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  • Domellöf, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of mode of oral iron administration on serum ferritin and haemoglobin in infants
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - 0803-5253. ; 97:8, s. 1055-1060
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To investigate effects of iron-fortified foods (FFs) and medicinal iron drops (MD) on iron status in infants.Methods: Data from one MD and one FF study were compared. Infants were divided into groups depending on the predominant source and amount of dietary iron during 6–9 months of age: MD: Medicinal iron drops (1 mg/kg/day). FF: iron intake >1.3 mg/kg/day, predominantly from FF and no iron supplements. Low iron (LI) group: iron intake <1.3 mg/kg/day and no iron supplements.Results: Mean iron intake did not differ between MD (n = 30) and FF (n = 35) groups but was lower in the LI (n = 232) group. The FF group had significantly higher mean Hb at 9 months compared to the MD and LI groups (120 vs. 115 g/L and 120 vs. 116 g/L, respectively, p ≤ 0.005). The MD group had significantly higher mean SF at 9 months compared to the FF and the LI groups (46 vs. 23 μg/L and 46 vs. 26 μg/L, respectively, p < 0.001).Conclusions: Our results suggest that, in healthy, term, nonanaemic 6–9-month-old infants, iron given as medicinal iron drops is primarily deposited into iron stores while iron given as iron-fortified foods is primarily utilized for Hb synthesis.
  • Lind, Torbjörn, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of weaning cereals with different phytate contents on hemoglobin, iron stores, and serum zinc : a randomized intervention in infants from 6 to 12 mo of age
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 78:1, s. 168-175
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Weaning foods frequently contain phytate, an inhibitor of iron and zinc absorption, which may contribute to the high prevalence of iron and zinc deficiency seen in infancy.Objective: The objective was to investigate whether either an extensive reduction in the phytate content of infant cereals or the use of milk-based, iron-fortified infant formula would improve iron and zinc status in infants.Design: In a double-blind design, infants (n = 300) were randomly assigned to 3 cereal groups from 6 to 12 mo of age: commercial milk-based cereal drink (MCD) and porridge (CC group), phytate-reduced MCD and phytate-reduced porridge (PR group), or milk-based infant formula and porridge with the usual phytate content (IF group). Venous blood samples were collected at 6 and 12 mo. Dietary intake was recorded monthly. After the intervention, 267 infants remained in the analysis.Results: Hemoglobin concentrations of < 110 g/L, serum ferritin concentrations of < 12 µg/L, and serum zinc concentrations of < 10.7 µmol/L had overall prevalences at baseline and 12 mo of 28% and 15%, 9% and 18%, and 22% and 27%, respectively. After the intervention, there were no significant differences in any measure of iron or zinc status between the CC and the PR groups. However, hemoglobin was significantly higher (120 g/L compared with 117 g/L; P = 0.012) and the prevalence of anemia was lower (13% compared with 23%; P = 0.06) in the PR group than in the IF group, which could be explained by differences in daily iron intake between the 2 groups.Conclusion: Extensive reduction in the phytate content of weaning cereals had little long-term effect on the iron and zinc status of Swedish infants.
  • Myleus, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Early infections are associated with increased risk for celiac disease
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Pediatrics. - 1471-2431. ; 12:1, s. 194
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is defined as a 'chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals'. Sweden has experienced an "epidemic" of celiac disease in children below two years of age. Celiac disease etiology is considered multifactorial; however, little is known regarding potential risk- or protecting factors. We present data on the possible association between early infectious episodes and celiac disease, including their possible contribution to the Swedish celiac disease epidemic. METHODS: A population-based incident case-referent study (475 cases, 950 referents) with exposure information obtained via a questionnaire (including family characteristics, infant feeding, and the child's general health) was performed. Celiac disease cases were diagnosed before two years of age, fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. Referents were randomly selected from the national population register after fulfilling matching criteria. The final analyses included 954 children, 373 (79%) cases and 581 (61%) referents, with complete information on main variables of interest in a matched set of one case with one or two referents.RESULTS: Having three or more parental-reported infectious episodes, regardless of type of infection, during the first six months of life was associated with a significantly increased risk for later celiac disease, and this remained after adjusting for infant feeding and socioeconomic status (odds ratio [OR] 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.0; P=0.014). The celiac disease risk increased synergistically if, in addition to having several infectious episodes, infants were introduced to dietary gluten in large amounts, compared to small or medium amounts, after breastfeeding was discontinued (OR 5.6; 95% CI, 3.1-10; P<0.001).CONCLUSION: This study suggests that having repeated infectious episodes early in life increases the risk for later celiac disease. In addition, we found a synergistic effect between early infections and daily amount of gluten intake, more pronounced among infants for whom breastfeeding had been discontinued prior to gluten introduction. Regarding contribution to the Swedish celiac disease epidemic, which partly was attributed to concurrent changes in infant feeding, early infections probably made a minor contribution via the synergistic effect with gluten amount.
  • Myléus, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Early vaccinations are not risk factors for Celiac Disease
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Pediatrics. - 0031-4005. ; 130:1, s. E63-E70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: To investigate if changes in the national Swedish vaccination program coincided with changes in the celiac disease (CD) incidence rate in infants (ie, the Swedish CD Epidemic), and to assess the potential association between these vaccinations and CD risk.METHODS: All studies were based on the National Swedish Childhood Celiac Disease Register. Using an ecological approach, we plotted changes over time in the national vaccination program in the graph displaying CD incidence rate. A population-based incident case-referent study of invited infants was performed. Exposure information was received through a questionnaire and child health clinic records. Vaccines explored were diphtheria/tetanus, pertussis (acellular), polio (inactivated), Haemophilus influenzae type b (conjugated), measles/mumps/rubella, and live attenuated bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in children with increased tuberculosis risk. Findings were subjected to a birth cohort analysis.RESULTS: Introduction of pertussis vaccine coincided in time with decreasing CD incidence rates. In the infant case-referent study, however, neither vaccination against pertussis (odds ratio 0.91; 95% confidence interval 0.60-1.4), nor against Haemophilus influenzae type b or measles/mumps/rubella was associated with CD. Coverage for the diphtheria/tetanus and polio vaccines was 99%. BCG was associated with reduced risk for CD (adjusted odds ratio 0.54; 95% confidence interval 0.31-0.94). Discontinuation of general BCG vaccination did not affect the cumulative incidence of CD at age 15 years.CONCLUSIONS: Early vaccinations within the national Swedish program were not associated with CD risk, nor could changes in the program explain the Swedish epidemic. A protective effect by BCG was suggested, which could be subject to further studies. Pediatrics 2012;130:e63-e70
  • Lind, Torbjörn, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary iron intake is positively associated with hemoglobin concentration during infancy but not during the second year of life.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nutrition. - 0022-3166. ; 134:5, s. 1064-1070
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Iron status during infancy and early childhood reflects highly dynamic processes, which are affected by both internal and external factors. The regulation of iron metabolism seems to be subjected to developmental changes during infancy, although the exact nature of these changes and their implications are not fully understood. We wanted to explore the association between dietary iron intake and indicators of iron status, and to assess temporal changes in these variables. This was done by secondary analysis of data from a recently conducted dietary intervention trial in which healthy, term, well-nourished infants were randomly assigned to consume iron-fortified infant cereals with regular or low phytate content, or iron-fortified infant formula. Dietary iron intake from 6 to 8 mo and from 9 to 11 mo was associated with hemoglobin (Hb) concentration at 9 mo (r = 0.27, P < 0.001) and 12 mo (r = 0.21, P = 0.001), respectively, but iron intake from 12 to 18 mo was not associated with Hb at 18 mo. In contrast, iron intake from 6 to 11 mo was not associated with serum ferritin (S-Ft) at 9 or 12 mo, whereas iron intake from 12 to 17 mo was positively associated with S-Ft at 18 mo (r = 0.14, P = 0.032). These shifts in associations between dietary iron intake, and Hb and S-Ft, respectively, may be due to developmental changes in the channeling of dietary iron to erythropoiesis relative to storage, in the absence of iron deficiency anemia. These observations should be taken into consideration when evaluating iron nutritional status during infancy and early childhood.
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