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1.
  • Flodgren, Gerd M, 1961-, et al. (författare)
  • Glutamate and prostaglandin E2 in the trapezius muscle of female subjects with chronic muscle pain and controls determined by microdialysis.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Pain. - 1090-3801. ; 9:5, s. 511-515
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Much is still unknown concerning the mechanisms underlying the development of chronic muscle pain. The presence and magnitude of inflammatory substances and neurotransmitters in chronic painful conditions is not clear. The aims of the present study were to determine, with the use of microdialysis, the interstitial concentrations and the equilibration times for PGE(2) and glutamate in the trapezius muscles of nine female subjects with chronic muscle pain, and nine pain-free age-matched controls. A microdialysis probe was implanted in the upper part of the trapezius muscle and perfused with Ringer-acetate solution at a flow rate of 0.3 muL/min. Samples were obtained every 30 min, during a 4-h rest period. At equilibration, the mean concentrations (+/-SE) of PGE(2) were 0.71 (+/-0.11) ng/mL for the pain-group and 0.97 (+/-0.35) ng/mL for the controls. For glutamate the mean concentrations for the pain-group were 66.3 (+/-13.3) mumol/L and 60.6 (+/-22.9) mumol/L for the controls. For the pain group and the control group, respectively, equilibration for PGE(2) was reached at 180 and 150 min, and for glutamate at 150 and 120 min. The present study showed no differences between groups in the concentrations of PGE(2) and glutamate in the trapezius muscle. Further, it revealed that when using the slow-flow method, a period of at least 2.0-2.5 h is needed, after probe insertion, to reach steady state for glutamate and PGE(2).
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2.
  • Alfredson, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • In vivo investigation of ECRB tendons with microdialysis technique--no signs of inflammation but high amounts of glutamate in tennis elbow.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica. - 0001-6470. ; 71:5, s. 475-479
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We used the microdialysis technique to study concentrations of substances in the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon in patients with tennis elbow. In 4 patients (mean age 41 years, 3 men) with a long duration of localized pain at the ECRB muscle origin, and in 4 controls (mean age 36 years, 2 men) with no history of elbow pain, a standard microdialysis catheter was inserted into the ECRB tendon under local anesthesia. The local concentrations of the neurotransmitter glutamate and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were recorded under resting conditions. Samplings were done every 15 minutes during a 2-hour period. We found higher mean concentrations of glutamate in ECRB tendons from patients with tennis elbow than in tendons from controls (215 vs. 69 micromoL/L, p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in the mean concentrations of PGE2 (74 vs. 86 pg/mL). In conclusion, in situ microdialysis can be used to study certain metabolic events in the ECRB tendon of the elbow. Our findings indicate involvement of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, but no biochemical signs of inflammation (normal PGE2 levels) in ECRB tendons from patients with tennis elbow.
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3.
  • Ljung, Björn-Ove, et al. (författare)
  • Neurokinin 1-receptors and sensory neuropeptides in tendon insertions at the medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus. Studies on tennis elbow and medial epicondylalgia.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Orthopaedic Research. - 0736-0266. ; 22:2, s. 321-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is no information on the sensory innervation at the flexor muscle origin at the medial epicondyle of the humerus and it is not known if substance P receptors (Neurokinin 1-receptors, NK1-R) are present in tendon insertions in general. In the present investigation, we have studied the muscle origin in patients suffering from medial epicondylalgia and tennis elbow. Immunohistochemistry and antibodies to substance P (SP) and CGRP as well as the general nerve marker PGP 9.5 were used. Specific immunoreactions were observed in nerve bundles and as free nerve fibers. The immunoreactive structures were partly seen in association with some of the blood vessels. The observations constitute a morphological correlate for the occurrence of nerve mediated effects in this region. By using immunohistochemistry and antibodies to NK1-R, the distribution of this receptor was studied at the insertion of the proximal tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle at the lateral epicondyle. Specific immunoreactions were seen as varicose fibers occurring as single fibers or grouped into bundles, indicating that SP has effects in the nerves in this region. The results give further evidence for a possible neurogenic involvement in the pathophysiology of tennis elbow and in medial epicondylalgia.
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4.
  • Söderman, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in young females playing soccer at senior levels.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. - 0905-7188. ; 12:2, s. 65-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this investigation was to study the consequences of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female soccer players. Special interest was focused on young female soccer players (< 16 years) sustaining anterior cruciate ligament injuries when playing at a senior level, which means playing together with players 19 years or older. In Sweden, all players belonging to an organized soccer club are insured by the same insurance company, the Folksam Insurance Company. Data of all soccer-related knee injuries in females reported to the Folksam Insurance Company between 1994 and 1998 were collected. A questionnaire was sent to 978 females who were registered to have sustained a knee injury before the age of 20 years. The response rate was 79%. Three hundred and ninety-eight female soccer players who had sustained an anterior cruciate ligament injury before the age of 19 years were analysed. Most of their anterior cruciate ligament injuries had been diagnosed using arthroscopy or magnetic resonance imaging (84%). Thirty-eight percent of the players had been injured before the age of 16 years. Of these, 39% were injured when playing in senior teams. When playing in senior teams 59% of the players below the age of 16 years and 44% of the players 16 years or older sustained their ACL injuries during contact situations. At the time of this investigation (2-7 years after the anterior cruciate ligament injury), altogether 78% (n = 311) reported that they had stopped playing soccer. The most common reason (80%) was symptoms from their anterior cruciate ligament-injured knee. It appears that many young female soccer players injure their anterior cruciate ligament when playing at a senior level. Therefore, we suggest that female soccer players under the age of 16 years should be allowed to participate only in practice sessions but not games at a senior level.
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5.
  • Söderman, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors for leg injuries in female soccer players : a prospective investigation during one out-door season.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy. - 0942-2056. ; 9:5, s. 313-321
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The following possible risk factors for leg injuries in female soccer players were studied: age, anatomical alignment, generalized joint laxity, thigh muscle torque, muscle flexibility, ligamentous laxity of the knee and ankle joints, recent injuries, and duration of soccer exposure. A total of 146 players from 13 teams in the second and third Swedish divisions underwent clinical examination, isokinetic measurements of quadriceps and hamstring torques, and testing of postural sway of the legs. All soccer-related leg injuries resulting in absence from at least one scheduled practice session or game were recorded during one outdoor season (April-October). In 50 players there were 61 traumatic injuries, and 17 players sustained 19 overuse injuries. The overall injury incidence rate (traumatic and overuse) was 5.49/1000 h of soccer. Variables significantly increasing the risk of traumatic leg injuries included generalized joint laxity, low postural sway of the legs, hyperextension of the knee joint, and a low hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio during concentric action. Multivariate logistic regression showed hyperextension of the knee joint, a low postural sway, reduced H/Q ratio during concentric action, and a higher exposure to soccer to significantly increase the risk of traumatic leg injury. All five players who suffered an anterior cruciate ligament injury during the study period had a lower hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio during concentric action on the injured side than on their noninjured side.
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8.
  • Alfredson, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • Achilles tendinosis and calf muscle strength : the effect of short-term immobilization after surgical treatment
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Sports Medicine. - 0363-5465. ; 26:2, s. 166-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We prospectively studied calf muscle strength in 7 men and 4 women (mean age, 40.9 +/- 10.1 years) who had surgical treatment for chronic Achilles tendinosis. Surgery was followed by immobilization in a weightbearing below-the-knee plaster cast for 2 weeks followed by a stepwise increasing strength training program. Strength measurements (peak torque and total work) were done preoperatively (Week 0) and at 16, 26, and 52 weeks postoperatively. We measured isokinetic concentric plantar flexion strength at 90 and 225 deg/sec and eccentric flexion strength at 90 deg/sec on both the injured and noninjured sides. Preoperatively, concentric and eccentric strength were significantly lower on the injured side at 90 and 225 deg/sec. Postoperatively, concentric peak torque on the injured side decreased significantly between Weeks 0 and 16 and increased significantly between Weeks 26 and 52 at 90 deg/sec but was significantly lower than that on the noninjured side at all periods and at both velocities. The eccentric strength was significantly lower on the injured side at Week 26 but increased significantly until at Week 52 no significant differences between the sides could be demonstrated. It seems, therefore, that the recovery in concentric and eccentric calf muscle strength after surgery for Achilles tendinosis is slow. We saw no obvious advantages in recovery of muscle strength with a short immobilization time (2 weeks) versus a longer (6 weeks) period used in a previous study.
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9.
  • Alfredson, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • Aerobic workout and bone mass in females
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. - Wiley. - 0905-7188. ; 7:6, s. 336-341
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate bone mass in females participating in aerobic workout. Twenty-three females (age 24.1 +/- 2.7 years), participating in aerobic workout for about 3 hours/week, were compared with 23 age-, weight- and height-matched non-active females. Areal bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in total body, head, whole dominant humerus, lumbar spine, right femoral neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter femoris, in specific sites in right femur diaphysis, distal femur, proximal tibia and tibial diaphysis, and bone mineral content (BMC) was measured in the whole dominant arm and right leg, using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The aerobic workout group had significantly (P < 0.05-0.01) higher BMD in total body (3.7%), lumbar spine (7.8%), femoral neck (11.6%), Ward's triangle (11.7%), trochanter femoris (9.6%), proximal tibia (6.8%) and tibia diaphysis (5.9%) compared to the non-active controls. There were no differences between the groups concerning BMD of the whole dominant humerus, femoral diaphysis, distal femur and BMC and lean mass of the whole dominant arm and right leg. Leaness of the whole dominant arm and leg was correlated to BMC of the whole dominant arm and right leg in both groups. In young females, aerobic workout containing alternating high and low impact movements for the lower body is associated with a higher bone mass in clinically important sites like the lumbar spine and hip, but muscle strengthening exercises like push-ups and soft-glove boxing are not associated with a higher bone mass in the dominant humerus. It appears that there is a skeletal adaptation to the loads of the activity.
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10.
  • Alfredson, Håkan, et al. (författare)
  • Autologous periosteum transplantation for the treatment of full thickness patellar cartilage defects.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja. - 1509-3492. ; 3:2, s. 216-223
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Full-thickness patellar cartilage defects are often, but not always, associated with disabling anterior knee-pain and inability to take part in regular daily activities. There is no treatment of choice for this condition. It is well known that the cells in the cambium layer of the periosteum are pluripotent and can differentiate into hyaline (or hyaline-like) cartilage, especially if in a joint environment and under the influence of continous passive motion. In a few clinical studies autologous periosteum transplants alone have been used in the treatment of full thickness patellar cartilage defects. The results are varying. At our clinic, autologous periosteum transplantation alone, followed by continous passive motion (CPM) in the immediate postoperative period and non-weight bearing loading for 3 months, has shown promising clinical results. The best clinical results have been achieved on traumatic (fracture, contusion, dislocation) cartilage defects, where 83% of patients have been clinically graded as excellent or good at follow-up (> 2 years postoperatively). For non-traumatic patellar cartilage defects (chondromalacia NUD) the results are poor, with only 35% of patients being graded as excellent or good. Therefore, we believe that no-traumatic patellar cartilage defects (chondromalacia NUD) are less suitable for treatment with autologous periosteum transplants, and are at our clinic not any longer included for this type of treatment.
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