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Sökning: swepub > Umeå universitet > Tidskriftsartikel > Alfredson Håkan > Scott Alexander

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1.
  • Andersson, Gustav, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Tenocyte hypercellularity and vascular proliferation in a rabbit model of tendinopathy : contralateral effects suggest the involvement of central neuronal mechanisms
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine. - 0306-3674. ; 45:5, s. 399-406
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To determine whether there are objective findings of tendinosis in a rabbit tendinopathy model on exercised and contralateral (non-exercised) Achilles tendons. Design Four groups of six New Zealand white rabbits per group were used. The animals of one (control) group were not subjected to exercise/stimulation. Interventions Animals were subjected to a protocol of electrical stimulation and passive flexion-extension of the right triceps surae muscle every second day for 1, 3 or 6 weeks. Main Outcome Measures Tenocyte number and vascular density were calculated. Morphological evaluations were also performed as well as in-situ hybridisation for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) messenger RNA. Results There was a significant increase in the tenocyte number after 3 and 6 weeks of exercise, but not after 1 week, in comparison with the control group. This was seen in the Achilles tendons of both legs in experimental animals, including the unexercised limb. The pattern of vascularity showed an increase in the number of tendon blood vessels in rabbits that had exercised for 3 weeks or more, compared with those who had exercised for 1 week or not at all. VEGF-mRNA was detected in the investigated tissue, with the reactions being more clearly detected in the tendon tissue with tendinosis-like changes (6-week rabbits) than in the normal tendon tissue (control rabbits). Conclusions There were bilateral tendinosis-like changes in the Achilles tendons of rabbits in the current model after 3 weeks of training, suggesting that central neuronal mechanisms may be involved and that the contralateral side is not appropriate as a control.
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2.
  • Scott, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • VGluT2 expression in painful Achilles and patellar tendinosis : Evidence of local glutamate release by tenocytes.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: J Orthop Res. - 1554-527X. ; 26:5, s. 685-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The pathogenesis of chronic tendinopathy is unclear. We have previously measured high intratendinous levels of glutamate in patients with tendinosis, suggesting potential roles of glutamate in the modulation of pain, vascular function, and degenerative changes including apoptosis of tenocytes. However, the origin of free glutamate found in tendon tissue is completely unknown. Surgical biopsies of pain-free normal tendons and tendinosis tendons (Achilles and patellar) were examined immunohistochemically using antibodies against vesicular glutamate transporters (VGluT1 and VGluT2), as indirect markers of glutamate release. In situ hybridization for VGluT2 mRNA was also conducted. Specific immunoreactions for VGluT2, but not VGluT1, could be consistently detected in tenocytes. However, there were interindividual variations in the levels of immunoreactivity. The level of immunoreaction for VGluT2 was higher in tendinosis tendons compared to normal tendons (p < 0.05). In situ hybridization of VGluT2 demonstrated that mRNA was localized in a similar pattern as the protein, with marked expression by certain tenocytes, particularly those showing abnormal appearances. Reactivity for VGluT1 and -2 was absent from nerves and vessel structures in both normal and painful tendons. The current data demonstrate that tenocytes may be involved in the regulation of extracellular glutamate levels in tendons. Specifically, the observations suggest that free glutamate may be locally produced and released by tenocytes, rather than by peripheral neurons. Excessive free glutamate is expected to impact a variety of autocrine and paracrine functions important in the development of tendinosis, including tenocyte proliferation and apoptosis, extracellular matrix metabolism, nociception, and blood flow. (c) 2007 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.
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