46y (n=379) were compared with the European Community Respiratory Health Survey sample aged 20-46y from the same area (n=591) in 1991-1992.RESULTS: Among those aged 20-46y the prevalence of positive SPT to pollen increased; timothy from 17.1% to 29.0% (p<0.001) and birch from 15.6% to 23.7% (p=0.002) between 1991-1992 and 2009-2012. Measurements of specific IgE confirmed these increases. Prevalence of sensitization to all other tested allergens was unchanged. In the full WSAS sample aged 17-60y any positive SPT was seen in 41.9%, and the dominating sensitizers were pollen (34.3%), animals (22.8%) and mites (12.6%). Pollen sensitization was strongly associated with rhinitis, whereas indoor allergens were more associated with asthma. Growing up with livestock or furred pets decreased the risk of sensitization, adjusted odds ratio 0.53 (0.28-0.995) and 0.68 (0.47-0.98) respectively.CONCLUSION: Pollen sensitization has increased in Swedish adults since the early 1990's, while the prevalence of sensitization to other allergens has remained unchanged. This is one plausible explanation for the increase in rhinitis 1990-2008 in Swedish adults, during which time the prevalence of asthma, which is more associated with perennial allergens, was stable. Contact with animals in childhood seems to reduce the risk of sensitization well into adulthood. One major factor contributing to the rise in pollen allergy is a significant increase in levels of birch and grass pollen over the past three decades.
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10.
  • Hedman, Linnéa, et al. (författare)
  • Conventional epidemiology underestimates the incidence of asthma and wheeze - a longitudinal population-based study among teenagers
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Translational Allergy. - 2045-7022. ; 2:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Because of shifts in the gender ratio and incidence and remission rates of asthma during the teen ages, the methodology of incidence studies among teenagers is important, i.e. if the time intervals between surveys are too long, the incident cases might not be properly identified. The aim was to study the impact of study design on the incidence rates of asthma and wheeze during the teen ages.METHODS: In a study about asthma and allergic diseases within the OLIN studies (Obstructive Lung Disease in northern Sweden), a cohort of school children (n = 3,430) was followed annually by questionnaire from age 8 yrs. In the endpoint survey (age 18 yrs) 2,582 (75% of original responders) participated. Incident cases from age 12-18 yrs were identified by two methods: annual questionnaire reports (AR) and baseline-endpoint surveys only (BE).RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of asthma and wheeze was significantly higher based on AR compared to BE. Compared to the incidence rates based on all the annual surveys, the calculated average annual rates based on BE were in general lower both among the boys and among the girls. There were no differences between boys and girls in incidence rates of asthma or wheeze during the early teen years. However, from the age of 15 years, the annual incidence rates were significantly or borderline significantly higher among girls than boys. At onset, the additional cases of current asthma identified by AR had significantly less severe asthma than those identified in BE (p < 0.02).CONCLUSION: the size of the incidence of asthma and wheeze during the teen ages was influenced by study design. By using the conventional prospective study design with longer follow-up time, the incidence was underestimated.
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