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1.
  • Herlitz, J, et al. (författare)
  • Characteristics and outcome among children suffering from out of hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - 0300-9572. ; 64:1, s. 37-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To evaluate the characteristics, outcome and prognostic factors among children suffering from out of hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden. METHODS: Patients aged below 18 years suffering from out of hospital cardiac arrest which were not crew witnessed and included in the Swedish cardiac arrest registry were included in the survey. This survey included the period 1990-2001 and 60 ambulance organisations covering 85% of the Swedish population (8 million inhabitants). RESULTS: In all 457 children participated in the survey of which 32% were bystander witnessed and 68% received bystander CPR. Ventricular fibrillation was found in 6% of the cases. The overall survival to 1 month was 4%. The aetiology was sudden infant death syndrome in 34% and cardiac in 11%. When in a multivariate analysis considering age, sex, witnessed status, bystander CPR, initial rhythm, aetiology and the interval between call for, and arrival of, the ambulance and place of arrest only one appeared as an independent predictor of an increased chance of surviving cardiac arrest occurring outside home (adjusted odds ratio 8.7; 95% CL 2.2-58.1). CONCLUSION: Among children suffering from out of hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden that were not crew witnessed, the overall survival is low (4%). The chance of survival appears to be markedly increased if the arrest occurs outside the patients home compared with at home. No other strong predictors for an increased chance of survival could be demonstrated.
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2.
  • Herlitz, J, et al. (författare)
  • Efficacy of bystander CPR: intervention by lay people and by health care professionals
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - 0300-9572. ; 66:3, s. 291-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by bystanders prior to the arrival of the rescue team has been shown to be associated with increased survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the impact on survival of no bystander CPR, lay bystander CPR and professional bystander CPR. Methods: Patients suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden between 1990 and 2002 who were given CPR and were not witnessed by the ambulance crew were included. Results: In all, 29,711 patients were included, 36% of whom received bystander CPR prior to the arrival of the rescue team. Among the latter, 72% received CPR from lay people and 28% from professionals. Survival to I month was 2.2% among those who received no bystander CPR, 4.9% among those who received bystander CPR from lay people (p<0.0001) and 9.2% among those who received bystander CPR from professionals (p < 0.0001 compared with bystander CPR by lay people). In a multivariate analysis, lay bystander CPR was associated with improved survival compared to no bystander CPR (OR: 2.04; 95% Cl: 1.72-2.42), and professional bystander CPR was associated with improved survival compared to lay bystander CPR (OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1. 12-1.67). Conclusion: Among patients suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, bystander CPR by lay persons (excluding health care professionals) is associated with an increased chance of survival. Furthermore, there is a distinction between lay persons and health care providers; survival is higher when the latter perform bystander CPR. However, these results may not be explained by differences in the quality of CPR.
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3.
  • Herlitz, J, et al. (författare)
  • Factors associated with an increased chance of survival among patients suffering from an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a national perspective in Sweden
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - St. Louis, Mo. : Mosby, Inc.. - 0002-8703. ; 149:1, s. 61-66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To describe factors associated with an increased chance of survival among patients suffering from an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden.Patients and Methods: All patients suffering from an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, which were not crew witnessed, in Sweden and in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was attempted and who were registered in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry. This registry covers about 85% of the Swedish population and has been running since 1990.Results: In all, 33 453 patients, 71% of whom had a cardiac etiology, were included in the survey. The following were independent predictors for an increased chance of survival in order of magnitude: (1) patients found in ventricular fibrillation (odds ratio [OR] 5.3, 95% confidence limits [CL] 4.2-6.8), (2) the interval between call for and arrival of the ambulance less than or equal to the median (OR 3.6, 95% CL 2.9-4.6), (3) cardiac arrest occurred outside the home (OR 2.2, 95% CL 1.9-2.7), (4) cardiac arrest was witnessed (OR 2.0, 95% CL 1.6-2.7), (5) bystanders performing CPR before the arrival of the ambulance (OR 2.0, 95% CL 1.7-2.4), and (6) age less than or equal to the median (OR 1.6, 95% CL 1.4-2.0). When none of these factors were present, survival to 1 m was 0.4%; when all factors were present, survival was 23.8%.Conclusion: Among patients suffering from an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, which were not crew witnessed, in Sweden and in whom CPR was attempted, 6 factors for an increased chance of survival could be defined. These include (1) initial rhythm, (2) delay to arrival of the rescue team, (3) place of arrest, (4) witnessed status, (5) bystander CPR, and (6) age.
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5.
  • Herlitz, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Characteristics and outcome amongst young adults suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation is attempted.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: J Intern Med. - 0954-6820. ; 260:5, s. 435-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Amongst patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, young adults represent a minority. However, these victims suffer from the catastrophe when they are in a very active phase of life and have a long life expectancy. This survey aims to describe young adults in Sweden who suffer from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is attempted in terms of characteristics and outcome. DESIGN: Prospective and descriptive design. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Young adults (18-35 years) who suffered from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in whom CPR was attempted and who were included in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry between 1990 and 2004. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival to 1 month. RESULTS: In all, 1105 young adults (3.1% of all the patients in the registry) were included, of which 29% were females, 51% were nonwitnessed and 15% had a cardiac aetiology. Only 17% were found in ventricular fibrillation, 53% received bystander CPR. The overall survival to 1 month was 6.3%. High survival was found amongst patients found in ventricular fibrillation (20.8%) and those with a cardiac aetiology (14.8%). Ventricular fibrillation at the arrival of the rescue team remained an independent predictor of an increased chance of survival (odds ratio: 7.43; 95% confidence interval: 3.44-16.65). CONCLUSION: Amongst young adults suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and in whom CPR was attempted, a minority survived to 1 month. Subgroups with a higher survival could be defined (patients found in ventricular fibrillation and patients in whom there was a cardiac aetiology). However, only one independent predictor of an increased chance of survival could be demonstrated, i.e. ventricular fibrillation at the arrival of the rescue team
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6.
  • Herlitz, J, et al. (författare)
  • Decrease in the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation as the initially observed arrhythmia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during 11 years in Sweden
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Resuscitation. - 0300-9572. ; 60:3, s. 283-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To describe the change in the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation as initially observed arrhythmia among patients suffering from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden. Patients: All patients included in the Swedish cardiac arrest registry between 1991 until 2001. The registry covers 85% of the population in Sweden. Methods: All patients with bystander witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest included in the Swedish Cardiac Arrest Registry between 1991 and 2001 from the same ambulance organisation each year were included in the survey. Results: Over 11 years, among patients in Sweden with a bystander witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was attempted (n = 9666), the occurrence of ventricular fibrillation as the initially obseved arrhythmia decreased from 45% in 1991 to 28% in 2001 (P < 0.0001) if the arrest occurred at home, and from 57% to 41% if the arrest occurred outside home (P < 0.0001). This was found despite the fact that the proportion who received bystander CPR increased from 29% in 1991 to 39% in 2001 if the arrest occurred at home (P < 0.0001) and from 54% to 60% if the arrest occurred outside home (NS). There was a significant increase in age among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest at home, no change in the estimated interval between collapse and call but an increase in the interval between call and arrival of the ambulance among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outside home. Conclusion: During 11 years in Sweden, there was a marked decrease in the proportion of patients found in ventricular fibrillation among patients with a bystander witnessed cardiac arrest regardless whether the arrest occurred at home or outside home. A modest increase in age and interval between call for, and arrival of, the ambulance was associated with these findings. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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