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Sökning: swepub > Umeå universitet > Riboli Elio > Trichopoulos Dimitrios > Trichopoulou Antonia > Vineis Paolo > Rodríguez Laudina > Sánchez María José

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1.
  • van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit, vegetables, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition. - Amer Soc Clinical Nutrition. - 0002-9165. ; 89:5, s. 1441-1452
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A high consumption of fruit and vegetables is possibly associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the findings to date are inconsistent. Objective: We examined the relation between self-reported usual consumption of fruit and vegetables and the incidence of CRC. Design: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 452,755 subjects (131,985 men and 320,770 women) completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-2000 and were followed up for cancer incidence and mortality until 2006. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Results: After an average follow-up of 8.8 y, 2,819 incident CRC cases were reported. Consumption of fruit and vegetables was inversely associated with CRC in a comparison of the highest with the lowest EPIC-wide quintile of consumption (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00; P for trend 0.04), particularly with colon cancer risk (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; P for trend < 0.01). Only after exclusion of the first 2 y of follow-up were these findings corroborated by calibrated continuous analyses for a 100-g increase in consumption: HRs of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.00; P 0.04) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89, 0.99; P = 0.02), respectively. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and CRC risk was inverse in never and former smokers, but positive in current smokers. This modifying effect was found for fruit and vegetables combined and for vegetables alone (P for interaction, 0.01 for both). Conclusions: These findings suggest that a high consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of CRC, especially of colon cancer. This effect may depend on smoking status. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1441-52.
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2.
  • Boffetta, Paolo, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 1460-2105. ; 102:8, s. 529-537
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: It is widely believed that cancer can be prevented by high intake of fruits and vegetables. However, inconsistent results from many studies have not been able to conclusively establish an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and overall cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to assess relationships between intake of total fruits, total vegetables, and total fruits and vegetables combined and cancer risk during 1992-2000. Detailed information on the dietary habit and lifestyle variables of the cohort was obtained. Cancer incidence and mortality data were ascertained, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. Analyses were also conducted for cancers associated with tobacco and alcohol after stratification for tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. RESULTS: Of the initial 142 605 men and 335 873 women included in the study, 9604 men and 21 000 women were identified with cancer after a median follow-up of 8.7 years. The crude cancer incidence rates were 7.9 per 1000 person-years in men and 7.1 per 1000 person-years in women. Associations between reduced cancer risk and increased intake of total fruits and vegetables combined and total vegetables for the entire cohort were similar (200 g/d increased intake of fruits and vegetables combined, HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.96 to 0.99; 100 g/d increased intake of total vegetables, HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99); intake of fruits showed a weaker inverse association (100 g/d increased intake of total fruits, HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.00). The reduced risk of cancer associated with high vegetable intake was restricted to women (HR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97 to 0.99). Stratification by alcohol intake suggested a stronger reduction in risk in heavy drinkers and was confined to cancers caused by smoking and alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: A very small inverse association between intake of total fruits and vegetables and cancer risk was observed in this study. Given the small magnitude of the observed associations, caution should be applied in their interpretation.
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3.
  • Rinaldi, Sabina, et al. (författare)
  • Endogenous Sex Steroids and Risk of Cervical Carcinoma: Results from the EPIC Study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1055-9965. ; 20:12, s. 2532-2540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Epidemiologic data and animal models suggest that, despite the predominant role of human papillomavirus infection, sex steroid hormones are also involved in the etiology of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC). Methods: Ninety-nine ICC cases, 121 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) cases and 2 control women matched with each case for center, age, menopausal status and blood collection-related variables, were identified in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Circulating levels of testosterone (T) and estradiol (E(2)); dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS); progesterone (premenopausal women); and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured using immunoassays. Levels of free (f) T and E(2) were calculated from absolute concentrations of T, E(2), and SHBG. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using regularized conditional logistic regression. Results: Among premenopausal women, associations with ICC were observed for fT (OR for highest vs. lowest tertile 5.16, 95% CI, 1.50-20.1). SHBG level was associated with a significant downward trend in ICC risk. T, E(2), fE(2), and DHEAS showed nonsignificant positive association with ICC. Progesterone was uninfluential. Among postmenopausal women, associations with ICC were found for T (OR 3.14; 95% CI, 1.21-9.37), whereas E(2) and fT showed nonsignificant positive association. SHBG level was unrelated to ICC risk in postmenopausal women. No associations between any hormone and CIN3 were detected in either pre- or postmenopausal women. Conclusions: Our findings suggest for the first time that T and possibly E(2) may be involved in the etiology of ICC. Impact: The responsiveness of cervical tumors to hormone modulators is worth exploring. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 20(12); 2532-40. (C) 2011 AACR.
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4.
  • Aleksandrova, Krasimira, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating C-reactive protein concentrations and risks of colon and rectal cancer : a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262. ; 172:4, s. 407-418
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors investigated associations between serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and colon and rectal cancer risk in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1992-2003) among 1,096 incident cases and 1,096 controls selected using risk-set sampling and matched on study center, age, sex, time of blood collection, fasting status, menopausal status, menstrual cycle phase, and hormone replacement therapy. In conditional logistic regression with adjustment for education, smoking, nutritional factors, body mass index, and waist circumference, CRP showed a significant nonlinear association with colon cancer risk but not rectal cancer risk. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks for CRP concentrations of > or = 3.0 mg/L versus <1.0 mg/L were 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.85; P-trend = 0.01) for colon cancer and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.67, 1.57; P-trend = 0.65) for rectal cancer. Colon cancer risk was significantly increased in men (relative risk = 1.74, 95% CI: 1.11, 2.73; P-trend = 0.01) but not in women (relative risk = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.67, 1.68; P-trend = 0.13). Additional adjustment for C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol did not attenuate these results. These data provide evidence that elevated CRP concentrations are related to a higher risk of colon cancer but not rectal cancer, predominantly among men and independently of obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia.
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5.
  • Jenab, Mazda, et al. (författare)
  • Association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration and risk of colorectal cancer in European populations : a nested case-control study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMJ. British Medical Journal (International Ed.). - BMJ Publishing Group. - 0959-8146. ; 340, s. b5500
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration, dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium, and the risk of colorectal cancer in European populations. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. Setting The study was conducted within the EPIC study, a cohort of more than 520 000 participants from 10 western European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 1248 cases of incident colorectal cancer, which developed after enrolment into the cohort, were matched to 1248 controls MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Circulating vitamin D concentration (25-hydroxy-vitamin-D, 25-(OH)D) was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Dietary and lifestyle data were obtained from questionnaires. Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risk of colorectal cancer by 25-(OH)D concentration and levels of dietary calcium and vitamin D intake were estimated from multivariate conditional logistic regression models, with adjustment for potential dietary and other confounders. RESULTS: 25-(OH)D concentration showed a strong inverse linear dose-response association with risk of colorectal cancer (P for trend <0.001). Compared with a pre-defined mid-level concentration of 25-(OH)D (50.0-75.0 nmol/l), lower levels were associated with higher colorectal cancer risk (<25.0 nmol/l: incidence rate ratio 1.32 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 2.01); 25.0-49.9 nmol/l: 1.28 (1.05 to 1.56), and higher concentrations associated with lower risk (75.0-99.9 nmol/l: 0.88 (0.68 to 1.13); >or=100.0 nmol/l: 0.77 (0.56 to 1.06)). In analyses by quintile of 25-(OH)D concentration, patients in the highest quintile had a 40% lower risk of colorectal cancer than did those in the lowest quintile (P<0.001). Subgroup analyses showed a strong association for colon but not rectal cancer (P for heterogeneity=0.048). Greater dietary intake of calcium was associated with a lower colorectal cancer risk. Dietary vitamin D was not associated with disease risk. Findings did not vary by sex and were not altered by corrections for season or month of blood donation. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this large observational study indicate a strong inverse association between levels of pre-diagnostic 25-(OH)D concentration and risk of colorectal cancer in western European populations. Further randomised trials are needed to assess whether increases in circulating 25-(OH)D concentration can effectively decrease the risk of colorectal cancer.
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6.
  • Johansson, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Serum B vitamin levels and risk of lung cancer
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). - American Medical Association. - 0098-7484. ; 303:23, s. 2377-2385
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: B vitamins and factors related to 1-carbon metabolism help to maintain DNA integrity and regulate gene expression and may affect cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if 1-carbon metabolism factors are associated with onset of lung cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) recruited 519,978 participants from 10 countries between 1992 and 2000, of whom 385,747 donated blood. By 2006, 899 lung cancer cases were identified and 1770 control participants were individually matched by country, sex, date of birth, and date of blood collection. Serum levels were measured for 6 factors of 1-carbon metabolism and cotinine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Odds ratios (ORs) of lung cancer by serum levels of 4 B vitamins (B(2), B(6), folate [B(9)], and B(12)), methionine, and homocysteine. RESULTS: Within the entire EPIC cohort, the age-standardized incidence rates of lung cancer (standardized to the world population, aged 35-79 years) were 6.6, 44.9, and 156.1 per 100,000 person-years among never, former, and current smokers for men, respectively. The corresponding incidence rates for women were 7.1, 23.9, and 100.9 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. After accounting for smoking, a lower risk for lung cancer was seen for elevated serum levels of B(6) (fourth vs first quartile OR, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.60; P for trend <.000001), as well as for serum methionine (fourth vs first quartile OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.39-0.69; P for trend <.000001). Similar and consistent decreases in risk were observed in never, former, and current smokers, indicating that results were not due to confounding by smoking. The magnitude of risk was also constant with increasing length of follow-up, indicating that the associations were not explained by preclinical disease. A lower risk was also seen for serum folate (fourth vs first quartile OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51-0.90; P for trend = .001), although this was apparent only for former and current smokers. When participants were classified by median levels of serum methionine and B(6), having above-median levels of both was associated with a lower lung cancer risk overall (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.31-0.54), as well as separately among never (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18-0.72), former (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.34-0.76), and current smokers (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.27-0.65). CONCLUSION: Serum levels of vitamin B(6) and methionine were inversely associated with risk of lung cancer.
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7.
  • Rohrmann, Sabine, et al. (författare)
  • Concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and brain tumor risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 20:10, s. 2174-2182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) is important in normal brain development but in the adult brain, IGF-I overexpression may be a risk factor for tumor development. METHODS: We examined the association between circulating concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in relation to risk of gliomas (74 low-grade, 206 high-grade gliomas), meningiomas (n = 174) and acoustic neuromas (n = 49) by using a case-control design nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured by ELISAs.Conditional logistic regression was used to compute ORs and corresponding 95% CIs. RESULTS: The risk of low-grade gliomas was elevated with increased IGF-I (OR = 3.60, 95% CI: 1.11-11.7; top vs. bottom quartile) and decreased with elevated IGFBP-3 concentrations (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.09-0.84) after mutual adjustment of these two factors; these results became nonsignificant after exclusion of the first year of follow-up. No association was observed for high-grade gliomas or meningiomas. Both high IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations were associated with risk of acoustic neuromas (IGF-I: OR = 6.63, 95% CI: 2.27-19.4, top vs. bottom tertile; IGFBP-3: OR = 7.07, 95% CI: 2.32-21.6), even after excluding the first year of follow-up. CONCLUSION: High concentrations of IGF-I might be positively associated with risk of low-grade gliomas and acoustic neuromas, although we cannot exclude reverse causation, in particular for low-grade gliomas. Impact: Factors of the IGF axis might be involved in the etiology of some types of brain tumors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; ©2011 AACR.
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8.
  • Timofeeva, Maria N, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic polymorphisms in 15q25 and 19q13 loci, cotinine levels, and risk of lung cancer in EPIC
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965. ; 20:10, s. 2250-2261
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Backgrounds: Multiple polymorphisms affecting smoking behavior have been identified through genome-wide association studies. Circulating levels of the nicotine metabolite cotinine is a marker of recent smoking exposure. Hence, genetic variants influencing smoking behavior are expected to be associated with cotinine levels.METHODS: We conducted an analysis in a lung cancer case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We investigated the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) previously associated with smoking behavior on (i) circulating cotinine and (ii) lung cancer risk. A total of 894 cases and 1,805 controls were analyzed for cotinine and genotyped for 10 polymorphisms on 7p14, 8p11, 10q23, 15q25, and 19q13.RESULTS: Two variants in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes CHRNA5 and CHRNA3 on 15q25, rs16969968 and rs578776, were associated with cotinine (P = 0.001 and 0.03, respectively) in current smokers and with lung cancer risk (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Two 19q13 variants, rs7937 and rs4105144, were associated with increased cotinine (P = 0.003 and P < 0.001, respectively) but decreased lung cancer risk (P = 0.01 for both, after adjusting for cotinine). Variants in 7p14, 8p11, and 10q23 were not associated with cotinine or lung cancer risk.CONCLUSIONS: 15q25 and 19q13 SNPs were associated with circulating cotinine. The directions of association for 15q25 variants with cotinine were in accordance with that expected of lung cancer risk, whereas SNPs on 19q13 displayed contrasting associations of cotinine and lung cancer that require further investigation.Impact: This study is the largest to date investigating the effects of polymorphisms affecting smoking behavior on lung cancer risk using circulating cotinine measures as proxies for recent smoking behavior. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; ©2011 AACR.
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