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  • Resultat 1-10 av 141
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  • Stenhammar, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • How do Swedish paediatric clinics diagnose coeliac disease? Results of a nationwide questionnaire study
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - 0803-5253. ; 95:11, s. 1495-1497
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and aim: Diagnosis of coeliac disease is based on the demonstration of enteropathy in a small bowel biopsy. Correct diagnosis is of utmost importance, since the need for dietary management is life long, and inadequate treatment may lead to potentially serious complications. The Swedish Working Group for Paediatric Coeliac Disease has published guidelines for the diagnosis of childhood coeliac disease. The present questionnaire was designed in order to create the basis for revision of those guidelines. Methods: In 2004, a nationwide questionnaire concerning current diagnostic routines was sent to all 45 paediatric clinics performing small bowel biopsy. All clinics responded. Results: All clinics base their diagnosis on small bowel biopsy findings at presentation. Furthermore, in 24 (53%) of the clinics, children with suspected coeliac disease are investigated by small bowel biopsy both at presentation and follow-up while on a gluten-free diet. Eighteen (40%) of the clinics employ a different diagnostic routine for children under 2 y of age than for those older than 2 y. All clinics use coeliac serological testing at various stages of the diagnostic procedure. Conclusion: All Swedish paediatric clinics perform a small bowel biopsy at presentation in children with suspected coeliac disease, and the majority of clinics perform a second biopsy when the child is on a gluten-free diet. Serological testing is frequently used as a diagnostic aid and in the monitoring of the disease while on a gluten-free diet. © 2006 Taylor & Francis.
  • Buttner, Barbara E., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of type of heat treatment of breastmilk on folate content and pattern
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Breastfeeding medicine. - 1556-8253. ; 9:2, s. 86-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Breastmilk is the recommended aliment for preterm infants. Milk banks provide donated breastmilk for the neonatal care of preterm infants when mother's own milk is not is available. To avoid pathogen transmission, donated breastmilk is heat-treated according to different procedures before administration. There is varying information on the effect of heat treatment on folate in breastmilk. Sufficient folate intake, however, is essential for normal growth and brain development. This study determined and compared the effects of different heat treatments on breastmilk folate content and pattern of individual folate forms. Materials and Methods: Donated Swedish breastmilk samples were heat-treated according to three procedures: two low temperature treatments (57 degrees C, 23 minutes; 62.5 degrees C, 12 minutes) and a rapid high temperature treatment (heating to 73 degrees C in boiling water). The folate content and pattern were determined before and after treatment by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: The folate content in 38 untreated Swedish breastmilk samples was 15046nmol/L. Two different folate vitamers were detected: 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (78 +/- 7%) and tetrahydrofolate (22 +/- 7%). Heat treatment affected only tetrahydrofolate stability and decreased folate content by 15-24%; however, the effects on folate content did not differ among the investigated heat treatment procedures. Conclusions: Folate losses during heat treatment of human milk were considered acceptable. Yet, native folate content of heat-treated, non-fortified breastmilk supplied only 25% of the recommended daily intake for preterm infants.
  • Ivarsson, Anneli, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence of Childhood Celiac Disease and Changes in Infant Feeding
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Pediatrics. - American Academy of Pediatrics. - 0031-4005. ; 131:3, s. E687-E694
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: Between 1984 and 1996, Sweden experienced an "epidemic" of clinical celiac disease in children andlt;2 years of age, attributed partly to changes in infant feeding. Whether infant feeding affects disease occurrence and/or the clinical presentation remains unknown. We investigated and compared the total prevalence of celiac disease in 2 birth cohorts of 12-year-olds and related the findings to each cohorts ascertained infant feeding. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMETHODS: A 2-phase cross-sectional screening study was performed in which 13 279 children from 2 birth cohorts participated: children born during the epidemic (1993) and children born after the epidemic (1997). Previously diagnosed cases were reported and confirmed. Blood samples were analyzed for serological markers and children with positive values were referred for small intestinal biopsy. Infant feeding practices in the cohorts were ascertained via questionnaires. Prevalence comparisons were expressed as prevalence ratios. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS: The total prevalence of celiac disease was 29 in 1000 and 22 in 1000 for the 1993 and 1997 cohorts, respectively. Children born in 1997 had a significantly lower risk of having celiac disease compared with those born in 1993 (prevalence ratio: 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.60-0.93; P = .01). The cohorts differed in infant feeding (specifically, in the proportion of infants introduced to dietary gluten in small amounts during ongoing breastfeeding). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCONCLUSIONS: A significantly reduced prevalence of celiac disease in 12-year-olds indicates an option for disease prevention. Our findings suggest that the present infant feeding recommendation to gradually introduce gluten-containing foods from 4 months of age, preferably during ongoing breastfeeding, is favorable. Pediatrics 2013;131:e687-e694
  • Myléus, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Celiac disease revealed in 3% of Swedish 12-year-olds born during an epidemic
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN. - New York : Raven P. - 0277-2116. ; 49:2, s. 170-176
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objetive: Sweden experienced a marked epidemic of celiac disease between 1984 and 1996 in children younger than 2 years of age, partly explained by changes in infant feeding. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of celiac disease in 12-year-olds born during the epidemic (1993), including both symptomatic and screening detected cases.Patients and methods: All sixth-grade children in participating schools were invited (n = 10,041). Symptomatic and, therefore, previously diagnosed celiac disease cases were ascertained through the National Swedish Childhood Celiac Disease Register and/or medical records. All serum samples were analyzed for antihuman tissue transglutaminase (tTG)-IgA (Celikey), and serum-IgA, and some for tTG-IgG and endomysial antibodies. A small intestinal biopsy was recommended for all children with suspected undiagnosed celiac disease.Results: Participation was accepted by 7567 families (75%). Previously diagnosed celiac disease was found in 67 children; 8.9/1000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.7-11). In another 192 children, a small intestinal biopsy was recommended and was performed in 180. Celiac disease was verified in 145 children, 20/1000 (95% CI 17-23). The total prevalence was 29/1000 (95% CI 25-33).Conclusions: The celiac disease prevalence of 29/1000 (3%)-with two thirds of cases undiagnosed before screening-is 3-fold higher than the usually suggested prevalence of 1%. When these 12-year-olds were infants, the prevailing feeding practice was to introduce gluten abruptly, often without ongoing breast-feeding, which might have contributed to this unexpectedly high prevalence.
  • Berglund, Staffan, 1975-, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of iron supplementation of LBW infants on cognition and behavior at 3 years
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Pediatrics. - 0031-4005. ; 131, s. 47-55
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight (LBW) infants are at increased risk of cognitive and behavioral problems and at risk for iron deficiency, which is associated with impaired neurodevelopment. We hypothesized that iron supplementation of LBW infants would improve cognitive scores and reduce behavioral problems. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 285 marginally LBW (2000-2500 g) infants received 0, 1, or 2 mg/kg/day of iron supplements from 6 weeks to 6 months of age. At 3.5 years of age, these infants and 95 normal birth weight controls were assessed with a psychometric test (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence) and a questionnaire of behavioral problems (Child Behavior Checklist; CBCL). RESULTS: There were no significant differences in IQ between the LBW groups or LBW infants versus controls. Mean (SD) full-scale IQ was 105.2 (14.5), 104.2 (14.7), and 104.5 (12.7) in the placebo, 1 mg, and 2 mg groups, respectively (P = .924). However, for behavioral problems, there was a significant effect of intervention. The prevalence of children with CBCL scores above the US subclinical cutoff was 12.7%, 2.9%, and 2.7% in the placebo, 1-mg, and 2-mg groups, respectively (P = .027), compared with 3.2% in controls. Relative risk (95% confidence interval) for CBCL score above cutoff in placebo-treated children versus supplemented was 4.5 (1.4-14.2). CONCLUSIONS: Early iron supplementation of marginally LBW infants does not affect cognitive functions at 3.5 years of age but significantly reduces the prevalence of behavioral problems. The study suggests a causal relation between infant iron deficiency and later behavioral problems.
  • Olivecrona, Gunilla, et al. (författare)
  • Mutation of conserved cysteines in the Ly6 domain of GPIHBP1 in familial chylomicronemia
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Lipid Research. - New York : Rockefeller U.P.. - 0022-2275. ; 51:6, s. 1535-1545
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated a family from northern Sweden in which three of four siblings have congenital chylomicronemia. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and mass in pre- and post-heparin plasma were low, and LPL release into plasma after heparin injection was delayed. LPL activity and mass in adipose tissue biopsies appeared normal. [35S]Methionine incorporation studies on adipose tissue showed that newly synthesized LPL was normal in size and normally glycosylated. Breast milk from the affected female subjects contained normal to elevated LPL mass and activity levels. The milk had a lower than normal milk lipid content, and the fatty acid composition was compatible with the milk lipids being derived from de novo lipogenesis, rather than from the plasma lipoproteins. Given the delayed release of LPL into the plasma after heparin, we suspected that the chylomicronemia might be caused by mutations in GPIHBP1. Indeed, all three affected siblings were compound heterozygotes for missense mutations involving highly conserved cysteines in the Ly6 domain of GPIHBP1 (C65S and C68G). The mutant GPIHBP1 proteins reached the surface of transfected CHO cells but were defective in their ability to bind LPL (as judged by both cell-based and cell-free LPL binding assays). Thus, the conserved cysteines in the Ly6 domain are crucial for GPIHBP1 function.
  • Skolin, Inger, et al. (författare)
  • Altered food intake and taste perception in children with cancer after start of chemotherapy : perspectives of children, parents and nurses.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Supportive Care in Cancer. - 0941-4355. ; 14:4, s. 369-378
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • GOALS OF WORK: The purpose of this study was to better understand various variables related to food intake and eating problems in children with cancer during their chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-two consecutively admitted children, diagnosed with cancer and undergoing chemotherapy, participated in this study. Twenty-one of them, their parents and attending nurses participated in semi-structured interviews. Ten of the children underwent a taste acuity test, and recognition thresholds for the four basic tastes were determined. MAIN RESULTS: The shared view of both children and parents was that altered taste was the predominant cause of the eating problems. In contrast, the nurses perceived that nausea was the most important cause of the children's eating problems. In addition, psychological aspects such as learned food aversions and negative attitudes towards hospital food were regarded as important by children, parents and nurses. The taste test showed that the patients had higher thresholds for bitter taste and made more taste recognition errors compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Changes seem to exist both in the primary gustatory sense as well as in food perception in paediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Single solutions, such as efforts to serve "tasty food", do not suffice alone. A more effective solution may be to combine different strategies and combinations of oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition should be considered to prevent malnutrition.
  • Domellöf, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of mode of oral iron administration on serum ferritin and haemoglobin in infants
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - 0803-5253. ; 97:8, s. 1055-1060
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To investigate effects of iron-fortified foods (FFs) and medicinal iron drops (MD) on iron status in infants.Methods: Data from one MD and one FF study were compared. Infants were divided into groups depending on the predominant source and amount of dietary iron during 6–9 months of age: MD: Medicinal iron drops (1 mg/kg/day). FF: iron intake >1.3 mg/kg/day, predominantly from FF and no iron supplements. Low iron (LI) group: iron intake <1.3 mg/kg/day and no iron supplements.Results: Mean iron intake did not differ between MD (n = 30) and FF (n = 35) groups but was lower in the LI (n = 232) group. The FF group had significantly higher mean Hb at 9 months compared to the MD and LI groups (120 vs. 115 g/L and 120 vs. 116 g/L, respectively, p ≤ 0.005). The MD group had significantly higher mean SF at 9 months compared to the FF and the LI groups (46 vs. 23 μg/L and 46 vs. 26 μg/L, respectively, p < 0.001).Conclusions: Our results suggest that, in healthy, term, nonanaemic 6–9-month-old infants, iron given as medicinal iron drops is primarily deposited into iron stores while iron given as iron-fortified foods is primarily utilized for Hb synthesis.
  • Hedberg, Maria E, et al. (författare)
  • Lachnoanaerobaculum a new genus in Lachnospiraceae; characterization of Lachnoanaerobaculum umeaense gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from human small intestine, Lachnoanaerobaculum orale gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from saliva and reclassification of Eubacterium saburreum (Prevot) Holdeman and Moore 1970 as Lachnoanaerobaculum saburreum comb. nov.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. - 1466-5026. ; 62:11, s. 2685-2690
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Two new obligately anaerobic Gram-positive, saccharolytic and non-proteolytic spore-forming bacilli (strain CD3:22 and N1) are described. Strain CD3:22 was isolated from a biopsy of the small intestine of a child with celiac disease and strain N1 from the saliva of a healthy young man. The cells of both strains were observed to be filamentous with lengths of approximately 5 to >20 µm, some of them curving and with swellings. The novel organisms produced H2S, NH3, butyric acid and acetic acid as major metabolic end products. Phylogenetic analyses, based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing, revealed close relationships (98 % sequence similarity) between the two isolates, as well as the type strain of Eubacterium saburreum CCUG 28089T and four other Lachnospiraceae bacterium/E. saburreum-like organisms. This group of bacteria were clearly different from any of the 19 known genera in the family Lachnospiraceae. While Eubacterium spp. are reported to be non-spore-forming, reanalysis of E. saburreum CCUG 28089T confirmed that the bacterium, indeed, is able to form spores. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, phenotypic and biochemical properties, CD3:22 (CCUG 58757T) and N1 (CCUG 60305T) represent new species of a new and distinct genus, named Lachnoanaerobaculum, in the family Lachnospiraceae [within the order Clostridiales, class Clostridia, phylum Firmicutes]. Strain CD3:22 is the type strain of the type species, Lachnoanaerobaculum umeaense gen. nov., sp. nov., of the proposed new genus. Strain N1 is the type strain of the species, Lachnoanaerobaculum orale gen. nov., sp. nov. Moreover, E. saburreum CCUG 28089T is reclassified as Lachnoanaerobaculum saburreum comb. nov.
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