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Sökning: swepub > Umeå universitet > Riboli Elio > Trichopoulos Dimitrios > Bueno de Mesquita H Bas > Lund Eiliv

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1.
  • Agudo, Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Hemochromatosis (HFE) gene mutations and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Carcinogenesis. - Oxford University Press. - 0143-3334. ; 34:6, s. 1244-1250
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a strong risk factor for hepatocellular cancer, and mutations in the HFE gene associated with HH and iron overload may be related to other tumors, but no studies have been reported for gastric cancer (GC). A nested case-control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), including 365 incident gastric adenocarcinoma and 1284 controls matched by center, sex, age and date of blood collection. Genotype analysis was performed for two functional polymorphisms (C282Y/rs1800562 and H63D/rs1799945) and seven tagSNPs of the HFE genomic region. Association with all gastric adenocarcinoma, and according to anatomical localization and histological subtype, was assessed by means of the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for the matching variables. We observed a significant association for H63D with OR (per rare allele) of 1.32 (CI = 1.03-1.69). In subgroup analyses, the association was stronger for non-cardia anatomical subsite (OR = 1.60, CI = 1.16-2.21) and intestinal histological subtype (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.27-2.62). Among intestinal cases, two tagSNPs (rs1572982 and rs6918586) also showed a significant association that disappeared after adjustment for H63D. No association with tumors located in the cardia or with diffuse subtype was found for any of the nine SNPs analyzed. Our results suggest that H63D variant in HFE gene seems to be associated with GC risk of the non-cardia region and intestinal type, possibly due to its association with iron overload although a role for other mechanisms cannot be entirely ruled out.
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3.
  • Companioni, Osmel, et al. (författare)
  • Polymorphisms of H. pylori signaling pathway genes and gastric cancer risk in the European EPIC-eurgast cohort
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0020-7136. ; 134:1, s. 92-101
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Helicobacter pylori is a recognized causal factor of noncardia gastric cancer (GC). Lipopolysaccaride and peptidoglycan of this bacterium are recognized by CD14, TLR4 and NOD2 human proteins, while NFKB1 activates the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines to elicit an immune response. SNPs in these genes have been associated with GC in different populations. We genotyped 30 SNPs of these genes, in 365 gastric adenocarcinomas and 1284 matched controls from the EPIC cohort. The association with GC and its histological and anatomical subtypes was analyzed by logistic regression and corrected for multiple comparisons. Using a log-additive model we found a significant association between SNPs in CD14, NOD2 and TLR4 with GC risk. However, after applying the multiple comparisons tests only the NOD2 region remained significant (p=0.009). Analysis according to anatomical subtypes revealed NOD2 and NFKB1 SNPs associated with noncardia GC and CD14 SNPs associated with cardia GC, while analysis according to histological subtypes showed that CD14 was associated with intestinal but not diffuse GC. The multiple comparisons tests confirmed the association of NOD2 with noncardia GC (p=0.0003) and CD14 with cardia GC (p=0.01). Haplotype analysis was in agreement with single SNP results for NOD2 and CD14 genes. From these results we conclude that genetic variation in NOD2 associates with noncardia GC while variation in CD14 is associated with cardia GC.
4.
  • Michaud, Dominique S., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma antibodies to oral bacteria and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large European prospective cohort study
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Gut. - BMJ Publishing Group. - 0017-5749. ; 62:12, s. 1764-1770
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Examine the relationship between antibodies to 25 oral bacteria and pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. DESIGN: We measured antibodies to oral bacteria in prediagnosis blood samples from 405 pancreatic cancer cases and 416 matched controls, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression and additionally adjusted for smoking status and body mass index. RESULTS: Individuals with high levels of antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis ATTC 53978, a pathogenic periodontal bacteria, had a twofold higher risk of pancreatic cancer than individuals with lower levels of these antibodies (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.05 to 4.36; >200 ng/ml vs ≤200 ng/ml). To explore the association with commensal (non-pathogenic) oral bacteria, we performed a cluster analysis and identified two groups of individuals, based on their antibody profiles. A cluster with overall higher levels of antibodies had a 45% lower risk of pancreatic cancer than a cluster with overall lower levels of antibodies (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83). CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal disease might increase the risk for pancreatic cancer. Moreover, increased levels of antibodies against specific commensal oral bacteria, which can inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria, might reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. Studies are needed to determine whether oral bacteria have direct effects on pancreatic cancer pathogenesis or serve as markers of the immune response.
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5.
  • Trichopoulos, Dimitrios, et al. (författare)
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk Factors and Disease Burden in a European Cohort : A Nested Case-Control Study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Oxford : Oxford University Press. - 0027-8874. ; 103:22, s. 1686-1695
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: To date, no attempt has been made to systematically determine the apportionment of the hepatocellular carcinoma burden in Europe or North America among established risk factors.Methods: Using data collected from 1992 to 2006, which included 4 409 809 person-years in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC), we identified 125 case patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, of whom 115 were matched to 229 control subjects. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for the association of documented risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma with incidence of this disease and estimated their importance in this European cohort.Results: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (OR = 9.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.10 to 39.50 and OR = 13.36, 95% CI = 4.11 to 43.45, respectively), obesity (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.06 to 4.29), former or current smoking (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 0.90 to 4.39 and OR = 4.55, 95% CI = 1.90 to 10.91, respectively), and heavy alcohol intake (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 0.73 to 4.27) were associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Smoking contributed to almost half of all hepatocellular carcinomas (47.6%), whereas 13.2% and 20.9% were attributable to chronic HBV and HCV infection, respectively. Obesity and heavy alcohol intake contributed 16.1% and 10.2%, respectively. Almost two-thirds (65.7%, 95% CI = 50.6% to 79.3%) of hepatocellular carcinomas can be accounted for by exposure to at least one of these documented risk factors.Conclusions: Smoking contributed to more hepatocellular carcinomas in this Europe-wide cohort than chronic HBV and HCV infections. Heavy alcohol consumption and obesity also contributed to sizeable fractions of this disease burden. These contributions may be underestimates because EPIC volunteers are likely to be more health conscious than the general population.
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6.
  • Kreimer, Aimée R, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluation of Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Risk of Subsequent Head and Neck Cancer.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 1527-7755. ; 31:21, s. 2708
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSEHuman papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infection is causing an increasing number of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States and Europe. The aim of our study was to investigate whether HPV antibodies are associated with head and neck cancer risk when measured in prediagnostic sera. METHODSWe identified 638 participants with incident head and neck cancers (patients; 180 oral cancers, 135 oropharynx cancers, and 247 hypopharynx/larynx cancers) and 300 patients with esophageal cancers as well as 1,599 comparable controls from within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Prediagnostic plasma samples from patients (collected, on average, 6 years before diagnosis) and control participants were analyzed for antibodies against multiple proteins of HPV16 as well as HPV6, HPV11, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, and HPV52. Odds ratios (ORs) of cancer and 95% CIs were calculated, adjusting for potential confounders. All-cause mortality was evaluated among patients using Cox proportional hazards regression.ResultsHPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in prediagnostic samples for 34.8% of patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 0.6% of controls (OR, 274; 95% CI, 110 to 681) but was not associated with other cancer sites. The increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer among HPV16 E6 seropositive participants was independent of time between blood collection and diagnosis and was observed more than 10 years before diagnosis. The all-cause mortality ratio among patients with oropharyngeal cancer was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.67), for patients who were HPV16 E6 seropositive compared with seronegative. CONCLUSIONHPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before diagnosis of oropharyngeal cancers.
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7.
  • Buckland, Genevieve, et al. (författare)
  • Adherence to a Mediterranean diet and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 91:2, s. 381-390
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean dietary pattern is believed to protect against cancer, although evidence from cohort studies that have examined particular cancer sites is limited.OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the association between adherence to a relative Mediterranean diet (rMED) and incident gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.DESIGN: The study included 485,044 subjects (144,577 men) aged 35-70 y from 10 European countries. At recruitment, dietary and lifestyle information was collected. An 18-unit rMED score, incorporating 9 key components of the Mediterranean diet, was used to estimate rMED adherence. The association between rMED and GC with respect to anatomic location (cardia and noncardia) and histologic types (diffuse and intestinal) was investigated. A calibration study in a subsample was used to control for dietary measurement error.RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 8.9 y, 449 validated incident GC cases were identified and used in the analysis. After stratification by center and age and adjustment for recognized cancer risk factors, high compared with low rMED adherence was associated with a significant reduction in GC risk (hazard ratio: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.94). A 1-unit increase in the rMED score was associated with a decreased risk of GC of 5% (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). There was no evidence of heterogeneity between different anatomic locations or histologic types. The calibrated results showed similar trends (overall hazard ratio for GC: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.99).CONCLUSION: Greater adherence to an rMED is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of incident GC.
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8.
  • Castellsagué, Xavier, et al. (författare)
  • Prospective seroepidemiologic study on the role of Human Papillomavirus and other infections in cervical carcinogenesis : Evidence from the EPIC cohort
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0020-7136. ; 135:2, s. 440-452
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To evaluate prospectively the association between serological markers of selected infections, including HPV, and risk of developing cervical cancer (CC) and pre-cancer, we performed a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study that included 184 cases of invasive CC (ICC), 425 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 or carcinoma in situ (CIS), and 1,218 matched control women. At enrollment participants completed lifestyle questionnaires and provided sera. Subjects were followed-up for a median of 9 years. Immunoassays were used to detect serum antibodies to Human Herpes Virus 2 (HHV-2), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Chlamydia pneumoniae, L1 proteins of mucosal and cutaneous HPV types, E6/E7 proteins of HPV16/18, as well as to four polyomaviruses. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) (and 95% confidence intervals (CI)) for CIN3/CIS and ICC risk were, respectively: 1.6 (1.2-2.0) and 1.8 (1.1-2.7) for L1 seropositivity to any mucosal HPV type, 1.0 (0.4-2.4) and 7.4 (2.8-19.7) for E6 seropositivity to HPV16/18, 1.3 (0.9-1.9) and 2.3 (1.3-4.1) for CT seropositivity, and 1.4 (1.0-2.0) and 1.5 (0.9-2.6) for HHV-2 seropositivity. The highest OR for ICC was observed for HPV16 E6 seropositivity (OR=10.2 (3.3-31.1)). Increasing number of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was associated with increasing risk. Non-STIs were not associated with CC risk. In conclusion, this large prospective study confirms the important role of HPV and a possible contribution of CT and HHV-2 in cervical carcinogenesis. It further identifies HPV16 E6 seropositivity as the strongest marker to predict ICC well before disease development.
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9.
  • Danesh, John, et al. (författare)
  • EPIC-Heart : the cardiovascular component of a prospective study of nutritional, lifestyle and biological factors in 520,000 middle-aged participants from 10 European countries.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Journal Epidemiology. - 0393-2990. ; 22:2, s. 129-41
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • EPIC-Heart is the cardiovascular component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition ( EPIC), a multi-centre prospective cohort study investigating the relationship between nutrition and major chronic disease outcomes. Its objective is to advance understanding about the separate and combined influences of lifestyle ( especially dietary), environmental, metabolic and genetic factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases by making best possible use of the unusually informative database and biological samples in EPIC. Between 1992 and 2000, 519,978 participants ( 366,521 women and 153,457 men, mostly aged 35 - 70 years) in 23 centres in 10 European countries commenced follow-up for causespecific mortality, cancer incidence and major cardiovascular morbidity. Dietary information was collected with quantitative questionnaires or semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires, including a 24-h dietary recall sub-study to help calibrate the dietary measurements. Information was collected on physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, occupational history, socio-economic status, and history of previous illnesses. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure recordings were made in the majority of participants. Blood samples were taken from 385,747 individuals, from which plasma, serum, red cells, and buffy coat fractions were separated and aliquoted for long-term storage. By 2004, an estimated 10,000 incident fatal and non-fatal coronary and stroke events had been recorded. The first cycle of EPIC-Heart analyses will assess associations of coronary mortality with several prominent dietary hypotheses and with established cardiovascular risk factors. Subsequent analyses will extend this approach to non-fatal cardiovascular outcomes and to further dietary, biochemical and genetic factors.
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10.
  • Gallo, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • Social Inequalities and Mortality in Europe
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 7:7, s. e39013
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Socio-economic inequalities in mortality are observed at the country level in both North America and Europe. The purpose of this work is to investigate the contribution of specific risk factors to social inequalities in cause-specific mortality using a large multi-country cohort of Europeans. Methods: A total of 3,456,689 person/years follow-up of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) was analysed. Educational level of subjects coming from 9 European countries was recorded as proxy for socioeconomic status (SES). Cox proportional hazard model's with a step-wise inclusion of explanatory variables were used to explore the association between SES and mortality; a Relative Index of Inequality (RII) was calculated as measure of relative inequality. Results: Total mortality among men with the highest education level is reduced by 43% compared to men with the lowest (HR 0.57, 95% C.I. 0.52-0.61); among women by 29% (HR 0.71, 95% C.I. 0.64-0.78). The risk reduction was attenuated by 7% in men and 3% in women by the introduction of smoking and to a lesser extent (2% in men and 3% in women) by introducing body mass index and additional explanatory variables (alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake) (3% in men and 5% in women). Social inequalities were highly statistically significant for all causes of death examined in men. In women, social inequalities were less strong, but statistically significant for all causes of death except for cancer-related mortality and injuries. Discussion: In this European study, substantial social inequalities in mortality among European men and women which cannot be fully explained away by accounting for known common risk factors for chronic diseases are reported.
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