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1.
  • Rohrmann, Sabine, et al. (författare)
  • Ethanol Intake and Risk of Lung Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Am J Epidemiol. - 0002-9262. ; 164:11, s. 1103-1114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), the authors examined the association of ethanol intake at recruitment (1,119 cases) and mean lifelong ethanol intake (887 cases) with lung cancer. Information on baseline and past alcohol consumption, lifetime tobacco smoking, diet, and the anthropometric characteristics of 478,590 participants was collected between 1992 and 2000. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Overall, neither ethanol intake at recruitment nor mean lifelong ethanol intake was significantly associated with lung cancer. However, moderate intake (5-14.9 g/day) at recruitment (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63, 0.90) and moderate mean lifelong intake (HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.97) were associated with a lower lung cancer risk in comparison with low consumption (0.1-4.9 g/day). Compared with low intake, a high (>= 60 g/day) mean lifelong ethanol intake tended to be related to a higher risk of lung cancer (HR = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.74), but high intake at recruitment was not. Although there was no overall association between ethanol intake and risk of lung cancer, the authors cannot rule out a lower risk for moderate consumption and a possibly increased risk for high lifelong consumption.
2.
  • Boeing, Heiner, et al. (författare)
  • Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract: the prospective EPIC-study
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - Springer Netherlands. - 0957-5243. ; 17:7, s. 957-969
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiologic studies suggest that a high intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with decreased risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract. We studied data from 345,904 subjects of the prospective European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) recruited in seven European countries, who had completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-1998. During 2,182,560 person years of observation 352 histologically verified incident squamous cell cancer (SCC) cases (255 males; 97 females) of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus were identified. Linear and restricted cubic spline Cox regressions were fitted on variables of intake of fruits and vegetables and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed a significant inverse association with combined total fruits and vegetables intake (estimated relative risk (RR) = 0.91; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.83-1.00 per 80 g/d of consumption), and nearly significant inverse associations in separate analyses with total fruits and total vegetables intake (RR: 0.97 (95% CI: 0.92-1.02) and RR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78-1.02) per 40 g/d of consumption). Overall, vegetable subgroups were not related to risk with the exception of intake of root vegetables in men. Restricted cubic spline regression did not improve the linear model fits except for total fruits and vegetables and total fruits with a significant decrease in risk at low intake levels (< 120 g/d) for fruits. Dietary recommendations should consider the potential benefit of increasing fruits and vegetables consumption for reducing the risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract, particularly at low intake.
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3.
  • Cust, Anne E, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolic syndrome, plasma lipid, lipoprotein and glucose levels, and endometrial cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: ENDOCRINE-RELATED CANCER. - SOC ENDOCRINOLOGY. - 1351-0088. ; 14:3, s. 755-767
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To clarify the role of metabolic factors in endometrial carcinogenesis, we conducted a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), and examined the relation between prediagnostic plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and glucose, the metabolic syndrome (MetS; a cluster of metabolic factors) and endometrial cancer risk. Among pre- and postmenopausal women, 284 women developed endometrial cancer during follow-up. Using risk set sampling, 546 matched control subjects were selected. From conditional logistic regression models, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were inversely associated with risk body mass index (BMI)-adjusted relative risk (FR) for top versus bottom quartile 0.61 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.38-0.97), P-trend= 0.02). Glucose levels were positively associated with risk (BMI-adjusted RR top versus bottom quartile 1.69 (95% Cl 0.99-2.90), P-trend, = 0.03), which appeared stronger among postmenopausal women (BMI-adjusted RR top versus bottom tertile 2.61 (95% Cl 1.46-4.66), P-trend=0.0006, P-heterogeneity=0.13) and never-users of exogenous hormones (P-heterogeneity=0-005 for oral contraceptive (OC) use and 0.05 for hormone replacement therapy-use). The associations of HDL-C and glucose with risk were no longer statistically significant after further adjustment for obesity-related hormones. Plasma total cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were not significantly related to overall risk. The presence of MetS was associated with risk (RR 2.12 (95% CI 1.51-2.97)), which increased with the number of MetS factors (P-trend=0.02). An increasing number of MetS factors other than waist circumference, however, was marginally significantly associated with risk only in women with waist circumference above the median (P-interaction=0-01). None of the associations differed significantly by fasting status. These findings suggest that metabolic abnormalities and obesity may act synergistically to increase endometrial cancer risk.
4.
  • Dossus, Laure, et al. (författare)
  • Obesity, inflammatory markers, and endometrial cancer risk : a prospective case-control study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Endocrine-Related Cancer. - 1351-0088. ; 17:4, s. 1007-1019
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity, a major risk factor for endometrial cancer, is a low-grade inflammatory state characterized by elevated concentrations of cytokines and acute phase reactants. The current study had two aims: first to investigate the associations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), and IL1 receptor antagonist (IL1Ra) with endometrial cancer risk and second to examine to which extent these markers can influence the association between obesity and endometrial cancer. We conducted a case-control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, which comprised 305 incident cases of endometrial cancer and 574 matched controls. CRP, IL6, and IL1Ra were measured in prospectively collected blood specimens by immunoassays. Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided, and P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. We observed a significant increase in risk of endometrial cancer with elevated levels of CRP (odds ratio (OR) for top versus bottom quartile: 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-2.41, P(trend)=0.02), IL6 (OR for top versus bottom quartile: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.08-2.54, P(trend)=0.008), and IL1Ra (OR for top versus bottom quartile: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.22-2.73, P(trend)=0.004). After adjustment for body mass index (BMI), the estimates were strongly reduced and became non-significant. The association between BMI and endometrial cancer was also substantially attenuated (∼10-20%) after adjustment for inflammatory markers, even when the effects of C-peptide or estrone had already been taken into account. We provided epidemiological evidence that chronic inflammation might mediate the association between obesity and endometrial cancer and that endometrial carcinogenesis could be promoted by an inflammatory milieu.
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5.
  • Schmidt, Julie A, et al. (författare)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-I and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Little is known about the causes of thyroid cancer, but insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) might play an important role in its development due to its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic properties. Methods: This study prospectively investigated the association between serum IGF-I concentrations and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. 345 incident cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma were individually matched to 735 controls by study centre, sex, and age, date, time, and fasting status at blood collection, follow-up duration, and for women menopausal status, use of exogenous hormones, and phase of menstrual cycle at blood collection. Serum IGF-I concentrations were measured by immunoassay, and risk of differentiated thyroid cancer in relation to IGF-I concentration was estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results: There was a positive association between IGF-I concentrations and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: the odds ratio for a doubling in IGF-I concentration was 1.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.06 - 2.08; ptrend = 0.02). The positive association with IGF-I was stable over time between blood collection and cancer diagnosis. Conclusion: These findings suggest that IGF-I concentrations may be positively associated with risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Impact: This study provides the first prospective evidence of a potential association between circulating IGF-I concentrations and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and may prompt the further investigations needed to confirm the association.
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