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Sökning: swepub > Umeå universitet > Högskolan Kristianstad

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  • Lahermo, Päivi, et al. (författare)
  • A quality assessment survey of SNP genotyping laboratories
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - 1059-7794. ; 27:7, s. 711-714
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • To survey the quality of SNP genotyping, a joint Nordic quality assessment (QA) round was organized between 11 laboratories in the Nordic and Baltic countries. The QA round involved blinded genotyping of 47 DNA samples for 18 or six randomly selected SNPs. The methods used by the participating laboratories included all major platforms for small- to medium-size SNP genotyping. The laboratories used their standard procedures for SNP assay design, genotyping, and quality control. Based on the joint results from all laboratories, a consensus genotype for each DNA sample and SNP was determined by the coordinator of the survey, and the results from each laboratory were compared to this genotype. The overall genotyping accuracy achieved in the survey was excellent. Six laboratories delivered genotype data that were in full agreement with the consensus genotype. The average accuracy per SNP varied from 99.1 to 100% between the laboratories, and it was frequently 100% for the majority of the assays for which SNP genotypes were reported. Lessons from the survey are that special attention should be given to the quality of the DNA samples prior to genotyping, and that a conservative approach for calling the genotypes should be used to achieve a high accuracy.
  • Wallensten, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Surveillance of influenza A virus in migratory waterfowl in northern Europe
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Emerging Infectious Diseases. - 1080-6040. - 1080-6040 ; 13:3, s. 404-411
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We conducted large-scale, systematic sampling of influenza type A virus in migratory waterfowl (mostly mallards [Anas platyrhynchos]) at Ottenby Bird Observatory, southeast Sweden. As with previous studies, we found a higher prevalence in fall than spring, and among juveniles compared with adults. However, in contrast to other studies, we found that prevalence in spring was sometimes high (mean 4.0%, highest 9.5%). This finding raises the possibility that ducks are capable of perpetuating influenza A virus of different subtypes and subtype combinations throughout the year and from 1 year to the next. Isolation of the H5 and H7 subtypes was common, which suggests risk for transmission to sensitive domestic animals such as poultry. We argue that wild bird screening can function as a sentinel system, and we give an example of how it could have been used to forecast a remote and deadly outbreak of influenza A in poultry.
  • Järhult, Josef D., et al. (författare)
  • Environmental levels of the antiviral oseltamivir induce development of resistance mutation H274Y in influenza A/H1N1 virus in mallards.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 6:9, s. e24742
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) is the most widely used drug against influenza infections and is extensively stockpiled worldwide as part of pandemic preparedness plans. However, resistance is a growing problem and in 2008-2009, seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 virus strains in most parts of the world carried the mutation H274Y in the neuraminidase gene which causes resistance to the drug. The active metabolite of oseltamivir, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and surface water and has been detected in aquatic environments where the natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can be exposed to the substance. To assess if resistance can develop under these circumstances, we infected mallards with influenza A/H1N1 virus and exposed the birds to 80 ng/L, 1 µg/L and 80 µg/L of OC through their sole water source. By sequencing the neuraminidase gene from fecal samples, we found that H274Y occurred at 1 µg/L of OC and rapidly dominated the viral population at 80 µg/L. IC₅₀ for OC was increased from 2-4 nM in wild-type viruses to 400-700 nM in H274Y mutants as measured by a neuraminidase inhibition assay. This is consistent with the decrease in sensitivity to OC that has been noted among human clinical isolates carrying H274Y. Environmental OC levels have been measured to 58-293 ng/L during seasonal outbreaks and are expected to reach µg/L-levels during pandemics. Thus, resistance could be induced in influenza viruses circulating among wild ducks. As influenza viruses can cross species barriers, oseltamivir resistance could spread to human-adapted strains with pandemic potential disabling oseltamivir, a cornerstone in pandemic preparedness planning. We propose surveillance in wild birds as a measure to understand the resistance situation in nature and to monitor it over time. Strategies to lower environmental levels of OC include improved sewage treatment and, more importantly, a prudent use of antivirals.
  • Wallensten, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Multiple gene segment reassortment between Eurasian and American lineages of influenza A virus (H6N2) in Guillemot (Uria aalge).
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Archives of Virology. - 0304-8608. - 0304-8608 ; 150:8, s. 1685-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Guillemots banded in the northern Baltic Sea were screened for influenza A virus (IAV). Three out of 26 sampled birds tested positive by RT-PCR. Two of these were characterized as subtype H6N2. Phylogenetic analyses showed that five gene segments belonged to the American avian lineage of IAVs, whereas three gene segments belonged to the Eurasian lineage. Our findings indicate that avian IAVs may have a taxonomically wider reservoir spectrum than previously known and we present the first report of a chimeric avian IAV with genes of American and Eurasian origin in Europe.
  • Årestedt, Kristofer, et al. (författare)
  • Social support and its association with health-related quality of life among older patients with chronic heart failure
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. - Elsevier / SAGE Publications (UK and US). - 1474-5151. ; 12:1, s. 69-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Social support is generally known to influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but this association is not well explored among older patients with chronic heart failure. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanAims: (1) To describe social support in older patients with chronic heart failure in relation to gender. (2) To investigate if age, gender, cohabitation, perceived financial situation, and disease severity are associated with social support. (3) To investigate if social support is associated with HRQoL after controlling for age, gender, and disease severity. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Data were collected in a sample of 349 patients (andgt;= 65 years) with chronic heart failure. Patients HRQoL was measured with the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire and the Short Form-12 Health Survey Questionnaire. The Interview Schedule for Social Interaction measured social support. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, repeated-measure ANOVA, and multiple linear regression analyses with robust standard errors. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Social support was generally rated high, although being a man, living alone, perceiving a problematic financial situation, and high disease severity (NYHA) were associated with lower levels of social support. Age was not associated with social support. Social support was generally associated with HRQoL, in particular the emotional dimensions. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Taking social support into account when caring for older patients with heart failure can be of importance for improving or maintaining HRQoL.
  • Deutschmann, Mats, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • “Let’s Keep it Informal, Guys”
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Tidskrift för lärarutbildning och forskning. - Umeå : The faculty board for teacher education. - ISSN 1404-7659. ; 15:2, s. 36-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper explores the quantity and quality of communication produced by teachers in Internet courses of academic English, particularly during the initial stages of course activity. The courses are entirely conducted in virtual learning environments without physical meetings, and are part of the Bachelor programme (A–C level) of English at Mid Sweden University. The pedagogic design of the courses is based on collaborative learning, which presupposes a communicative environment with positive interdependence and interaction, where knowledge is shared by students questioning and challenging each other. Consequently, the teacher’s role in setting communicative norms which encourage an environment of high acceptance, where students feel that they can express their opinions freely, is of utmost importance. The results suggest that there are two important factors that affect student activity in the initial stages of an online course: how much the teacher communicates with the class and the manner in which he or she does so.
  • Hernroth, Bodil E., et al. (författare)
  • Environmental factors influencing human viral pathogens and their potential indicator organisms in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis: the first Scandinavian report
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Applied and Environmental Microbiology. - 0099-2240. ; 68:9, s. 4523-4533
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study was carried out in order to investigate human enteric virus contaminants in mussels from three sites on the west coast of Sweden, representing a gradient of anthropogenic influence. Mussels were sampled monthly during the period from February 2000 to July 2001 and analyzed for adeno-, entero-, Norwalk-like, and hepatitis A viruses as well as the potential viral indicator organisms somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA bacteriophages, bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides fragilis, and Escherichia coli. The influence of environmental factors such as water temperature, salinity, and land runoff on the occurrence of these microbes was also included in this study. Enteric viruses were found in 50 to 60% of the mussel samples, and there were no pronounced differences between the samples from the three sites. E. coli counts exceeded the limit for category A for shellfish sanitary safety in 40% of the samples from the sites situated in fjords. However, at the site in the outer archipelago, this limit was exceeded only once, in March 2001, when extremely high levels of atypical indole-negative strains of E. coli were registered at all three sites. The environmental factors influenced the occurrence of viruses and phages differently, and therefore, it was hard to find a coexistence between them. This study shows that, for risk assessment, separate modeling should be done for every specific area, with special emphasis on environmental factors such as temperature and land runoff. The present standard for human fecal contamination, E. coli, seems to be an acceptable indicator of only local sanitary contamination; it is not a reliable indicator of viral contaminants in mussels. To protect consumers and get verification of "clean" mussels, it seems necessary to analyze for viruses as well. The use of a molecular index of the human contamination of Swedish shellfish underscores the need for reference laboratories with high-technology facilities.
  • Mckie, Brendan, et al. (författare)
  • Continental-scale effects of nutrient pollution on stream ecosystem functioning
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075. ; 336:6087, s. 1438-1440
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Excessive nutrient loading is a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide that leads to profound changes in aquatic biodiversity and biogeochemical processes. Systematic quantitative assessment of functional ecosystem measures for river networks is, however, lacking, especially at continental scales. Here, we narrow this gap by means of a pan-European field experiment on a fundamental ecosystem process—leaf-litter breakdown—in 100 streams across a greater than 1000-fold nutrient gradient. Dramatically slowed breakdown at both extremes of the gradient indicated strong nutrient limitation in unaffected systems, potential for strong stimulation in moderately altered systems, and inhibition in highly polluted streams. This large-scale response pattern emphasizes the need to complement established structural approaches (such as water chemistry, hydrogeomorphology, and biological diversity metrics) with functional measures (such as litter-breakdown rate, whole-system metabolism, and nutrient spiraling) for assessing ecosystem health.
  • Olteanu, Constanta, 1960- (författare)
  • "Vad skulle x kunna vara?"
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Ekvationer och funktioner har en viktig roll i olika matematiska moment, som exempelvis algebra, trigonometri, programmering och analys. Under gymnasiets matematikkurs B förväntas det att eleverna ska lära sig lösa andragradsekvationer och vad som kännetecknar en funktion samt att de ska kunna tolka och använda en andragradsfunktion. Trots det ökade intresset för medborgare med djupare matematiska kunskaper redovisas ständigt larmrapporter från landets tekniska högskolor och universitet om allt sämre matematikkunskaper hos de nyantagna studenterna. För att förstå elevernas problem med och i matematik behövs ökad kunskap om elevernas lärande i relation till vad det är i innehållet som behandlas i klassrummet. Syftet med denna studie är att analysera, söka förstå och förklara relationen mellan vad som framställs i matematiskt innehåll rörande andragradsekvationer och andragradsfunktioner i klassrumspraktiken och elevernas lärande av detsamma. Fokus ligger på relationen mellan det framställda och det lärda innehållet och inte på att analysera lärarnas uppfattningar eller deras kunskap i ämnet. Denna begränsning innebär att det är innehållet som är det centrala i min studie och som kommer att analyseras ur olika perspektiv. 45 elever och två lärare deltog i undersökningen. Data består av videoinspelade lektioner, lärarnas individuella genomgång, sekvenser när lärarna tillsammans med mig tittade på och diskuterade den individuella genomgången samt intervjuer med eleverna. Elevernas prov utgör en viktig del i samlandet av data. Det variationsteoretiska perspektivet ger mig teoretiska begrepp som fungerar som analysverktyg för att tolka det empiriska materialet i min studie. Tillämpningen av variationsteori har gjort det möjligt att analysera lärandet ur två perspektiv, nämligen vad som erbjuds och vad som erfars i ett innehåll. I det erbjudna lärandeobjektet har lärarnas undervisningshandlingar analyserats som uttryck för de aspekter, delar och helheter som eleverna erbjuds att urskilja samt deras relation till varandra. Det framställda innehållet i läromedlet har analyserats utifrån samma princip, det vill säga genom att identifiera fokuserade aspekter, delar och helheter samt deras relation till varandra. Därefter har analysen fokuserat på att identifiera de variationer som öppnas upp eller begränsas i lärarens och läromedlets framställning av objekten för lärande. På så sätt kunde de aspekter som är möjliga att urskilja utifrån framställningen av lärandeobjekten identifieras och relateras till mönster av variation. Elevernas erfarande har studerats som uttryck för de aspekter, delar och helheter som urskiljs när de löser olika uppgifter samt hur dessa aspekter relateras till varandra. De aspekter som blir urskiljda och sättet på vilket detta görs, har gjort det möjligt att identifiera vilka aspekter som är kritiska för elevernas lärande. Resultaten visar att komplexa dimensioner av variation öppnas upp i det innehåll som eleverna erbjuds. Det förefaller vara vad som här kallas för konvergenta variationer som leder till ett mer fullständigt lärande. Det är denna variation som gör det möjligt för eleverna att göra generaliseringar inom varje objekt för lärande (ekvationer och funktioner) och mellan dessa lärande objekt. Dessa generaliseringar kvarstår, trots att man arbetar med nya lärandeobjekt. Dessutom kan det konstateras att parametrar, den obekanta storheten i en ekvation och funktionens argument är kritiska aspekter i elevens lärande och att meningen med dem ändras flera gånger när lärare presenterar innehållet i klassrummet och när eleverna löser olika uppgifter. Vidare demonstreras att huruvida funktionens argument framträder i explicit eller implicit form kan ha avgörande betydelse för om läraren i sin framställning av lärandeobjekten och elever i sitt erfarande av dem skiljer eller inte skiljer en funktion från en ekvation.
  • Persson, Anitha, et al. (författare)
  • Buffering effect of a prophyactic gel on dental plaque in institutionalised elderly
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: GERODONTOLOGY. - 0734-0664. ; 24:2, s. 98
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The effect of multiple daily applications of a prophylactic gel, with buffering substances, on plaque acidogenicity in elderly institutionalised individuals was evaluated. Background: Many elderly suffer from reduced salivary flow, poor oral hygiene and increased levels of cariogenic bacteria and are considered to be at an increased risk for coronal and root caries. Reinforcing the buffering capacity of dental plaque by the addition of substances such as bicarbonate and phosphates may decrease their caries activity. Materials and methods: Fourteen elderly, with subjective dry mouth, were treated for 16-day-periods at random with: (i) Profylin fluoride gel with buffering components; (ii) Profylin fluoride gel without buffering components and (iii) rinsing with water. Applications were made four times a day and each period was followed by a 2-week wash-out period. The plaque pH was registered after a carbohydrate challenge and the following were recorded before and after each test period: stimulated salivary secretion rate, buffer capacity, number Colony Farming Units (CFU) mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and a sample of Candida albicans on oral mucosa. Results: Eleven participants (mean age 76.6 years) fulfilled the study. Changes in plaque pH measurements, when calculated as area under the curve (AUC(6.2) and AUC(5.7)) values (pH x min), before and after each of the three treatments, showed no significant differences. A tendency to a higher plaque acidogenicity and amount of cariogenic microorganisms was found after the gel treatments. C. albicans was found in low levels. Conclusion: Frequent applications of the gel did not result in an improved neutralising effect in the elderly. This may be caused by a combination of several factors, such as the level of oral dryness of the individuals and low solubility, release and retention of the gel substances in plaque. Instead, an increased plaque acidogenicity was noted.
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