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1.
  • Rohrmann, Sabine, et al. (författare)
  • Ethanol Intake and Risk of Lung Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Am J Epidemiol. - 0002-9262. ; 164:11, s. 1103-1114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), the authors examined the association of ethanol intake at recruitment (1,119 cases) and mean lifelong ethanol intake (887 cases) with lung cancer. Information on baseline and past alcohol consumption, lifetime tobacco smoking, diet, and the anthropometric characteristics of 478,590 participants was collected between 1992 and 2000. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Overall, neither ethanol intake at recruitment nor mean lifelong ethanol intake was significantly associated with lung cancer. However, moderate intake (5-14.9 g/day) at recruitment (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63, 0.90) and moderate mean lifelong intake (HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.97) were associated with a lower lung cancer risk in comparison with low consumption (0.1-4.9 g/day). Compared with low intake, a high (>= 60 g/day) mean lifelong ethanol intake tended to be related to a higher risk of lung cancer (HR = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.74), but high intake at recruitment was not. Although there was no overall association between ethanol intake and risk of lung cancer, the authors cannot rule out a lower risk for moderate consumption and a possibly increased risk for high lifelong consumption.
2.
  • Vrieling, Alina, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: International Journal Of Cancer. - Wiley-Liss. - 0020-7136. ; 124:8, s. 1926-1934
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many case-control studies have suggested that higher consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a lower risk or pancreatic cancer, whereas cohort studies do not support such an association. We examined the associations of the consumption of. fruits and vegetables and their main subgroups with pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC is comprised of over 520,000 Subjects recruited from 10 European countries. The present study included 555 exocrine pancreatic cancer cases after an average follow-up of 8.9 years. Estimates of risk were obtained by Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by age at recruitment, gender, and study center. and adjusted for total energy intake, weight, height, history of diabetes mellitus, and smoking status. Total consumption of fruit and vegetables, combined or separately, as well as subgroups of vegetables and fruits were unrelated to risk of pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios (95% CI) for the highest versus the lowest quartile were 0.92 (0.68-1.25) for total fruit and vegetables combined, 0.99 (0.73-1.33) for total vegetables, and 1.02 (0.77-1.36) for total fruits. Stratification by gender or smoking status, restriction to microscopically verified cases, and exclusion of the first 2 years of follow-up (lid not materially change the results. These results from a large European prospective cohort Suggest that higher consumption of fruit and vegetables is not associated with decreased risk of pancreatic cancer. (C) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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3.
  • Braem, Marieke G. M., et al. (författare)
  • Multiple Miscarriages Are Associated with the Risk of Ovarian Cancer
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 7:5, s. e37141
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While the risk of ovarian cancer clearly reduces with each full-term pregnancy, the effect of incomplete pregnancies is unclear. We investigated whether incomplete pregnancies (miscarriages and induced abortions) are associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. This observational study was carried out in female participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). A total of 274,442 women were followed from 1992 until 2010. The baseline questionnaire elicited information on miscarriages and induced abortions, reproductive history, and lifestyle-related factors. During a median follow-up of 11.5 years, 1,035 women were diagnosed with incident epithelial ovarian cancer. Despite the lack of an overall association (ever vs. never), risk of ovarian cancer was higher among women with multiple incomplete pregnancies (HR >= 4vs.0: 1.74, 95% CI: 1.20-2.70; number of cases in this category: n = 23). This association was particularly evident for multiple miscarriages (HR >= 4vs.0: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.06-3.73; number of cases in this category: n = 10), with no significant association for multiple induced abortions (HR >= 4vs.0: 1.46, 95% CI: 0.68-3.14; number of cases in this category: n = 7). Our findings suggest that multiple miscarriages are associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, possibly through a shared cluster of etiological factors or a common underlying pathology. These findings should be interpreted with caution as this is the first study to show this association and given the small number of cases in the highest exposure categories.
4.
  • Freisling, Heinz, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary acrylamide intake of adults in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition differs greatly according to geographical region
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nutrition. - Springer. - 1436-6207. ; 52:4, s. 1369-1380
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Methodological differences in assessing dietary acrylamide (AA) often hamper comparisons of intake across populations. Our aim was to describe the mean dietary AA intake in 27 centers of 10 European countries according to selected lifestyle characteristics and its contributing food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. In this cross-sectional analysis, 36 994 men and women, aged 35-74 years completed a single, standardized 24-hour dietary recall using EPIC-Soft. Food consumption data were matched to a harmonized AA database. Intake was computed by gender and center, and across categories of habitual alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity, education, and body mass index (BMI). Adjustment was made for participants' age, height, weight, and energy intake using linear regression models. Adjusted mean AA intake across centers ranged from 13 to 47 mu g/day in men and from 12 to 39 mu g/day in women; intakes were higher in northern European centers. In most centers, intake in women was significantly higher among alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. There were no associations between AA intake and physical activity, BMI, or education. At least 50 % of AA intake across centers came from two food groups "bread, crisp bread, rusks" and "coffee." The third main contributing food group was "potatoes". Dietary AA intake differs greatly among European adults residing in different geographical regions. This observed heterogeneity in AA intake deserves consideration in the design and interpretation of population-based studies of dietary AA intake and health outcomes.
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5.
  • Michaud, Dominique S., et al. (författare)
  • Anthropometric Measures, Physical Activity, and Risk of Glioma and Meningioma in a Large Prospective Cohort Study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer Prevention Research. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1940-6207. ; 4:9, s. 1385-1392
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body fatness has been associated with increased risk of a number of hormone-dependent cancers. Recent studies suggest that body mass index (BMI) may be related to meningiomas, which are more common in women than men, and for which estrogens are believed to play a role. Using data from a large European propective cohort, 203 incident cases of meningioma and 340 cases of glioma were included in the analysis for measures of body fat, height, and physical activity among 380,775 participants. All analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards model and controlling for age, sex, country, and education. A 71% increase in risk of meningioma was observed among men and women in the top quartile of waist circumference (HR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.08-2.73, P-trend = 0.01). A positive association was also observed for BMI and meningioma (HR = 1.48, 95% CI = 0.98-2.23, for BMI >= 30 compared with a BMI of 20-24.9, P-trend = 0.05). An association with height and meningioma was also suggestive (HR = 1.24, 95% 0.96-1.51, for each 10 cm increase). In contrast, no associations were observed for height and different measures of body fat and risk of glioma. Physical activity was not related to either type of brain tumors. Results from this study support an increase in risk of meningioma with higher body fatness among both men and women. No association was observed between anthropometric measures and risk of glioma. Cancer Prev Res; 4(9); 1385-92. (C) 2011 AACR.
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6.
  • Rinaldi, Sabina, et al. (författare)
  • Glycosylated Hemoglobin and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Men and Women, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY BIOMARKERS & PREVENTION. - AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 1055-9965. ; 17:11, s. 3108-3115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although large-scale prospective cohort studies have related hyperglycemia to increased risk of cancer overall, studies specifically on colorectal cancer have been generally small. We investigated the association between prediagnostic levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), a marker for average glucose level in blood, and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. One thousand and twenty-six incident colorectal cancer cases (561 men and 465 women) and 1,026 matched controls were eligible for the study. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORS) adjusted for possible confounders. Increasing HbA1c percentages were statistically significantly associated with a mild increase in colorectal cancer risk in the whole population OR, 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01,1.19 for a 10% increase in HbA1c. In women, increasing HbA1c percentages were associated with a statistically significant increase in colorectal cancer risk (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01, 1.32 for a 10% increase in HbA1c) and with a borderline statistically significant increase in rectum cancer (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.99,1.50 for a 10% increase in HbA1c). No significant association with cancer risk was observed in men. The results of the current study suggest a mild implication of hyperglycemia in colorectal cancer, which seems more important in women than in men, and more for cancer of the rectum than of the colon. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17(11):3108-15)
7.
  • Dossus, Laure, et al. (författare)
  • Hormonal, metabolic, and inflammatory profiles and endometrial cancer risk within the EPIC cohort--a factor analysis.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262. ; 177:8, s. 787-799
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A "Western" lifestyle characterized by physical inactivity and excess weight is associated with a number of metabolic and hormonal dysregulations, including increased circulating estrogen levels, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and chronic inflammation. The same hormonal and metabolic axes might mediate the association between this lifestyle and the development of endometrial cancer. Using data collected within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a prospective cohort study carried out in 10 European countries during 1992-2000, we conducted a factor analysis to delineate important components that summarize the variation explained by a set of biomarkers and to examine their association with endometrial cancer risk. Prediagnostic levels of testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, sex hormone-binding globulin, estrone, estradiol, C-peptide, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 1 and 2, adiponectin, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α, soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were measured in 233 incident endometrial cancer cases and 446 matched controls. Factor analysis identified 3 components associated with postmenopausal endometrial cancer risk that could be labeled "insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome," "steroids," and "inflammation" factors. A fourth component, "lipids," was not significantly associated with endometrial cancer. In conclusion, besides the well-known associations of risk with sex hormones and insulin-regulated physiological axes, our data further support the hypothesis that inflammation factors play a role in endometrial carcinogenesis.
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8.
  • Dossus, Laure, et al. (författare)
  • Obesity, inflammatory markers, and endometrial cancer risk : a prospective case-control study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Endocrine-Related Cancer. - 1351-0088. ; 17:4, s. 1007-1019
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity, a major risk factor for endometrial cancer, is a low-grade inflammatory state characterized by elevated concentrations of cytokines and acute phase reactants. The current study had two aims: first to investigate the associations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), and IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra) with endometrial cancer risk and second to examine to which extent these markers can influence the association between obesity and endometrial cancer. We conducted a case-control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, which comprised 305 incident cases of endometrial cancer and 574 matched controls. CRP, IL6, and IL1Ra were measured in prospectively collected blood specimens by immunoassays. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided, and P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. We observed a significant increase in risk of endometrial cancer with elevated levels of CRP (odds ratio (OR) for top versus bottom quartile: 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-2.41, P(trend)=0.02), IL6 (OR for top versus bottom quartile: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.08-2.54, P(trend)=0.008), and IL1Ra (OR for top versus bottom quartile: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.22-2.73, P(trend)=0.004). After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), the estimates were strongly reduced and became non-significant. The association between BMI and endometrial cancer was also substantially attenuated (∼10-20%) after adjustment for inflammatory markers, even when the effects of C-peptide or estrone had already been taken into account. We provided epidemiological evidence that chronic inflammation might mediate the association between obesity and endometrial cancer and that endometrial carcinogenesis could be promoted by an inflammatory milieu.
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9.
  • Xun, Wei Wei, et al. (författare)
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (5p15.33, 15q25.1, 6p22.1, 6q27 and 7p15.3) and lung cancer survival in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Mutagenesis. - 0267-8357. ; 26:5, s. 657-666
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs402710 (5p15.33), rs16969968 and rs8034191 (15q25.1) have been consistently identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) as significant predictors of lung cancer risk, while rs4324798 (6p22.1) was previously found to influence survival time in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. Using the same population of one of the original GWAS, we investigated whether the selected SNPs and 31 others (also identified in GWAS) influence survival time, assuming an additive model. The effect of each polymorphism on all cause survival was estimated in 1094 lung cancer patients, and lung cancer-specific survival in 763 patients, using Cox regression adjusted for a priori confounders and competing causes of death where appropriate. Overall, after 1558 person-years of post-diagnostic follow-up, 874 deaths occurred from all causes, including 690 from lung cancer. In the lung cancer-specific survival analysis (1102 person-years), only rs7452888 (6q27) and rs2710994 (7p15.3) modified survival, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.19 (P = 0.009) and 1.32 (P = 0.011) respectively, taking competing risks into account. Some weak associations were identified in subgroup analysis for rs16969968 and rs8034191 (15q25.1) and rs4324798 (6p22.1) and survival in never-smokers, as well as for rs402710 in current smokers and SCLC patients. In conclusion, rs402710 (5p15.33), rs16969968 and rs8034191 (both 15q25.1) and rs4324798 (6p22.1) were found to be unrelated to survival times in this large cohort of lung cancer patients, regardless of whether the cause of death was from lung cancer or not. However, rs7452888 (6q27) was identified as a possible candidate SNP to influence lung cancer survival, while stratified analysis hinted at a possible role for rs8034191, rs16969968 (15q25.1) and rs4324798 (6p22.1) in influencing survival time in lung cancer patients who were never-smokers, based on a small sample.
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