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Sökning: swepub > Umeå universitet > Högskolan Kristianstad

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  • Järhult, Josef D., et al. (författare)
  • Environmental levels of the antiviral oseltamivir induce development of resistance mutation H274Y in influenza A/H1N1 virus in mallards.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 6:9, s. e24742
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) is the most widely used drug against influenza infections and is extensively stockpiled worldwide as part of pandemic preparedness plans. However, resistance is a growing problem and in 2008-2009, seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 virus strains in most parts of the world carried the mutation H274Y in the neuraminidase gene which causes resistance to the drug. The active metabolite of oseltamivir, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and surface water and has been detected in aquatic environments where the natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can be exposed to the substance. To assess if resistance can develop under these circumstances, we infected mallards with influenza A/H1N1 virus and exposed the birds to 80 ng/L, 1 µg/L and 80 µg/L of OC through their sole water source. By sequencing the neuraminidase gene from fecal samples, we found that H274Y occurred at 1 µg/L of OC and rapidly dominated the viral population at 80 µg/L. IC₅₀ for OC was increased from 2-4 nM in wild-type viruses to 400-700 nM in H274Y mutants as measured by a neuraminidase inhibition assay. This is consistent with the decrease in sensitivity to OC that has been noted among human clinical isolates carrying H274Y. Environmental OC levels have been measured to 58-293 ng/L during seasonal outbreaks and are expected to reach µg/L-levels during pandemics. Thus, resistance could be induced in influenza viruses circulating among wild ducks. As influenza viruses can cross species barriers, oseltamivir resistance could spread to human-adapted strains with pandemic potential disabling oseltamivir, a cornerstone in pandemic preparedness planning. We propose surveillance in wild birds as a measure to understand the resistance situation in nature and to monitor it over time. Strategies to lower environmental levels of OC include improved sewage treatment and, more importantly, a prudent use of antivirals.
  • Lahermo, Päivi, et al. (författare)
  • A quality assessment survey of SNP genotyping laboratories
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - 1059-7794. ; 27:7, s. 711-714
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • To survey the quality of SNP genotyping, a joint Nordic quality assessment (QA) round was organized between 11 laboratories in the Nordic and Baltic countries. The QA round involved blinded genotyping of 47 DNA samples for 18 or six randomly selected SNPs. The methods used by the participating laboratories included all major platforms for small- to medium-size SNP genotyping. The laboratories used their standard procedures for SNP assay design, genotyping, and quality control. Based on the joint results from all laboratories, a consensus genotype for each DNA sample and SNP was determined by the coordinator of the survey, and the results from each laboratory were compared to this genotype. The overall genotyping accuracy achieved in the survey was excellent. Six laboratories delivered genotype data that were in full agreement with the consensus genotype. The average accuracy per SNP varied from 99.1 to 100% between the laboratories, and it was frequently 100% for the majority of the assays for which SNP genotypes were reported. Lessons from the survey are that special attention should be given to the quality of the DNA samples prior to genotyping, and that a conservative approach for calling the genotypes should be used to achieve a high accuracy.
  • Wallensten, A, et al. (författare)
  • Surveillance of influenza A virus in migratory waterfowl in northern Europe
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Emerging Infectious Diseases. - 1080-6040. - 1080-6040 ; 13:3, s. 404-411
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We conducted large-scale, systematic sampling of influenza type A virus in migratory waterfowl (mostly mallards [Anas platyrhynchos]) at Ottenby Bird Observatory, southeast Sweden. As with previous studies, we found a higher prevalence in fall than spring, and among juveniles compared with adults. However, in contrast to other studies, we found that prevalence in spring was sometimes high (mean 4.0%, highest 9.5%). This finding raises the possibility that ducks are capable of perpetuating influenza A virus of different subtypes and subtype combinations throughout the year and from 1 year to the next. Isolation of the H5 and H7 subtypes was common, which suggests risk for transmission to sensitive domestic animals such as poultry. We argue that wild bird screening can function as a sentinel system, and we give an example of how it could have been used to forecast a remote and deadly outbreak of influenza A in poultry.
  • Sofrata, AH, et al. (författare)
  • Strong antibacterial effect of miswak against oral microorganisms associated with periodontitis and caries.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of periodontology. - 0022-3492. ; 79:8, s. 1474-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The chewing stick (miswak) is used for oral hygiene in many parts of the world. In addition to the mechanical removal of plaque, an antibacterial effect has been postulated; however, tests of miswak extract from Salvadora persica (Arak) disclosed only low to moderate antibacterial effects. This may be attributable to the extraction process. Our aim was to test in vitro the antibacterial effect of miswak pieces, without extraction, on bacteria implicated in the etiology of periodontitis and caries. METHODS: Miswak pieces were standardized by size and weight (0.07 and 0.14 g) and tested against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), Porphyromonas gingivalis, and, as a reference, Haemophilus influenzae. The miswak pieces were tested in two ways: embedded in the agar plate or suspended above the agar plate. RESULTS: The inhibitory effect was most pronounced on P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, and H. influenzae, less on S. mutans, and least on L. acidophilus. Suspended miswak had comparable or stronger effects than miswak embedded in agar. The 0.14-g suspended miswak exhibited significantly greater inhibition on A. actinomycetemcomitans and H. influenzae than the 0.14-g miswak embedded in agar (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Miswak embedded in agar or suspended above the agar plate had strong antibacterial effects against all bacteria tested. The antibacterial effect of suspended miswak pieces suggests the presence of volatile active antibacterial compounds.
  • Klein, Robert J, et al. (författare)
  • Blood Biomarker Levels to Aid Discovery of Cancer-Related Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms: Kallikreins and Prostate Cancer.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer prevention research (Philadelphia, Pa.). - 1940-6215. ; May 4, s. 611-619
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer include those in three genes encoding major secretory products of the prostate: KLK2 (encoding kallikrein-related peptidase 2; hK2), KLK3 (encoding prostate-specific antigen; PSA), and MSMB (encoding beta-microseminoprotein). PSA and hK2, members of the kallikrein family, are elevated in sera of men with prostate cancer. In a comprehensive analysis that included sequencing of all coding, flanking, and 2 kb of putative promoter regions of all 15 kallikrein (KLK) genes spanning approximately 280 kb on chromosome 19q, we identified novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and genotyped 104 SNPs in 1,419 cancer cases and 736 controls in Cancer Prostate in Sweden 1, with independent replication in 1,267 cases and 901 controls in Cancer Prostate in Sweden 2. This verified prior associations of SNPs in KLK2 and in MSMB (but not in KLK3) with prostate cancer. Twelve SNPs in KLK2 and KLK3 were associated with levels of PSA forms or hK2 in plasma of control subjects. Based on our comprehensive approach, this is likely to represent all common KLK variants associated with these phenotypes. A T allele at rs198977 in KLK2 was associated with increased cancer risk and a striking decrease of hK2 levels in blood. We also found a strong interaction between rs198977 genotype and hK2 levels in blood in predicting cancer risk. Based on this strong association, we developed a model for predicting prostate cancer risk from standard biomarkers, rs198977 genotype, and rs198977 x hK2 interaction; this model had greater accuracy than did biomarkers alone (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.874 versus 0.866), providing proof in principle to clinical application for our findings. Cancer Prev Res; 3(5); 611-9. (c)2010 AACR.
  • Lundström, Jan O, et al. (författare)
  • The geographic distribution of mosquito species in Sweden
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association. - 1460-6127. ; 31, s. 21-35
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Surveillance of the actual distribution of mosquito species in Northern Europe is fundamental for evaluating risk for emerging pathogens, and for research on potential vectors. The Swedish mosquito fauna composition and geographic distribution, originally described by Professor Christine Dahl in the 1970´s, included 43 species. We have compiled the information published from 1978 to 2012, and our own surveillance data from 2001 to 2013, and compared this with the species list and geographic distribution provided in “Taxonomy and geographic distribution of Swedish Culicidae” by Dahl (1977). New species detected during these 36 years were Culiseta (Culicella) ochroptera (Peus, 1935) published 1984, Aedes (Aedes) rossicus Dolbeskin, Goritzkaja & Mitrofanova, 1930 published 1986, Anopheles (Anopheles) beklemishevi published 1986, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) euedes (Howard, Dyar & Knab, 1912) published 2001, Aedes (Ochlerotatus) nigrinus (Eckstein, 1918) first recorded in 2012, and Anopheles (Anopheles) algeriensis Theobald, 1903, first recorded in 2013. We provide maps with the distribution by province for each species, including historic information up until 1977, and new records from 1978 to 2013, showing the similarities and differences between the old and the new records. Important findings in recent years include the wide distribution of the Sindbis virus enzootic vector Culex (Culex) torrentium Martinii, 1925, and the more limited distribution of the potential West Nile virus vector Culex (Culex) pipiens Linnaeus, 1758. The updated list of mosquito species in Sweden now includes 49 species.
  • Wallensten, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Multiple gene segment reassortment between Eurasian and American lineages of influenza A virus (H6N2) in Guillemot (Uria aalge).
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Archives of Virology. - 0304-8608. ; 150:8, s. 1685-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Guillemots banded in the northern Baltic Sea were screened for influenza A virus (IAV). Three out of 26 sampled birds tested positive by RT-PCR. Two of these were characterized as subtype H6N2. Phylogenetic analyses showed that five gene segments belonged to the American avian lineage of IAVs, whereas three gene segments belonged to the Eurasian lineage. Our findings indicate that avian IAVs may have a taxonomically wider reservoir spectrum than previously known and we present the first report of a chimeric avian IAV with genes of American and Eurasian origin in Europe.
  • Årestedt, Kristofer, et al. (författare)
  • Social support and its association with health-related quality of life among older patients with chronic heart failure
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. - Elsevier / SAGE Publications (UK and US). - 1474-5151. ; 12:1, s. 69-77
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Social support is generally known to influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but this association is not well explored among older patients with chronic heart failure. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanAims: (1) To describe social support in older patients with chronic heart failure in relation to gender. (2) To investigate if age, gender, cohabitation, perceived financial situation, and disease severity are associated with social support. (3) To investigate if social support is associated with HRQoL after controlling for age, gender, and disease severity. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Data were collected in a sample of 349 patients (andgt;= 65 years) with chronic heart failure. Patients HRQoL was measured with the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire and the Short Form-12 Health Survey Questionnaire. The Interview Schedule for Social Interaction measured social support. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics, repeated-measure ANOVA, and multiple linear regression analyses with robust standard errors. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Social support was generally rated high, although being a man, living alone, perceiving a problematic financial situation, and high disease severity (NYHA) were associated with lower levels of social support. Age was not associated with social support. Social support was generally associated with HRQoL, in particular the emotional dimensions. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Taking social support into account when caring for older patients with heart failure can be of importance for improving or maintaining HRQoL.
  • Dessborn, Lisa, 1976-, et al. (författare)
  • Pike predation affects breeding success and habitat selection of ducks
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Freshwater Biology. - 0046-5070. ; 56:3, s. 579-589
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. Fish and ducks often belong to the same local food web, and several studies indicate that there is a general negative effect of fish on breeding ducks. This pattern has so far been addressed mainly within the framework of competition for common invertebrate prey, while predation by large fish as a force behind settlement and abundance patterns in ducks remains largely unknown. This is the first study to address the effect of fish predation on breeding ducks, isolated from that of competition, and the first experiment to explore the ability of ducks to identify and avoid lakes with high risk of fish predation. 2. We used a before-after control-impact design and 11 naturally fishless lakes. Waterfowl on the lakes were surveyed during the breeding season of 2005. Large adult pike (Esox lucius) were added to two lakes in early spring 2008, and waterfowl surveys were repeated on all 11 lakes. 3. Pike introduction did not affect the number of pairs on lakes during the nesting season in any of three focal duck species (mallard Anas platyrhynchos, teal Anas crecca, and goldeneye Bucephala clangula). During the brood-rearing season, however, there was a decrease in duck days in teal and goldeneye in lakes with pike, with similar trends observed in mallard. The number of goldeneye ducklings was also significantly lower in lakes with pike. We were unable to determine whether the response was attributable to direct pike predation or to broods leaving experimental lakes, but in either case, our study demonstrates high fitness costs for ducks breeding on lakes with pike. 4. The apparent inability of nesting ducks to detect pike and the clear fitness implications may influence the annual recruitment of ducks on a larger scale as pike are both common and widespread. Vegetation complexity and food abundance are likely to be of overriding importance when breeding ducks are choosing a nesting site. As pike have a strong influence on breeding birds, relying on vegetation and cues of food abundance, while ignoring indicators of predation risk from fish, could lead to lakes with pike acting as an ecological trap.
  • Deutschmann, Mats, 1964-, et al. (författare)
  • “Let’s Keep it Informal, Guys”
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Tidskrift för lärarutbildning och forskning. - Umeå : The faculty board for teacher education. - ISSN 1404-7659. ; 15:2, s. 36-58
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The paper explores the quantity and quality of communication produced by teachers in Internet courses of academic English, particularly during the initial stages of course activity. The courses are entirely conducted in virtual learning environments without physical meetings, and are part of the Bachelor programme (A–C level) of English at Mid Sweden University. The pedagogic design of the courses is based on collaborative learning, which presupposes a communicative environment with positive interdependence and interaction, where knowledge is shared by students questioning and challenging each other. Consequently, the teacher’s role in setting communicative norms which encourage an environment of high acceptance, where students feel that they can express their opinions freely, is of utmost importance. The results suggest that there are two important factors that affect student activity in the initial stages of an online course: how much the teacher communicates with the class and the manner in which he or she does so.
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